Placeholder Content Image

Do you really need antibiotics? Curbing our use helps fight drug-resistant bacteria

<p><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/minyon-avent-1486987">Minyon Avent</a>, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/the-university-of-queensland-805">The University of Queensland</a>; <a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/fiona-doukas-1157050">Fiona Doukas</a>, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/university-of-sydney-841">University of Sydney</a>, and <a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/kristin-xenos-1491653">Kristin Xenos</a>, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/university-of-newcastle-1060">University of Newcastle</a></em></p> <p>Antibiotic resistance occurs when a microorganism changes and no longer responds to an antibiotic that was previously effective. It’s <a href="https://thelancet.com/journals/eclinm/article/PIIS2589-5370(21)00502-2/fulltext">associated with</a> poorer outcomes, a greater chance of death and higher health-care costs.</p> <p>In Australia, antibiotic resistance means some patients are admitted to hospital because oral antibiotics are <a href="https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/antibiotic-resistance">no longer effective</a> and they need to receive intravenous therapy via a drip.</p> <p>Antibiotic resistance is rising to high levels in certain parts of the world. Some hospitals <a href="https://www.reactgroup.org/news-and-views/news-and-opinions/year-2022/the-impact-of-antibiotic-resistance-on-cancer-treatment-especially-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-and-the-way-forward/">have to consider</a> whether it’s even viable to treat cancers or perform surgery due to the risk of antibiotic-resistant infections.</p> <p>Australia is <a href="https://www.safetyandquality.gov.au/our-work/antimicrobial-resistance/antimicrobial-use-and-resistance-australia-aura/aura-2023-fifth-australian-report-antimicrobial-use-and-resistance-human-health">one of the highest users</a> of antibiotics in the developed world. We need to use this precious resource wisely, or we risk a future where a simple infection could kill you because there isn’t an effective antibiotic.</p> <h2>When should antibiotics not be used?</h2> <p>Antibiotics only work for some infections. They work against bacteria but <a href="https://www.safetyandquality.gov.au/publications-and-resources/resource-library/do-i-really-need-antibiotics">don’t treat</a> infections caused by viruses.</p> <p>Most community acquired infections, even those caused by bacteria, are likely to get better without antibiotics.</p> <p>Taking an antibiotic when you don’t need it won’t make you feel better or recover sooner. But it can increase your chance of side effects like nausea and diarrhoea.</p> <p>Some people think green mucus (or snot) is a sign of bacterial infection, requiring antibiotics. But it’s actually <a href="https://www.safetyandquality.gov.au/sites/default/files/2023-11/aura_2023_do_i_really_need_antibiotics.pdf">a sign</a> your immune system is working to fight your infection.</p> <h2>If you wait, you’ll often get better</h2> <p><a href="https://www.tg.org.au/">Clinical practice guidelines</a> for antibiotic use aim to ensure patients receive antibiotics when appropriate. Yet 40% of GPs say they prescribe antibiotics <a href="https://doi.org/10.1071/HI13019">to meet patient expectations</a>. And <a href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35973750/">one in five</a> patients expect antibiotics for respiratory infections.</p> <p>It can be difficult for doctors to decide if a patient has a viral respiratory infection or are at an early stage of serious bacterial infection, particularly in children. One option is to “watch and wait” and ask patients to return if there is clinical deterioration.</p> <p>An alternative is to prescribe an antibiotic but advise the patient to not have it dispensed unless specific symptoms occur. This can <a href="https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD004417.pub5">reduce antibiotic use by 50%</a> with no decrease in patient satisfaction, and no increase in complication rates.</p> <h2>Sometimes antibiotics are life-savers</h2> <p>For some people – particularly those with a weakened immune system – a simple infection can become more serious.</p> <p>Patients with life-threatening suspected infections should receive an appropriate antibiotic <a href="https://www.safetyandquality.gov.au/our-work/clinical-care-standards/antimicrobial-stewardship-clinical-care-standard">immediately</a>. This includes serious infections such as <a href="https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/conditions-and-diseases/bacterial-meningitis#:%7E:text=What%20is%20bacterial%20meningitis%3F,can%20cause%20life%2Dthreatening%20problems.">bacterial meningitis</a> (infection of the membranes surrounding the brain) and <a href="https://clinicalexcellence.qld.gov.au/priority-areas/safety-and-quality/sepsis/adult-sepsis#:%7E:text=Adult%20patients%20with%20sepsis%20also,adult%20emergency%20department%20sepsis%20pathway.">sepsis</a> (which can lead to organ failure and even death).</p> <h2>When else might antibiotics be used?</h2> <p>Antibiotics are sometimes used to prevent infections in patients who are undergoing surgery and are at significant risk of infection, such as those undergoing bowel resection. These patients will <a href="https://www.tg.org.au">generally receive</a> a single dose before the procedure.</p> <p>Antibiotics may also <a href="https://www.tg.org.au">be given</a> to patients undergoing chemotherapy for solid organ cancers (of the breast or prostate, for example), if they are at high risk of infection.</p> <p>While most sore throats are caused by a virus and usually resolve on their own, some high risk patients with a bacterial strep A infection which can cause “scarlet fever” are given antibiotics to prevent a more serious infection like <a href="https://www.rhdaustralia.org.au/">acute rheumatic fever</a>.</p> <h2>How long is a course of antibiotics?</h2> <p>The recommended duration of a course of antibiotics depends on the type of infection, the likely cause, where it is in your body and how effective the antibiotics are at killing the bacteria.</p> <p>In the past, courses were largely arbitrary and based on assumptions that antibiotics should be taken for long enough to eliminate the infecting bacteria.</p> <p>More recent research does not support this and shorter courses are <a href="https://www.acpjournals.org/doi/full/10.7326/M19-1509">nearly always as effective as longer ones</a>, particularly for community acquired respiratory infections.</p> <p>For <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6736742/">community acquired pneumonia</a>, for example, research shows a three- to five-day course of antibiotics is at least as effective as a seven- to 14-day course.</p> <p>The “take until all finished” approach is no longer recommended, as the longer the antibiotic exposure, the greater the chance the bacteria will develop resistance.</p> <p>However, for infections where it is more difficult to eradicate the bacteria, such as tuberculosis and bone infections, a combination of antibiotics for many months is usually required.</p> <h2>What if your infection is drug-resistant?</h2> <p>You may have an antibiotic-resistant infection if you don’t get better after treatment with standard antibiotics.</p> <p>Your clinician will collect samples for lab testing if they suspect you have antibiotic-resistant infection, based on your travel history (especially if you’ve been hospitalised in a country with high rates of antibiotic resistance) and if you’ve had a recent course of antibiotics that hasn’t cleared your infection.</p> <p>Antibiotic-resistant infections are managed by prescribing broad-spectrum antibiotics. These are like a sledgehammer, wiping out many different species of bacteria. (Narrow-spectrum antibiotics conversely can be thought of as a scalpel, more targeted and only affecting one or two kinds of bacteria.)</p> <p>Broad-spectrum antibiotics are usually more expensive and come with more severe side effects.</p> <h2>What can patients do?</h2> <p>Decisions about antibiotic prescriptions should be made using <a href="https://www.safetyandquality.gov.au/our-work/partnering-consumers/shared-decision-making/decision-support-tools-specific-conditions">shared decision aids</a>, where patients and prescribers discuss the risks and benefits of antibiotics for conditions like a sore throat, middle ear infection or acute bronchitis.</p> <p>Consider asking your doctor questions such as:</p> <ul> <li>do we need to test the cause of my infection?</li> <li>how long should my recovery take?</li> <li>what are the risks and benefits of me taking antibiotics?</li> <li>will the antibiotic affect my regular medicines?</li> <li>how should I take the antibiotic (how often, for how long)?</li> </ul> <p>Other ways to fight antibiotic resistance include:</p> <ul> <li>returning leftover antibiotics to a pharmacy for safe disposal</li> <li>never consuming leftover antibiotics or giving them to anyone else</li> <li>not keeping prescription repeats for antibiotics “in case” you become sick again</li> <li>asking your doctor or pharmacist what you can do to feel better and ease your symptoms rather than asking for antibiotics.</li> </ul> <p><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/minyon-avent-1486987">Minyon Avent</a>, Antimicrobial Stewardship Pharmacist, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/the-university-of-queensland-805">The University of Queensland</a>; <a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/fiona-doukas-1157050">Fiona Doukas</a>, PhD candidate, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/university-of-sydney-841">University of Sydney</a>, and <a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/kristin-xenos-1491653">Kristin Xenos</a>, Research Assistant, College of Health, Medicine and Wellbeing, School of Biomedical Science and Pharmacy, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/university-of-newcastle-1060">University of Newcastle</a></em></p> <p><em>Image credits: Shutterstock</em></p> <p><em>This article is republished from <a href="https://theconversation.com">The Conversation</a> under a Creative Commons license. Read the <a href="https://theconversation.com/do-you-really-need-antibiotics-curbing-our-use-helps-fight-drug-resistant-bacteria-217920">original article</a>.</em></p>

