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When will there be a coronavirus vaccine? 5 questions answered

<p><strong>Is there a vaccine under development for the coronavirus?</strong></p> <p>Work has begun at <a href="https://www.niaid.nih.gov/diseases-conditions/mers-sars-therapeutics-vaccines">multiple organizations</a>, including the National Institutes of Health, to develop a vaccine for this new strain of coronavirus, known among scientists as <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/index.html">2019-nCoV</a>.</p> <p>Scientists are just getting started working, but their vaccine development strategy will benefit both from work that has been done on closely related viruses, such as <a href="https://www.niaid.nih.gov/news-events/niaid-officials-discuss-novel-coronavirus-recently-emerged-china">SARS and MERS</a>, as well as advances that have been made in vaccine technologies, such as <a href="https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S39810">nucleic acid vaccines</a>, which are DNA- and RNA-based vaccines that produce the vaccine antigen in your own body.</p> <p><strong>Was work underway on this particular strain?</strong></p> <p>No, but work was ongoing for other closely related coronaviruses that have caused severe disease in humans, namely MERS and SARS. Scientists had not been concerned about this particular strain, as we did not know that it existed and could cause disease in humans until it started causing this outbreak.</p> <p><strong>How do scientists know when to work on a vaccine for a coronavirus?</strong></p> <p>Work on vaccines for severe coronaviruses has historically begun once the viruses start infecting humans.</p> <p>Given that this is the third major outbreak of a new coronavirus that we have had in the past two decades and also given the severity of disease caused by these viruses, we should consider investing in the development of a vaccine that would be broadly protective against these viruses.</p> <p><strong>What does this work involve, and when might we actually have a vaccine?</strong></p> <p>This work involves designing the vaccine constructs – for example, producing the right target <a href="https://www.britannica.com/science/antigen">antigens</a>, viral proteins that are targeted by the immune system, followed by testing in animal models to show that they are protective and safe.</p> <p>Once safety and efficacy are established, vaccines can advance into clinical trials in humans. If the vaccines induce the expected immune response and protection and are found safe, they can be mass produced for vaccination of the population.</p> <p>Currently, we lack virus isolates – or samples of the virus – to test the vaccines against. We also lack antibodies to make sure the vaccine is in good shape. We need the virus in order to test if the immune response induced by the vaccine works. Also, we need to establish what animals to test the vaccine on. That potentially could include mice and nonhuman primates.</p> <p>Vaccine development will likely take months.</p> <p><strong>Can humans ever be safe from these types of outbreaks?</strong></p> <p>We expect that these types of outbreaks will occur for the foreseeable future in irregular intervals.</p> <p>To try to prevent large outbreaks and pandemics, we need to improve surveillance in both humans and animals worldwide as well as invest in risk assessment, allowing scientists to evaluate the potential threat to human health from the virus, for detected viruses.</p> <p>We believe that global action is needed to invest in novel vaccine approaches that can be employed quickly whenever a new virus like the current coronavirus – and also viruses similar to Zika, Ebola or influenza – emerges. Currently, responses to emerging pathogens are mostly reactive, meaning they start after the outbreak happens. We need a more proactive approach supported by continuous funding.</p> <p><em>Written by Aubree Gordon and Florian Krammer. Republished with permission of <a href="https://theconversation.com/when-will-there-be-a-coronavirus-vaccine-5-questions-answered-130590">The Conversation.</a> </em></p>

Legal

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Longest running what?! Queen Elizabeth’s latest milestone