Body

Placeholder Content Image

Olympic hero "fighting for her life" in intensive care

<p>xx<span style="font-family: -apple-system, BlinkMacSystemFont, 'Segoe UI', Roboto, Oxygen, Ubuntu, Cantarell, 'Open Sans', 'Helvetica Neue', sans-serif;">In the world of gymnastics, few names shine as brightly as that of Mary Lou Retton. The Olympic gold medallist and legendary American gymnast has long been celebrated for her incredible contributions to the sport, etching her legacy into the annals of history. But now, a dark cloud of concern hovers over this American icon, as she battles a rare and relentless adversary: a severe form of pneumonia.</span></p> <p>The shocking news has shaken the hearts of fans and sports enthusiasts worldwide, as the daughter of the 55-year-old Retton shared the news that she is "fighting for her life" in an intensive care unit, unable to breathe on her own for over a week now.</p> <p>McKenna Kelley, Retton's daughter, recently set up a <a href="https://www.spotfund.com/story/a2e0582c-e62f-4e5b-a586-18349014f761" target="_blank" rel="noopener">fundraising account</a> to share her mother's grave situation and the urgency of her need for support. The emotional plea disclosed that Mary Lou Retton was uninsured, leaving the burden of her healthcare costs in the hands of her loved ones and well-wishers.</p> <p>In an emotionally charged post on the fundraising platform, Kelley wrote: "My amazing mom, Mary Lou, has a very rare form of pneumonia and is fighting for her life."</p> <p>While respecting her mother's privacy, Kelley refrained from divulging further details about the nature of the pneumonia that has gripped Retton's life, instead requesting the one thing we can all offer – our prayers.</p> <p>Mary Lou Retton's remarkable gymnastics career needs no introduction. She etched her name into the annals of history during the 1984 Los Angeles Olympics, securing her place as one of the greatest gymnasts in history.</p> <p>At those Summer Games, Retton achieved an astonishing feat by winning five medals, including a groundbreaking gold in the individual all-around competition, a first for any American woman. Her achievements garnered her the title of Sportsperson of the Year by <em>Sports Illustrated</em> in 1984, a testament to her indomitable spirit and unparalleled dedication to her craft.</p> <p>At the time of writing, the fundraising account dedicated to supporting Mary Lou Retton had received an overwhelming outpouring of love and support. With more than 2,000 donors and counting, the campaign has already raised over $US300,000, surpassing its original goal of $US50,000.</p> <p>The outpouring of generosity underscores the enduring impact and admiration that Mary Lou Retton has left in the hearts of many.</p> <p>Beyond the gymnasium, Retton's influence extended into the world of entertainment, appearing in movies and TV shows, including a memorable stint on <em>Baywatch</em> in 1993 and the film Naked<em> Gun 33 ¹/₃: The Final Insult</em> in 1994. She also served on the President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports during President George W. Bush's administration, underscoring her enduring commitment to promoting physical health and well-being.</p> <p>In recognition of her remarkable contributions to the world of gymnastics, Mary Lou Retton was inducted into the International Gymnastics Hall of Fame in 1997 and became the first woman to be honored by the Houston Sports Hall of Fame in 2020. Her legacy extended to the National Italian-American Sports Hall of Fame, inducted in 1992, and in her hometown of Fairmont, West Virginia, a street and park bear her name, a lasting tribute to her enduring impact.</p> <p><em>Images: Instagram</em></p>

Caring

Placeholder Content Image

“Dig a hole in my chest”: Supermodel reveals double cancer fight

<p>Supermodel icon Linda Evangelista has shared the devastating details of her cancer battle, after being diagnosed twice in five years. </p> <p>In a candid interview with <a href="https://www.wsj.com/style/fashion/linda-evangelista-steven-meisel-32909b7b?mod=style_lead_story" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><em>WSJ magazine</em></a>, the 58-year-old revealed why she chose to "keep it quiet" and only tell a handful of people close to her about her health battle. </p> <p>Evangelista was first diagnosed with breast cancer in 2018 after a routine mammogram, and decided to undergo a bilateral mastectomy: a surgical procedure to remove both breasts. </p> <p>"The margins were not good. [I chose this treatment] due to other health factors, without hesitation, because I wanted to put everything behind me and not to have to deal with this.</p> <p>"Thinking I was good and set for life. Breast cancer was not going to kill me."</p> <p>Four years later in 2022, Evangelista felt a lump on her chest and an MRI revealed cancer was present in her pectoral muscle.</p> <p>"I just went into this mode that I know how to do – just do what you've got to do and get through it," she said. "And that's what I did."</p> <p>"Dig a hole in my chest," she recalled telling her doctors.</p> <p>"I don't want it to look pretty. I want you to excavate. I want to see a hole in my chest when you're done. Do you understand me? I'm not dying from this."</p> <p>After another round of surgery, she was told the outlook was good for the future, but there is always a possibility the cancer could return. </p> <p>"Well, once it's come back, there's a chance," she recalled the oncologist's words.</p> <p>"I know I have one foot in the grave, but I'm totally in celebration mode."</p> <p><em>Image credits: Instagram / Getty Images</em></p>

Caring

Placeholder Content Image

"Finally a celebrity fighting back": Cardi B hurls mic at concert goer

<p>The latest celebrity to be hit with something on stage has fought back, as Cardi B took revenge on the concert goer who threw a drink over her during a performance. </p> <p>The rapper, 30, was performing in Las Vegas on Saturday, as she sang her 2018 song, <em>Bodak Yellow</em>, that propelled her to global fame. </p> <p>During the song, a member of the audience threw their drink on stage, splashing the singer in the liquid. </p> <p>Cardi B immediately retaliated by lobbing her microphone into the crowd, targeting the audience member. </p> <p>The fan was led out of the crowd by security, while the performer took the time to casually fix up her hair before continuing her performance. </p> <blockquote class="twitter-tweet"> <p dir="ltr" lang="en">Cardi B throws microphone at audience member who threw a drink at her. <a href="https://t.co/alLgHMFshb">pic.twitter.com/alLgHMFshb</a></p> <p>— Pop Base (@PopBase) <a href="https://twitter.com/PopBase/status/1685461526646525952?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">July 30, 2023</a></p></blockquote> <p>The confrontation, which was filmed by many fellow concert goers, has since gone viral, with many commending the artist for fighting back. </p> <p>"Finally a celebrity fighting back," said one.</p> <p>"Exactly, it's about time a performer retaliated to this 'trend'," another agreed.</p> <p>"She did what needed to be done! People need to stop throwing stuff at performers," added another fan.</p> <p>The incident in Vegas was the second time in just 24 hours that the singer was captured on video hurling a microphone at inconsiderate fans. </p> <p>The singer was performing at another club in Las Vegas the night before, when the DJ in control of her music kept cutting out the track as she was trying to sing. </p> <p>After the song stopping and starting abruptly several times, Cardi B yelled out her own name before spinning around and aiming the microphone at the DJ before storming off the stage.</p> <p><em>Image credits: Twitter</em></p>

Music

Placeholder Content Image

What happens in our body when we encounter and fight off a virus like the flu, SARS-CoV-2 or RSV?

<p><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/lara-herrero-1166059">Lara Herrero</a>, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/griffith-university-828">Griffith University</a> and <a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/wesley-freppel-1408971">Wesley Freppel</a>, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/griffith-university-828">Griffith University</a></em></p> <p><a href="https://www.labcorp.com/coronavirus-disease-covid-19/covid-news-education/covid-19-vs-flu-vs-rsv-how-tell-difference">Respiratory viruses</a> like influenza virus (flu), SARS-CoV-2 (which causes COVID) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) can make us sick by infecting our respiratory system, including the nose, upper airways and lungs.</p> <p>They spread from person to person through respiratory droplets when someone coughs, sneezes, or talks and can cause death in serious cases.</p> <p>But what happens in our body when we first encounter these viruses? Our immune system uses a number of strategies to fight off viral infections. Let’s look at how it does this.</p> <h2>First line of defence</h2> <p>When we encounter respiratory viruses, the <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S193131281600038X?via%3Dihub/">first line of defence</a> is the physical and chemical barriers in our nose, upper airways, and lungs. Barriers like the mucus lining and hair-like structures on the surface of cells, work together to trap and remove viruses before they can reach deeper into our respiratory system.</p> <p>Our defence also includes our behaviours such as coughing or sneezing. When we blow our nose, the mucus, viruses, and any other pathogens that are caught within it are expelled.</p> <p>But sometimes, viruses manage to evade these initial barriers and sneak into our respiratory system. This activates the cells of our innate immune system.</p> <h2>Patrolling for potential invaders</h2> <p>While our acquired immune system develops over time, our innate immune system is present at birth. It generates “non-specific” immunity by identifying what’s foreign. The cells of innate immunity act like a patrol system, searching for any invaders. These innate cells patrol almost every part of our body, from our skin to our nose, lungs and even internal organs.</p> <p>Our respiratory system has different type of innate cells such – as macrophages, neutrophils and natural killer cells – which patrol in our body looking for intruders. If they recognise anything foreign, in this case a virus, they will initiate an attack response.</p> <p>Each cell type plays a slightly different role. Macrophages, for example, will not only engulf and digest viruses (phagocytosis) but also release a cocktail of different molecules (cytokines) that will warn and recruit other cells to <a href="https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/cmi.12580">fight against the danger</a>.</p> <p>In the meantime, natural killer cells, aptly named, attack infected cells, and stop viruses from multiplying and <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41577-021-00558-3">invading our body further</a>.</p> <p>Natural killer cells also promote inflammation, a <a href="https://www.hindawi.com/journals/jir/2018/1467538/">crucial part of the immune response</a>. It helps to recruit more immune cells to the site of infection, enhances blood flow, and increases the permeability of blood vessels, allowing immune cells to reach the infected tissues. At this stage, our immune system is fighting a war against viruses and the result can cause inflammation, fevers, coughs and congestion.</p> <h2>Launching a specific attack</h2> <p>As the innate immune response begins, another branch of the immune system called the adaptive immune system is <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK21070/">activated</a>.</p> <p>The adaptive immune system is more specific than the innate immune system, and it decides on the correct tools and strategy to fight off the viral invaders. This system plays a vital role in eliminating the virus and providing long-term protection against future infections.</p> <p>Specialised cells called T cells and B cells are key players in acquired immunity.</p> <p>T cells (specifically, helper T cells and cytotoxic T cells) recognise viral proteins on the surface of infected cells:</p> <ul> <li> <p>helper T cells release molecules that <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3764486/">further activate immune cells</a></p> </li> <li> <p>cytotoxic T cells directly kill infected cells with a very great precision, <a href="https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2018.00678/full">avoiding any healthy cells around</a>.</p> </li> </ul> <p>B cells produce antibodies, which are proteins that can bind to viruses, neutralise them, and mark them for <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7247032/">destruction by other immune cells</a>.</p> <p>B cells are a critical part of memory in our immune system. They will remember what happened and won’t forget for years. When the same virus attacks again, B cells will be ready to fight it off and will neutralise it faster and better.</p> <p>Thanks to the adaptive immune system, vaccines for respiratory viruses such as the COVID mRNA vaccine keep us protected from <a href="https://www.health.gov.au/our-work/covid-19-vaccines/our-vaccines/how-they-work">being sick or severely ill</a>. However, if the same virus became mutated, our immune system will act as if it was a new virus and will have to fight in a war again.</p> <h2>Neutralising the threat</h2> <p>As the immune response progresses, the combined efforts of the innate and adaptive immune systems helps control the virus. Infected cells are cleared, and the virus is neutralised and eliminated from the body.</p> <p>As the infection subsides, symptoms gradually improve, and we begin to feel better and to recover.</p> <p>But recovery varies depending on the specific virus and us as individuals. Some respiratory viruses, like rhinoviruses which cause the common cold, may cause relatively mild symptoms and a quick recovery. Others, like the flu, SARS-CoV-2 or severe cases of RSV, may lead to more severe symptoms and a longer recovery time.</p> <p>Some viruses are very strong and too fast sometimes so that our immune system does not have the time to develop a proper immune response to fight them off. <img style="border: none !important; box-shadow: none !important; margin: 0 !important; max-height: 1px !important; max-width: 1px !important; min-height: 1px !important; min-width: 1px !important; opacity: 0 !important; outline: none !important; padding: 0 !important;" src="https://counter.theconversation.com/content/207023/count.gif?distributor=republish-lightbox-basic" alt="The Conversation" width="1" height="1" /></p> <p><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/lara-herrero-1166059">Lara Herrero</a>, Research Leader in Virology and Infectious Disease, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/griffith-university-828">Griffith University</a> and <a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/wesley-freppel-1408971">Wesley Freppel</a>, Research Fellow, Institute for Glycomics, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/griffith-university-828">Griffith University</a></em></p> <p><em>Image credits: Getty Images</em></p> <p><em>This article is republished from <a href="https://theconversation.com">The Conversation</a> under a Creative Commons license. Read the <a href="https://theconversation.com/what-happens-in-our-body-when-we-encounter-and-fight-off-a-virus-like-the-flu-sars-cov-2-or-rsv-207023">original article</a>.</em></p>

Body

Placeholder Content Image

What is ‘fawning’? How is it related to trauma and the ‘fight or flight’ response?

<p><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/alix-woolard-409037">Alix Woolard</a>, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/telethon-kids-institute-1608">Telethon Kids Institute</a></em></p> <p>You have probably heard of “fight or flight” responses to distressing situations. You may also be familiar with the tendency to “freeze”. But there is another defence or survival strategy a person can have: “fawn”.</p> <p>When our brain perceives a threat in our environment, our <a href="https://www.healthline.com/health/mental-health/fight-flight-freeze#in-the-body">sympathetic nervous system</a> takes over and a person can experience any one or combination of the <a href="https://pete-walker.com/fourFs_TraumaTypologyComplexPTSD.htm">four F</a> responses.</p> <h2>What are the four Fs?</h2> <p>The <strong>fawn</strong> response usually occurs when a person is being attacked in some way, and they try to appease or placate their attacker to protect themselves.</p> <p>A <strong>fight</strong> response is when someone reacts to a threat with aggression.</p> <p><strong>Flight</strong> is when a person responds by fleeing – either literally by leaving the situation, or symbolically, by distracting or avoiding a distressing situation.</p> <p>A <strong>freeze</strong> response occurs when a person realises (consciously or not) that they cannot resist the threat, and they detach themselves or become immobile. They may “space out” and not pay attention, feel disconnected to their body, or have difficulty speaking after they feel threatened.</p> <h2>What does fawning look like?</h2> <p>Previously known as appeasement or “people pleasing”, the term “fawning” was coined by psychotherapist <a href="http://pete-walker.com/complex_ptsd_book.html">Pete Walker</a> in his 2013 book <a href="https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/20556323-complex-ptsd">Complex PTSD: From Surviving to Thriving</a>.</p> <p>A fawn response can look like:</p> <ul> <li>people-pleasing (doing things for others to gain their approval or to make others like you)</li> <li>being overly reliant on others (difficulty making decisions without other people’s input)</li> <li>prioritising the needs of others and ignoring your own</li> <li>being overly agreeable</li> <li>having trouble saying no</li> <li>in more severe cases, <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0149763421004917?casa_token=FzabbqNoE0UAAAAA:DAr_QkVegIa70Zheq6vTkCrsYPJdw06kdds659h-VHSRtPSUErDzVgj-YsLunjvGkn4Mwyb1">dissociating</a> (disconnecting from your mind and/or body).</li> </ul> <p>While there isn’t yet much research on this response, the fawn response is seen more in people who have experienced <a href="https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00958964.2022.2163220?journalCode=vjee20">complex trauma</a> in their childhood, including among children who grew up with emotionally or physically abusive caregivers.</p> <p>Fawning is also observed in people who are in situations of <a href="https://europepmc.org/article/MED/37052112">interpersonal violence</a> (such as domestic violence, assault or kidnappings), when the person needs to appease or calm a perpetrator to survive.</p> <p>Fawning is also different to the other F responses, in that it seems to be a uniquely human response.</p> <h2>Why do people fawn?</h2> <p><a href="https://www.proquest.com/docview/2447256147/abstract/13E401AC2C1C40C6PQ/1">Research</a> suggests people fawn for two reasons:</p> <ol> <li>to protect themselves or others from physical or emotional harm (such as childhood trauma)</li> <li>to create or improve the emotional connection to the perpetrator of harm (for example, a caregiver).</li> </ol> <p>This type of response is adaptive at the time of the traumatic event(s): by appeasing an attacker or perpetrator, it helps the person avoid harm.</p> <p>However, if a person continues to use this type of response in the long term, as an automatic response to everyday stressors (such difficult interactions with your boss or neighbour), it can have negative consequences.</p> <p>If a person is continually trying to appease others, they may experience issues with boundaries, forming a cohesive identity, and may not feel safe in relationships with others.</p> <h2>What can I do if I ‘fawn’?</h2> <p>Because fawning is typically a response to interpersonal or complex trauma, using it in response to everyday stressors may indicate a need for healing.</p> <p>If this is you, and you have a history of complex trauma, seek psychological support from a professional who is trained in trauma-informed practice. Trauma-informed means the psychological care is holistic, empowering, strengths-focused, collaborative and reflective.</p> <p>Evidence-based therapies that are helpful following trauma include:</p> <ul> <li> <p><a href="https://www.emdr.com/what-is-emdr/">eye movement desensitisation therapy</a>, which focuses on <a href="https://theconversation.com/what-is-emdr-therapy-and-how-does-it-help-people-who-have-experienced-trauma-161743">processing traumatic memories</a></p> </li> <li> <p><a href="https://www.apa.org/ptsd-guideline/patients-and-families/exposure-therapy#:%7E:text=In%20this%20form%20of%20therapy,reduce%20fear%20and%20decrease%20avoidance.">exposure therapy</a> to help expose people to things they fear and avoid</p> </li> <li> <p><a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4396183/">trauma-focused cognitive behavioural therapy</a> that aims to alleviate trauma symptoms by overcoming unhelpful thoughts and behaviours.</p> </li> </ul> <p>Depending on where you live, <a href="https://www.childabuseroyalcommissionresponse.gov.au/support-services">free counselling services</a> may be available for people who have experienced childhood abuse.</p> <p>Setting healthy boundaries is also a common focus when working with the fawn response, which you can do by yourself or alongside a therapist.</p> <p><em>If this article has raised issues for you or you’re concerned about someone you know, call Lifeline on 13 11 14.</em><img style="border: none !important; box-shadow: none !important; margin: 0 !important; max-height: 1px !important; max-width: 1px !important; min-height: 1px !important; min-width: 1px !important; opacity: 0 !important; outline: none !important; padding: 0 !important;" src="https://counter.theconversation.com/content/205024/count.gif?distributor=republish-lightbox-basic" alt="The Conversation" width="1" height="1" /></p> <p><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/alix-woolard-409037">Alix Woolard</a>, Senior Researcher, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/telethon-kids-institute-1608">Telethon Kids Institute</a></em></p> <p><em>Image credits: Getty Images</em></p> <p><em>This article is republished from <a href="https://theconversation.com">The Conversation</a> under a Creative Commons license. Read the <a href="https://theconversation.com/what-is-fawning-how-is-it-related-to-trauma-and-the-fight-or-flight-response-205024">original article</a>.</em></p>

Caring

Placeholder Content Image

How to holiday with your family without fighting

<p><em><strong>Rachel Croson, Dean, College of Social Science; MSU Foundation Professor of Economics, Michigan State University, explains how to have a holiday with your family without fighting.</strong></em></p> <p>I had the most awesome holiday this year.</p> <p>My husband took our two boys, ages 8 and 10, to his family’s celebration, and I had five days of uninterrupted sleep, fun with friends and grownup time. Don’t get me wrong; I love my husband’s family and I believe that holidays are important opportunities for making memories. But I desperately needed a break, and I got one. And my husband and kids were delighted by the outcome as well.</p> <p>How did this happen? I applied the lessons from my academic study of bargaining and negotiation to my personal life. So, with another holiday season upon us, here’s some guidance on how to negotiate with your partner while strengthening this critical relationship.</p> <p><strong>From theory to practice</strong></p> <p>I became interested in negotiation as a graduate student, and part of my dissertation investigated bargaining behaviour.</p> <p>I have taught negotiation to students and executives, published <span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong><a href="http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.399.3789&amp;rep=rep1&amp;type=pdf" target="_blank" rel="noopener">many scholarly articles</a></strong></span> on bargaining and negotiation and given numerous <span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong><a href="https://www.mchra.org/event-2164407" target="_blank" rel="noopener">public lectures</a></strong></span> on the topic. But, like many academics, I hadn’t thought to apply my academic expertise to my personal life.</p> <p>Once I started to do so, however, I quickly realized that the concepts and skills learned from negotiation can be used not only to get what you need or want out of your family life, but also to make your family life happier overall.</p> <p>The most important insight is that negotiation does not have to be win-lose. It can be win-win.</p> <p><strong>Win-lose versus win-win</strong></p> <p>The popular conception of negotiation is all about getting the best deal for yourself or your side. It was a set of Harvard professors in their <span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Getting_to_Yes" target="_blank" rel="noopener">groundbreaking</a></strong></span> 1981 book, <span style="text-decoration: underline;"><em><strong><a href="https://www.penguinrandomhouse.com/books/324551/getting-to-yes-by-roger-fisher/9780143118756/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">“Getting to Yes,”</a></strong></em></span> who first popularly introduced the idea that negotiation could be “integrative,” or result in both parties being better off.</p> <p>In practice, <span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong><a href="http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/074959789090048E" target="_blank" rel="noopener">many negotiators see only “distributive” or win-lose possibilities.</a></strong></span> In their minds, there is a fixed pie over which the parties are fighting: If you win, then I lose. As a result, most of the early <span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong><a href="http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0022103168900681" target="_blank" rel="noopener">academic literature</a></strong></span> and practical guidance has focused on power. As you might imagine, this can be quite problematic for negotiating within the family.</p> <p>In contrast, the idea of integrative or win-win negotiations involves identifying outcomes that are good for both sides.</p> <p>There are a number of ways one can achieve integrative negotiations, but here I will discuss three of the major ones described in <span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong><a href="https://www.penguinrandomhouse.com/books/324551/getting-to-yes-by-roger-fisher/9780143118756/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">“Getting to Yes”</a></strong></span> and <span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong><a href="http://amp.aom.org/content/18/3/109" target="_blank" rel="noopener">subsequent articles</a></strong></span>.</p> <p><strong>Trade-offs.</strong> For example, consider a couple sharing a chicken for dinner. One way to share would be to cut the chicken in half and to each get an equal portion. This would be a distributive solution since we are distributing the chicken between the couple, and if one were to get more (win), the other would get less (lose). An integrative agreement can be found by identifying trade-offs between the two parties. For example, it turns out that I like the dark meat and my husband likes the white meat. So I can give him my breast and wing and he can give me his leg and thigh, and we can both win.</p> <p><strong>Adding issues.</strong> A second way to achieve win-win solutions is to change the scope of the negotiation. For example, each year my husband and I negotiate about where to take our summer vacation. I want to go to the forests of Lake Tahoe, and he wants to go to the casinos of Atlantic City. As long as the scope of the negotiation remains focused on this one trip, it will be difficult to satisfy us both. However, imagine we expanded the negotiation to include multiple dimensions. For example, we could make a multi-year deal where we alternated our destinations. Or I could commit to spending our winter vacation in Atlantic City, in exchange for a summer vacation in Lake Tahoe. Or he could agree to let me pick the vacation destination if I allow him to host a monthly poker game at our house.</p> <p><strong>Beyond positions to interests.</strong> A third way to achieve win-win solutions is to move beyond each individual’s position and focus on his or her interests. For example, when my husband and I were getting married, we had our strongest disagreement about the wedding cake. I wanted chocolate and he wanted white (vanilla). After many rounds of arguing, I finally asked why he wanted white cake. He replied that white was traditional and he wanted the cake to be white in the pictures. I told him that my whole family liked chocolate, and we wanted to eat chocolate cake. Once you move beyond positions (white cake versus chocolate cake) to underlying interests (picture cake versus eating cake), many integrative solutions become possible: white chocolate, bride’s cake/groom’s cake, Photoshop and so on.</p> <p>In the end, we had a three-tier cake, with two large chocolate tiers and one small white tier which we fed each other for the photos.</p> <p><strong>Negotiation tactics for the family</strong></p> <p>So, how should you negotiate with your partner, parents or children to get what everyone wants during the holidays?</p> <p>Here are some suggested tactics to help you achieve these win-win outcomes.</p> <p><strong>Be honest, not mean.</strong> To achieve win-win negotiations, all parties involved must be honest about what they want.</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong><a href="http://www.people.hbs.edu/kmcginn/PDFs/Publishedarticles/1995-friendslovers.pdf" target="_blank" rel="noopener">One study</a></strong></span> found that married couples come to fewer win-win solutions than friends in part because they are unwilling to ask for what they want, thinking that the other person will be angry with them.</p> <p>Simply giving in to the other person’s demands is not the pathway to win-win solutions. Instead, each party needs to express what is important to him or her and why, and listen carefully to his or her partner’s priorities and reasoning.</p> <p>Explaining that I wanted to eat chocolate cake and understanding that my husband wanted white cake for the pictures was pivotal to our coming to a win-win agreement.</p> <p><strong>Make concessions. </strong>One of the hallmarks of negotiations is that no one gets everything he or she wants. You need to be willing to make concessions, to give up the aspects that are less important to you in order to get what is most important to you.</p> <p>While cleaning up after poker games at our house is not my idea of a great time, it’s worth it to get the summer vacation I want.</p> <p><strong>Be creative.</strong> Once you understand and accept each other’s needs, you need to be creative about finding ways to meet them. This can involve brainstorming and being tolerant of your partner’s crazy, off-the-wall ideas in the process.</p> <p>Should we go to Monaco? What about an online poker account? How about a long weekend in Reno during our Tahoe trip?</p> <p><strong>Make promises, not threats.</strong> Finally, a word about language. One of the realities of negotiation is that either party can walk away. One way to keep the conversation constructive is to make promises (if we both order the chicken, I’ll trade your white meat for my dark meat) and avoid threats (if you won’t trade, I’ll have to order the surf-and-turf).</p> <p><strong>The past and the future</strong></p> <p>Each family has a long history together, with real and perceived slights. Families also expect to have long futures together.</p> <p>As a result, it is extremely important that these negotiations be handled with respect for the other party, and with a view to the long-term costs and benefits. Pick your battles, and concede on the other issues. You don’t need to win them all, just the important ones.</p> <p><em><span style="font-family: -apple-system, BlinkMacSystemFont, 'Segoe UI', Roboto, Oxygen, Ubuntu, Cantarell, 'Open Sans', 'Helvetica Neue', sans-serif;">Image credit: Shutterstock</span></em></p> <p><em style="font-family: -apple-system, BlinkMacSystemFont, 'Segoe UI', Roboto, Oxygen, Ubuntu, Cantarell, 'Open Sans', 'Helvetica Neue', sans-serif;">Written by Rachel Croson. Republished with permission of <a href="http://theconversation.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong><span>The Conversation</span></strong></a>.</em><img style="font-family: -apple-system, BlinkMacSystemFont, 'Segoe UI', Roboto, Oxygen, Ubuntu, Cantarell, 'Open Sans', 'Helvetica Neue', sans-serif;" src="https://counter.theconversation.com/content/88842/count.gif?distributor=republish-lightbox-advanced" alt="The Conversation" width="1" height="1" /></p>

Travel Tips

Placeholder Content Image

"Who picks a fight with a rock star?" Jimmy Barnes confronts on-road "bully"

<p>Jimmy Barnes' wife Jane has ripped into a truck driver who "bullied" the couple on the road, with the driver attempting to "fight Jimmy on the roadside". </p> <p>Jane Barnes said the incident occurred on Wednesday night in the south Sydney suburb of Botany Bay, when the couple had been driving home from a charity event. </p> <p>In a furious thread on Twitter, Jane detailed the terrifying incident which resulted in the police being called. </p> <p>Jane wrote, "(He) cut us off across our lane and swiped our mirror, wanted to fight Jimmy on the roadside."</p> <p>"Trucks are like weapons, bullies behind the wheel a danger to us all," she wrote, alongside the hashtags #TOLL and #NOtobullies.  </p> <p>Jane then shared a photo of the truck drivers' side profile as he almost came to blows with the rockstar, as well as photos of the truck's license plate and the Barnes' car which shows the drivers' side wing mirror bent out of place. </p> <p>Jane went on to say the truckie had shared his details with the couple and that NSW Police had been called over the altercation. </p> <p>However, she said, officers "couldn't do much" if there were no injuries or damages.</p> <p>Jane's post drew in a wave of attention, with one fan asking, "Who picks a fight with a rock star?"</p> <p>Ms Barnes replied, "Shouldn't matter who it is. This guy was just a pig. Swearing, smug, ignorant, misogynist bully."</p> <p>The musician continued her rant on Instagram, writing, "When you drive a truck you're in charge of a weapon. A bully at the wheel can kill people."</p> <p>Many sent their sympathies to the couple, with some saying the tweet was "poignant" given the increase in accidents on Aussie roads. </p> <p><em>Image credits: Twitter</em></p>

Travel Trouble

Placeholder Content Image

3 things all couples fight about (and what to do about them)

<p>All couples argue from time to time, and it seems that we’re all fighting about the same things. These three issues crop up time and time again, mainly because there’s a deeper meaning than whose turn is it really to vacuum the house. Here are a few reasons why conflicts about money, sex and chores often escalate and how to cool down things down.</p> <p><strong>Money</strong></p> <p>Fights about money are rarely about money. Money is fraught with layers of meaning and often how we see it (and how we handle it) is a reflection of our personal values around freedom, security and generosity. Fights about spending can often be traced back to fears about not having influence in important matters in your life, worries about future security or concerns that your partner does not respect you or your money values. If you find yourself continually arguing about money, rather than focusing on the dollar value of items or pinning blame on who spent what when, talk generally about what role you think money should play in your life.</p> <p><strong>Sex</strong></p> <p>The intimate act of sex can both be a wonderful cementer of relationships or it can be terrible wedge that causes untold relationship tension. Arguing about how often to have sex is often not about the act itself but about our feelings of connection, affection and love. It’s important to remember that just like people change over the years so do desires and intimacy needs. Fluctuating libidos is a factor of life and the way to ensure you’re on the same page as your partner is to communicate. Don’t just expect your partner to instinctively know what you need.</p> <p><strong>Housework</strong></p> <p>It may sound like the most trivial of fights but disputes over domestic chores are less about the tasks and more about the underlying meanings of respect, fairness and worth. When one person feels like the household tasks are not shared or equal, it can unearth negative feelings that the other person does not appreciate them or does not respect them enough to help out. Have an agreement about housework tasks and talk about whether it may have a deeper meaning.</p> <p><em>Image credit: Shutterstock</em></p>

Relationships

Placeholder Content Image

Who hit who? Gwyneth Paltrow fighting “hit and run” charges

<p>Gwyneth Paltrow has appeared in court as she fights charges over a skiing collision that left a man with permanent injuries and brain damage. </p> <p>The actor-turned-wellness influencer is being sued for $450,000 (AUD) by a retired optometrist, who claims Paltrow violently crashed into him in 2016 while skiing at one of the most upscale ski resorts in the United States.</p> <p>Terry Sanderson, 76, said Paltrow was skiing down the slopes so recklessly that they collided, leaving him on the ground as she and her entourage continued their descent down Deer Valley Resort, Utah.</p> <p>"Gwyneth Paltrow skied out of control," Sanderson's attorneys claim in the lawsuit, "knocking him down hard, knocking him out, and causing a brain injury, four broken ribs and other serious injuries. Paltrow got up, turned and skied away, leaving Sanderson stunned, lying in the snow, seriously injured."</p> <p>With the lawsuit now lasting several years, Sanderson is suing Paltrow for the hefty six figure sum, claiming that the accident was a result of negligence, and left him with physical injuries and emotional distress.</p> <p>As the trial began, a central question in the case was posed, wondering which skier had the right of way. </p> <p>At ski resorts, the skier who is downhill has the right of way, so the case is largely focused around who was farther down the beginner's run when the collision transpired. </p> <p>Both Paltrow and Sanderson claim in court filings that they were farther downhill when the other rammed into them.</p> <p>Sanderson has also accused the ski resort of "covering up" the matter by not providing complete information on incident reports and not following resort safety policies.</p> <p>After his initial lawsuit seeking $US3.1 million ($4.65 million AUD) was dropped, Sanderson amended the complaint and he is now seeking $US300,000.</p> <p>Paltrow filed a counterclaim, seeking attorney fees and $US1 ($1.50) in damages, as she claims Sanderson was actually the culprit in the collision, is overstating his injuries, and is trying to exploit her celebrity and wealth.</p> <p><em>Image credits: Getty Images</em></p>

Legal

Placeholder Content Image

Prince Harry alleges physical fight with brother William

<p>Prince Harry has accused his brother, William, of physically assaulting him during an argument over his wife, Meghan, Duchess of Sussex in 2019.</p> <p>UK newspaper The Guardian claim to have seen an advance copy of Prince Harry's highly anticipated memoir, Spare, in which Harry reportedly alleges William knocked him to the floor during the altercation.</p> <p>The alleged incident took place after a conversation between the two brothers, during which William, the heir to the British throne, called Meghan Markle "difficult," "rude" and “abrasive”.</p> <p>"The confrontation escalated until William "grabbed me by the collar, ripping my necklace, and ... knocked me to the floor," The Guardian reported.</p> <p>The Guardian article focuses on the alleged physical altercation between the brothers but describes the entirety of the book as a "remarkable volume."</p> <p>The article reports Harry's version of events, in which William arrives at Harry and Meghan's then home, Nottingham Cottage on Kensington Palace grounds, to allegedly discuss "'the whole rolling catastrophe' of their relationship and struggles with the press.”</p> <p>Harry alleges that William attacked him after he had offered him water and attempted to cool a heated verbal exchange, according to The Guardian.</p> <p>The article quotes Harry, "He set down the water, called me another name, then came at me. It all happened so fast. So very fast. He grabbed me by the collar, ripping my necklace, and he knocked me to the floor. I landed on the dog's bowl, which cracked under my back, the pieces cutting into me. I lay there for a moment, dazed, then got to my feet and told him to get out.”</p> <p>The article says Harry states in the book that William urged him to hit back, but he refused to do so. William left but later returned "looking regretful" and apologised, according to The Guardian article, quoting the book.</p> <p>Spare is due to be released on January 10.</p> <p><em>Image: Shutterstock</em></p>

Family & Pets

Placeholder Content Image

Fight breaks out of Bunnings sausage sizzle

<p dir="ltr">Three men have been captured in a bizarre fight, with the wild footage circulating on TikTok.</p> <p dir="ltr">The expletive-laden argument broke out just metres from a Bunnings sausage sizzle in an underground carpark.</p> <p dir="ltr">The fight was apparently over a parking spot, with a man at one point yelling, “Get the car out my f***ing way”.</p> <p dir="ltr">Two of the three men continue eating their sausage sandwiches during the entire altercation - a fact pointed out by the TikTok user who shared the video, which immediately went viral and has racked up over 100,000 views.</p> <div><iframe title="tiktok embed" src="https://cdn.embedly.com/widgets/media.html?src=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.tiktok.com%2Fembed%2Fv2%2F7178344250172624129&amp;display_name=tiktok&amp;url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.tiktok.com%2F%40dora_rinaldi%2Fvideo%2F7178344250172624129%3Fis_copy_url%3D1%26is_from_webapp%3Dv1&amp;image=https%3A%2F%2Fp16-sign-sg.tiktokcdn.com%2Fobj%2Ftos-alisg-p-0037%2FoUhEIbpedgvRnqzQCntDAnBQmBn8I7t3jfjyv0%3Fx-expires%3D1671516000%26x-signature%3DhflwdY%252BMRp8WEdyPtZbrnfM1ghY%253D&amp;key=59e3ae3acaa649a5a98672932445e203&amp;type=text%2Fhtml&amp;schema=tiktok" width="340" height="700" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" allowfullscreen="allowfullscreen"></iframe></div> <p dir="ltr">As the group of men argued loudly, those manning the sausage sizzle continued to calmly serve customers, with one calling out, “Do you want a sausage to calm down guys?” sparking laughter from onlookers.</p> <p dir="ltr">TikTok users were amused by the entire bizarre interaction, with one commenting, “What did you put in them damn sausages?”</p> <p dir="ltr">“Old mate treating the sausage sizzle as if it’s a drive thru,” another wrote, while another posted, “Love how he’s not gonna let a fight stop him from enjoying his Bunnings snag”.</p> <p dir="ltr">Meanwhile, several others pointed out that “Nothing comes between a person and their Bunnings sausage sizzle".</p> <p dir="ltr"><em>Image credits: TikTok</em></p>

Legal

Placeholder Content Image

Husband to fight charges over wife’s death in golf buggy crash

<p dir="ltr">Robbie Awad, whose fiancée died in a tragic buggy crash accident on their honeymoon, will fight the charges laid against him in relation to the incident, a court has been told.</p> <p dir="ltr">Awad, also known as Robbie Morgan, entered a not guilty plea for the charge of driving without due care and attention causing death when his matter was mentioned at Proserpine Magistrates Court on Monday.</p> <p dir="ltr">He was issued with a notice to appear in court just months after laying his wife to rest.</p> <p dir="ltr">The 30-year-old <a href="https://www.oversixty.co.nz/news/news/husband-charged-over-wife-s-death-in-hamilton-island-buggy-crash">was charged</a> by Queensland Police with causing the death of his wife, Marina Hanna, who didn’t survive the critical injuries she suffered when the golf buggy Awad was driving overturned during their honeymoon on Hamilton Island.</p> <p dir="ltr">He has also been charged with failure to wear an approved seatbelt by the driver, failure to wear an approved seatbelt by the passenger and using a mobile phone.</p> <p dir="ltr">Police initially labelled the crash, which occurred ten days after the couple tied the knot, as a “tragic accident”.</p> <p dir="ltr">Now, Mr Awad is on bail and must reside at his home in Quakers Hill, Sydney.</p> <p dir="ltr">A brief of evidence was ordered to be served by January 23, with Mr Awad’s matter due to return to court on February 6, though he doesn’t have to appear.</p> <p><span id="docs-internal-guid-970ecd1f-7fff-1bd0-8665-c266a6c7581f"></span></p> <p dir="ltr"><em>Image: Nine News</em></p>

Legal

Placeholder Content Image

"Fight of her life": Neighbours star's devastating diagnosis

<p><em>Neighbours</em> star Kate Keltie has been diagnosed with stage four breast cancer, as she prepares for the "fight of her life" through aggressive treatment. </p> <p>The actress, 36, who played Holly Valance's sister Michelle on the soap for five years from 1999 to 2004, was given the shock diagnosis recently.</p> <p>Her cancer is so aggressive it has rapidly spread to other parts of her body, including her lymph nodes, blood and hip bones.</p> <p>In order to help her fight the disease, a <a href="https://www.gofundme.com/f/kate-has-cancer-how-can-you-help-pls-donate?qid=0cfa37a46ef57b1c3979c8fe23a02ac5" target="_blank" rel="noopener">GoFundMe</a> page has been set up. </p> <p>"Our beautiful Kate is going through the unimaginable... This week the fight of her life begins as she starts chemotherapy," the fundraising page states.</p> <p>"She will lose her gorgeous hair and cannot carry children in the future. This is devastating news for anyone, let alone at the age of 36, with no family history of breast cancer."</p> <p>"Kate will then require chemo infusions every three weeks for the rest of her life, and potentially radiotherapy and surgery too."</p> <p>Supporters of Kate have already donated more than $30,000 to the page. </p> <p>Kate said she was touched by the outpouring of support and expressed her gratitude for those who have sent her well wishes. </p> <p>"It's amazing to know I have so many incredible people in my corner. I've just got over Covid and I start my first round of chemotherapy tomorrow," she said in a statement.</p> <p>"You have no idea how my head space has changed going into it because of each and every one of you. Thank you, from the bottom of my heart."</p> <p><em>Image credits: Facebook / Shutterstock - Fremantle Media</em></p>

Caring

Placeholder Content Image

Fighting inflation doesn’t directly cause unemployment – but that’s still the most likely outcome

<p>You may have seen the news: in its attempts to tackle inflation, the Reserve Bank is going to increase unemployment. The idea can even seem to come right from the mouths of experts, including the bank’s governor, Adrian Orr. <a href="https://www.nzherald.co.nz/business/adrian-orr-beating-inflation-will-mean-higher-unemployment/WO3WLQQUGWEC5NVK3AQTR2BN5A/">Speaking recently</a> to an industry conference, he said:</p> <blockquote> <p>Returning to low inflation will, in the near term, constrain employment growth and lead to a rise in unemployment.</p> </blockquote> <p>Similar sentiments have been expressed by <a href="https://businessdesk.co.nz/article/opinion/inflation-taming-the-costs-are-becoming-more-visible">independent economists</a> and <a href="https://thespinoff.co.nz/business/31-10-2022/the-big-banks-just-cant-stop-winning">commentators</a>.</p> <p>But is it as simple as it might appear? What is the relationship between inflation and unemployment, and is it inevitable that reducing one will lead to an increase in the other?</p> <blockquote class="twitter-tweet"> <p dir="ltr" lang="en">Unemployment rate holds steady at 3.3%, wages rise strongly - Stats NZ <a href="https://t.co/IQOPBaNYTn">https://t.co/IQOPBaNYTn</a></p> <p>— RNZ News (@rnz_news) <a href="https://twitter.com/rnz_news/status/1587568087808999424?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">November 1, 2022</a></p></blockquote> <p><strong>Historic highs and lows</strong></p> <p>Like other developed countries, New Zealand has been going through a period of historically high inflation. The latest figures, for the September quarter of 2022, show an annual <a href="https://www.stats.govt.nz/news/annual-inflation-at-7-2-percent/">rise of 7.2%</a>, only slightly lower than the 7.3% recorded for the June quarter.</p> <p>Inflation is the highest it has been since 1990. The story is similar across the OECD, where inflation averages <a href="https://www.oecd.org/economy/consumer-prices-oecd-updated-4-october-2022.htm">10.3%</a>, including <a href="https://www.ons.gov.uk/economy/inflationandpriceindices/bulletins/consumerpriceinflation/september2022">8.8%</a> in the UK and <a href="https://www.bls.gov/news.release/cpi.nr0.htm">8.2%</a> in the US.</p> <p>At the same time, New Zealand is experiencing a period of very low unemployment, with a <a href="https://www.stats.govt.nz/news/unemployment-rate-at-3-3-percent">rate of just 3.3%</a> for September 2022, following 3.2% in the June quarter. These are near-record lows, and the rate has not been below 4% since mid-2008.</p> <p>So, right now New Zealand is in a period of historically low unemployment and historically high inflation. At first glance, that might suggest that in order to return to low inflation, we may inevitably experience higher unemployment.</p> <p><strong>The Phillips Curve</strong></p> <p>The idea that inflation and unemployment have a negative relationship (when one increases, the other decreases, and vice versa) dates back to work by New Zealand’s most celebrated economist, <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Phillips_(economist)">A.W. (Bill) Phillips</a>.</p> <p>While working at the London School of Economics in the 1950s, Phillips wrote a <a href="https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1468-0335.1958.tb00003.x">famous paper</a> that used UK data from 1861 to 1957 and showed a negative relationship between unemployment and wage increases.</p> <p>Subsequent work by economics Nobel Prize winners <a href="https://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/bios/Samuelson.html">Paul Samuelson</a> and <a href="https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/economic-sciences/1987/solow/facts/">Robert Solow</a> extended Phillips’ work to show a negative relationship between price inflation and unemployment. We now refer to this relationship as the “Phillips Curve”.</p> <p>However, even though this relationship between inflation and unemployment has been demonstrated with various data sources, and for various time periods for different countries, it is not a causal relationship.</p> <p>Lower inflation doesn’t by itself cause higher unemployment, even though they are related. To see why, it’s worth thinking about the mechanism that leads to the observed relationship.</p> <blockquote class="twitter-tweet"> <p dir="ltr" lang="en"><a href="https://twitter.com/hashtag/LISTEN?src=hash&amp;ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">#LISTEN</a> 🔊 The Finance Minister says addressing inflation without increasing unemployment is a difficult balancing act.</p> <p>📎 <a href="https://t.co/CfaopcqjGv">https://t.co/CfaopcqjGv</a> <a href="https://t.co/1gMNat2G99">pic.twitter.com/1gMNat2G99</a></p> <p>— Morning Report (@NZMorningReport) <a href="https://twitter.com/NZMorningReport/status/1587893034351411200?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">November 2, 2022</a></p></blockquote> <p><strong>Collateral damage</strong></p> <p>If the Reserve Bank raises the official cash rate, commercial banks follow by raising their interest rates. That makes borrowing more expensive. Higher interest rates mean banks will lend less money. With less money chasing goods and services in the economy, inflation will start to fall.</p> <p>Of course, this is what the Reserve Bank wants when it raises the cash rate. Its <a href="https://www.parliament.nz/en/pb/library-research-papers/research-papers/monetary-policy-and-the-policy-targets-agreement/">Policy Targets Agreement</a> with the government states that inflation must be kept between 1% and 3%. So when inflation is predicted to be higher, the bank acts to lower it.</p> <p>At the same time, higher interest rates increase mortgage payments, leaving households and consumers with less discretionary income, and so consumer spending falls. Along with reduced business spending, this reduces the amount of economic activity. Businesses therefore need fewer workers, and so employment falls.</p> <p>So, while the Reserve Bank raises interest rates to combat inflation, those higher interest rates also slow down the economy and increase unemployment. Higher unemployment is essentially collateral damage arising from reducing inflation.</p> <p><strong>Great expectations</strong></p> <p>That’s not the end of the story, though. After its 1960s heyday, the Phillips Curve was criticised by economists on theoretical grounds, and for its inability to explain the “stagflation” (high unemployment and high inflation) experienced in the 1970s.</p> <p>For example, <a href="https://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/bios/Friedman.html">Milton Friedman</a> argued there is actually no trade-off between inflation and unemployment, because workers and businesses take inflation into account when negotiating employment contracts.</p> <p>Workers’ and employers’ expectations about future inflation is key. Friedman argued that, because inflation is expected, workers will have already built it into their wage demands, and businesses won’t change the amount of workers they employ.</p> <p>Friedman’s argument would suggest that, aside from some short-term deviations, the economy will typically snap back to a “natural” rate of unemployment, with an inflation rate that only reflects workers’ and businesses’ expectations.</p> <p><strong>Symptom or cause?</strong></p> <p>Can we rely on this mechanism to avoid higher unemployment as the Reserve Bank increases interest rates to combat inflation?</p> <p>It seems unlikely. Workers would first have to expect the Reserve Bank’s actions will lower inflation, and respond by asking for smaller wage increases. Right now, however, consumer inflation expectations <a href="https://www.rbnz.govt.nz/statistics/series/households/household-inflation-expectations">remain high</a> and wage growth is at <a href="https://www.nzherald.co.nz/business/latest-job-numbers-out-unemployment-flatlining-near-record-lows/O4NDE3Y4W5GMHGDRDDS733LX7A/">record levels</a>.</p> <p>So, we can probably expect unemployment to move upwards as the Reserve Bank’s inflation battle continues. Not because lower inflation <em>causes</em> higher unemployment, but because worker and consumer expectations take time to reflect the likelihood of lower future inflation due to the Reserve Bank’s actions.</p> <p>And since workers negotiate only infrequently with employers, there is an inevitable lag between inflation expectations changing and this being reflected in wages. Alas, for ordinary households, there is no quick and easy way out of this situation.</p> <p><em>Writen by Michael P. Cameron. Republished with permission from <a href="https://theconversation.com/fighting-inflation-doesnt-directly-cause-unemployment-but-thats-still-the-most-likely-outcome-193617" target="_blank" rel="noopener">The Conversation</a>.</em></p> <p><em>Image: Getty Images<img src="https://counter.theconversation.com/content/193617/count.gif?distributor=republish-lightbox-basic" alt="The Conversation" width="1" height="1" /></em></p>

Money & Banking

Placeholder Content Image

"Honey, we are about to fight": Woman kicked off flight for hurling water bottle

<p dir="ltr">A woman who was told to get off a flight for not following the rules turned aggressive toward another passenger after she realised she was being filmed.</p> <p dir="ltr">Footage shared to Reddit shows a calm flight attendant asking the woman to take her dog off her lap on a flight to New York from Atlanta.</p> <p dir="ltr">The woman became aggressive when she was told to get off the flight after refusing to take her dog off her lap. </p> <p dir="ltr">“Oh no, no, honey we are about to fight then.I didn’t f***ing do anything to you guys,” she can be heard saying.</p> <p dir="ltr">“My dog was sitting on my lap, I put him in the bag.”</p> <p dir="ltr">The traveller is then offered a refund on her ticket and once again asked to leave the flight before she swears at the flight attendant and everyone.</p> <p dir="ltr">“F**k you. F**k all of you,” she yells as she packs up her belongings. </p> <p dir="ltr">As she packs her bags, someone could be heard shouting at her to “get off the plane”. </p> <p dir="ltr">““I am! Shut the f**k up,” she yells back before noticing another passenger filming her and throws her water bottle at them. </p> <p dir="ltr">“Turn your f***ing phone off!” she yells.</p> <p dir="ltr">“Why is she recording me?” she asks another flight attendant.</p> <p dir="ltr">“Anyone can record anything. You just struck a passenger with a bottle,” the flight attendant responds.</p> <p dir="ltr">“Nobody acting this way flies on a flight with us.”</p> <p dir="ltr">Social media users called the woman out for her disgusting behaviour saying she deserved to be kicked off the flight. </p> <p dir="ltr">“I love how she's wearing pigtails and acting like a first grader,” someone commented.</p> <p dir="ltr">“That dude was such a boss. Calm, cool, and collected the whole time and got her off the plane,” someone wrote. </p> <p dir="ltr">“Now we wait for that person's footage, and also the footage of her getting arrested,” another wrote.</p> <p dir="ltr">Watch the footage <a href="https://www.news.com.au/travel/travel-advice/flights/woman-unleashes-on-plane-throws-bottle-at-passenger/news-story/7887c8bb3bb4ece68aebaae13c7349e9" target="_blank" rel="noopener">here</a>. </p> <p dir="ltr"><em>Images: Reddit</em></p>

Travel Trouble

Placeholder Content Image

9 foods to fight inflammation naturally

<p>The body is naturally suited to fight inflammation, but for those with arthritis or stomach problems, the body might not have things under control on its own.</p> <p>Foods that are high in fat and sugar can often increase inflammation, but there are some antiphlogistic foods that can significantly contribute to inflammation reduction.</p> <p><strong>Whole grains:</strong></p> <p>Whole grains generally have less sugar than their white counterparts. As sugar is a culprit of inflammation, it’s best to make the switch to brown. Whole grains also contain fibre, which subsequently helps to reduce inflammation in the blood.</p> <p><strong>Fish:</strong></p> <p>Fatty fish cooked in healthy ways (baked or grilled, not fried) such as salmon contains omega-3 fatty acids which can aid in inflammation reduction. If you’re not a fan of fish, consider fish-oil supplements which have the same benefits.</p> <p><strong>Dark greens:</strong></p> <p>Cytokines are molecules that contribute to inflammation. Vitamin E helps to defend the body against these, and can be found in high levels in broccoli, spinach, and kale.</p> <p><strong>Nuts:</strong></p> <p>Like fish, nuts contain fats that help to ward off inflammation, as well as anti-oxidants that help in reparation. Almonds, in particular, contain fibre, calcium and vitamin E.</p> <p><strong>Garlic:</strong></p> <p>This smelly vegetable has been found in studies to work similarly to ibuprofen, a medication that stops inflammation by shutting off its pathways.</p> <p><strong>Olive oil:</strong></p> <p>Similar to garlic, olive oil contains a compound called oleocanthal, which has also been shown to produce similar effects to anti-inflammatory medications.</p> <p><strong>Beets:</strong></p> <p>Beetroot contains fibre, anti-oxidants and Vitamin C, all which help the body fight off disease and inflammation.</p> <p><strong>Berries:</strong></p> <p>While berries all have anti-oxidant properties, they also have individually been shown to fight inflammation. In one study, blueberries were found to protect against inflammation of the intestines. In another, women who ate strawberries were shown to have lower levels of C-reactive protein (High levels of CRP in the blood is an indication of inflammation in the body.) A third study showed that raspberry extract helped prevent arthritis in test animals.</p> <p><strong>Tart Cherries:</strong></p> <p>In one study, tart cherry juice reduced the test rats’ blood vessels’ inflammation by 50%. It has also been known to reduce the intake of anti-inflammatory medications in athletes. Researchers at Oregon Health &amp; Science University even went so far as to claim that tart cherries have the “highest anti-inflammatory content of any food.” </p> <p><em>Image: Getty</em></p>

Food & Wine

Placeholder Content Image

Actress fighting for her life after horror car crash

<p>US actress Anne Heche is fighting for her life following a <a href="https://www.oversixty.co.nz/news/news/new-details-of-actor-anne-heche-s-fiery-crash" target="_blank" rel="noopener">fiery car crash</a> in Los Angeles.</p> <p>The 53-year-old crashed her Mini Cooper into a house at a great speed, and was subsequently hospitalised with severe burns. </p> <p>According to the New York Post, the star is reportedly in a "critical condition".</p> <p>A spokesperson for Heche told the Post, "Shortly after the accident, Anne Heche became unconscious, slipping into a coma."</p> <p>They explained that Heche, who also crashed into an apartment garage earlier in the day, suffered "significant pulmonary injury requiring mechanical ventilation and burns that require surgical intervention".</p> <p>The Post also reported that the Los Angeles Police Department received a warrant to test the actress' blood, as they worked to determine if the crash was a result of drugs and alcohol.</p> <p>According to the Post, a representative for the LAPD confirmed the warrant was "obtained the same day as the traffic collision, which was August 5. The warrant was to draw blood, and an investigation is ongoing pending the blood test results."</p> <p>"If found intoxicated, [Heche] could be charged with misdemeanour DUI hit and run. No arrests have been made so far."</p> <p>Witnesses to Heche's first crash tried to help the star out of the vehicle, but she allegedly backed up and drove off before crashing into another home where her car became "engulfed" in flames.</p> <p>Aerial shots from the accident show smoke billowing out of the home she crashed into while photos from the scene capture Heche being put on a stretcher before being taken to hospital. </p> <p><em>Image credits: Getty Images</em></p>

Caring

Placeholder Content Image

“I want my younger body back”: Finding a way to fight age’s decay

<p>I’m turning 50 next year. Like any major milestone in life, that presents an opportunity to reflect on what’s behind and what’s ahead. On the long list of creeping “changes” I’d begun to notice about myself – both mental and physical – one that leapt out every time I looked in the mirror was a strange sense of … shrinking.</p> <p>It’s possible this was an issue I was hyper aware of, having seen it in my father. You watch the shoulders vanish, the hair disappear, the neck thin out. You think nothing of it – nothing overly negative, anyway; it’s just the graceful march of time after all – but all the same, it registers on some level. </p> <p>Dad passed away from a type of motor neurone disease called progressive supranuclear palsy at the age of 72, the effects of which could be seen for quite a few years before the end. He was always a very active, sporty and outdoors guy. Loved golf. Dominated on a tennis court. Was weirdly skilled with a frisbee, and quietly the most proud of that for some reason. </p> <p>All of those take dexterity, finesse and physicality, the very things that vanish first when you are in the grip of progressive supranuclear palsy. He swung his last club and racquet, and made his last tricky behind-the-back frisbee throw, many years before he would have wanted.       </p> <p>So that’s the backdrop – and clearly the motivation – to all of this. In my mind now I’ve got potentially the same fate in store. Intellectually I know that’s not how it works, but you can’t tell your emotional self that. Whether or not PSP or MND is in my future is not something I can control, and that creates fear.   </p> <p>So, obviously, taking control over what you CAN control is the only sensible course. Which brings us back to the mirror. </p> <p>I’d been noticing this shrinking for some time – an overall diminishing of muscle mass in the shoulders, arms and legs – so I decided to look it up. </p> <p>Turns out, at least according to <a href="https://www.health.harvard.edu/staying-healthy/preserve-your-muscle-mass" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Harvard Medical School</a>, that “age-related muscle loss, called sarcopenia, is a natural part of ageing. After age 30, you begin to lose as much as 3% to 5% per decade. Most men will lose about 30% of their muscle mass during their lifetimes.”</p> <p>Thirty percent! That’s pretty grim news. </p> <p>But all is not lost, as it also turns out that’s mostly reversible – through a little basic resistance and weight training and upping your protein intake. </p> <p>Since I was a little frightened of heading into a crowded gym during these pandemic times, I also decided I wanted something I could do from the safety and convenience of home – and that’s when fate intervened in the form of the <a href="https://www.onepeloton.com.au/guide" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Peloton Guide</a>.</p> <p><img src="https://oversixtydev.blob.core.windows.net/media/2022/08/Peloton_1280_setup.jpg" alt="" width="1280" height="720" /></p> <p>I’d only ever heard of the <a href="https://www.onepeloton.com.au/bikes" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Peloton exercise bikes</a> before, but this clever new gadget essentially turns your TV into a home gym, which I found to be very impressive and a great idea. You take the Peloton Guide camera, clip it either to the top of your screen or place it at the base, and then after walking you through a series of very simple set-up steps, you can suddenly see YOURSELF in one half of the TV, while your virtual or pre-recorded class instructor appears on the other half and takes you through a workout, step by step. </p> <p>It’s basically like having an expert, one-on-one personal trainer right there in your home whenever you want, for any kind of workout you can possibly conceive of. </p> <p><a href="https://www.onepeloton.com.au/digital/checkout/digital-30d" target="_blank" rel="noopener">There’s an app</a> that contains a list of all the available workouts and exercises, all of which are designed to suit different ages and fitness levels so you can increase muscle mass while building stronger bones to reduce injury risk. There are warm-up classes, ones using dumbbell weights, others using just your own bodyweight, upper body, lower body, full-body, prenatal classes (I skipped those), resistance band classes, pilates classes, yoga sessions and load, loads more.</p> <p>Aside from being incredibly easy to use and a lot of fun, I found the classes to be highly motivating – and that’s the key right there. For some reason having that virtual instructor right there in front of you, showing you exactly how to perform each exercise, giving you encouragement and urging you on, really helps you try your hardest and even look forward to the next class. </p> <p>There are all kinds of other benefits, including free delivery, a <a href="https://www.onepeloton.com.au/home-trial" target="_blank" rel="noopener">100-day home trial</a> with a refund if you don’t absolutely love it, but for basically having a personal trainer on permanent stand-by in your home 24/7, I think the <a href="https://www.onepeloton.com.au/shop/guide" target="_blank" rel="noopener">rates are really reasonable</a>. Especially when the pay-offs are so great. </p> <p><img src="https://oversixtydev.blob.core.windows.net/media/2022/08/Peloton_12803.jpg" alt="" width="1280" height="720" /></p> <p>After just a few days of classes I was feeling the pain, but it was that good kind of pain you get from slowly reintroducing muscle groups to the concept of doing more than just sitting there gradually fading away.</p> <p>Then after a few weeks of classes that initial pain was replaced by a noticeable return of muscle mass and definition around the shoulders, in my legs, my arms, my calves and everywhere else that the tireless virtual trainers had directed me to concentrate my efforts.</p> <p>All in all I’m really happy with the results so far – enough to stick with it for the long term, that’s for sure. I haven’t suddenly become Arnold Schwarzenegger, but that was never the goal. I just wanted to feel stronger and more able to move around with the freedom I had felt a handful of years ago.</p> <p>I know I’m not alone in feeling like this. We recently asked our Over60 readers the exact question I had been thinking: “If you could get your younger body back, would you do it – and why?” and the responses were telling, to say the least.         </p> <p><img src="https://oversixtydev.blob.core.windows.net/media/2022/08/Peloton_1280_facebook2.jpg" alt="" width="1280" height="720" />  </p> <p>“I don't need the body that was beautiful,” said Over60 reader Merilyn O'Neill. ”But I would choose to have the strength that I had.”</p> <p>Greg Browning chimed in with this: “Yes. I am sick and tired of my body telling me that I can’t do the things I used to do.”</p> <p><img src="https://oversixtydev.blob.core.windows.net/media/2022/08/Peloton_1280_facebook1.jpg" alt="" width="1280" height="720" /></p> <p>Paulette Bakker said that “more muscle tone would help”; Lynne Fairbrother said, “Doesn't have to be younger, just stronger and then I could play tennis again”; Karen Moon said, “In a heartbeat… so l could play netball and tennis again… and this time l would appreciate it more!”</p> <p>And last but not least, Over60 reader Kel Marlow said what we’re all probably thinking: “Absolutely… because I’d probably live 10 years longer!”</p> <p>Well said, Kel. The good thing is it’s never too late to start.</p>

Body

Placeholder Content Image

“We will continue to fight”: Parents fight for their son’s life

<p dir="ltr">A UK boy will be taken off life support at 12pm on Tuesday (5pm AEST), after his parents unsuccessfully fought the decision at a last-minute court hearing.</p> <p dir="ltr">Judges were asked by the government to consider a request from a UN committee to continue treating the boy, who has been in a comatose state for three months, after the family appealed to the United Nations for help in their case.</p> <p dir="ltr">However, the Court of Appeal refused to postpone withdrawing his life support shouldn’t be postponed beyond Tuesday.</p> <p dir="ltr">Archie Battersbee, 12, was found unconscious at his Essex home on April 7, and has been comatose since.</p> <p dir="ltr">His mother, Hollie Dance, believed he was taking part in an online challenge at the time.</p> <p dir="ltr">Doctors treating Archie at the Royal London Hospital believe he is brain-dead and argue it is in his best interest to end life support.</p> <p><span id="docs-internal-guid-9825a9de-7fff-d820-111d-10af6f596ecd"></span></p> <p dir="ltr">On July 18, Appeal Court judges ruled the doctor could lawfully disconnect Archie’s ventilator, with appeal judge Justice Anthony Hayden describing Archie’s circumstances as a “tragedy of immeasurable dimensions”, but saying that medical evidence was “compelling and unanimous”.</p> <p dir="ltr"><img src="https://oversixtydev.blob.core.windows.net/media/2022/08/archie-bbc1.jpg" alt="" width="976" height="549" /></p> <p dir="ltr"><em>Image: Hollie Dance</em></p> <p dir="ltr">Meanwhile, Dance and Paul Battersbee, Archie’s father, have been fighting through the courts to keep their son alive.</p> <p dir="ltr">They had been told by health officials that their son would no longer receive treatment after 2pm on Monday (11pm AEST).</p> <p dir="ltr">A previous High Court ruling heard that Archie’s “every bodily function is now maintained by artificial means”.</p> <p dir="ltr">However, Dance has claimed she has seen indications of Archie attempting to breathe independently twice in the last few days.</p> <p dir="ltr">After the family wrote to the UN Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, the committee requested Archie’s case to be reconsidered.</p> <p dir="ltr">“We write on behalf of the Secretary of State for Health and Social Care,” the letter to the High Court stated.</p> <p dir="ltr">“We understand that A’s life support is due to be switched off at 2pm on Monday 1 August, 2022.</p> <p dir="ltr">“In the circumstances, (given the application to the UN Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities) we wish to draw the Committee’s request for the interim measures to the Court’s attention for its urgent consideration.</p> <p dir="ltr">“We request that this letter is placed before the out-of-hours judge immediately and/or if possible, before Mr Justice Hayden.”</p> <p dir="ltr">The request prompted an emergency hearing on Monday, where the President of the court’s family division, Sir Andrew McFarlane, said the UN convention that made the request was “not part of the law of the United Kingdom”, per the <em><a href="https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-england-essex-62376552" target="_blank" rel="noopener">BBC</a></em>.</p> <p dir="ltr">“Every day he continues to be given life-sustaining treatment is contrary to his best interests, so a stay, even for a short time, is against his best interests,” the judge said.</p> <p dir="ltr">The judges also refused to grant permission to appeal their ruling in the Supreme Court.</p> <p dir="ltr">But, Dance and Battersbee might now ask Supreme Court justices to consider their application for permission to appeal directly.</p> <p dir="ltr">In a statement, Dance said she was “shocked and traumatised” by what she feels is “the brutality of the UK courts and the hospital trust”.</p> <p dir="ltr">"Our wishes as parents continue to be trampled on and ignored," she said. "We do not understand the urgency and rush to end life-support.</p> <p dir="ltr">"The hospital trust has at no point given us time to come to terms with what has happened.</p> <p dir="ltr">"This is no way for a compassionate society to treat a family in our situation. We will continue to fight for Archie."</p> <p dir="ltr">Outside court, Dance urged other parents to make sure their children weren’t taking part in dangerous online trends.</p> <p dir="ltr">“Please, please, parents, have the conversation with your children because I know there’s a whole new lot of online challenges,” she said.</p> <p dir="ltr">“I don’t want any parent out there to have what we’ve been going through and I definitely don’t want to see any more children losing their lives.”</p> <p dir="ltr"><span id="docs-internal-guid-2d246850-7fff-fcc3-d19f-ec7f880e82da"></span></p> <p dir="ltr"><em>Image: Hollie Dance</em></p>

Legal