<p>Queen Elizabeth can tuck another special achievement as of January 2020, after becoming the world’s fifth longest reigning monarch.</p> <p>The 93-year-old surpassed the 19th century Emperor of Austria Franz Joseph I - with her time on the throne so far lasting 67 years and 356 days as of January 27, 2020.</p> <p>The record follows the Queen’s other long list of accolades, including her title as the longest-living reigning monarch.</p> <p>Adrian Hilton, a lecturer in politics, philosophy and political theology, took to <a rel="noopener noreferrer" href="https://twitter.com/Adrian_Hilton/status/1221353113401155585?ref_src=twsrc%5Egoogle%7Ctwcamp%5Eserp%7Ctwgr%5Etweet/" target="_blank">Twitter </a>to announce the news.</p> <p>The expert recognised that the Queen – who officially started her reign on February 6, 1952 – had moved up to fifth place on the list of the world’s longest reigning monarchs.</p> <p>“Just to say, today the Queen moved up a notch in the table of the world’s longest reigns, surpassing that of Franz Joseph I. God Save the Queen.,” he wrote alongside a screenshot of the Wikipedia lead table.</p> <p>K'inich Janaab Pakal, who was one of the most famous seventh-century Mayan rulers, sits in front of the British royal.</p> <p>In third place is Johann II of Liechtenstein, who ruled from 1858 and 1929, followed by Bhumibol Adulyadej of Thailand.</p> <p>King Bhumibol reigned from 1946 until his death in October 2016 and was the world's longest living reigning monarch before the Queen.</p> <p>Holding on to the top spot is Louis XIV of France, with an impressive 72-year and 110-day reign.</p> <p><strong>The longest-reigning monarchs </strong></p> <p>1. Louis XIV of France (reigned from 14 May 1643 to 1 September 1715)</p> <p>2. Bhumibol Adulyadej of Thailand (reigned from 9 June 1946 to 13 October 2016)</p> <p>3. Johann II of Liechtenstein (reigned from 12 November 1858 to 11 February 1929)</p> <p>4. K'inich Janaab Pakal (reigned from 29 July 615 to 31 August 683)</p> <p>5. Queen Elizabeth II (reigned from 6 February 1952)</p>

International Travel

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10½ commandments of writing

<p>Every author is asked by new writers for advice. There is, however, no all-encompassing, single answer that also happens to be correct. Quite a lot of commonly offered suggestions (“write every day”) don’t work for everyone and must be approached with caution.</p> <p>A few years ago, I set out to create a list that will benefit all new writers. I put ten commandments through the wringer of my peers, who suggested modifications and noted that this list applies not just to new writers but to writers at every stage of their career. Indeed, I’ve needed reminding of more than one myself.</p> <p>Here, then, are the 10½ commandments of writing – with an extra one for free.</p> <p><strong>1. Read widely</strong></p> <p>To succeed as a writer, you must occasionally read. Yet there are wannabe-novelists who haven’t picked up a book in years. There are also, more tragically, writers too busy to engage with the end-product of our craft. If the only thing you’re reading is yourself you are bound to miss out on valuable lessons.</p> <p>The same applies to reading only within a favourite genre. A varied diet will strengthen your literary muscles.</p> <p><strong>2. Write</strong></p> <p>No need to thrash out 1,000 words a day or pen a perfect poem before breakfast, but you do have to write. The fundamental qualification for being a writer is putting words on the page.</p> <p>If you aren’t doing that now, it’s possible you never will.</p> <p><strong>3. Follow your heart</strong></p> <p>When you really want to write literary fiction, but the market wants paranormal romance, write literary fiction. Chasing paranormal romance will be futile. Writing well is hard enough without cynicism getting in the way.</p> <p>Passion doesn’t always pay, but it increases the odds of your work finding a home.</p> <p><strong>4. Be strategic</strong></p> <p>But the choice is never between just literary fiction and paranormal romance. You might have poetry and narrative non-fiction passion projects as well, and it’s possible narrative non-fiction will appeal to the widest audience. If a wider audience is what you want, narrative non-fiction is the one to choose.</p> <p>If, however, you don’t give two hoots about your audience, write what you like.</p> <p>There are lots of different kinds of writers and lots of different paths to becoming the writer you want to be.</p> <p><strong>5. Be brave</strong></p> <p>Writing is hard, intellectually and physically. It also takes emotional work, dealing with exposure, rejection, fear and impostor syndrome. It’s better you know this upfront, in order to fortify yourself.</p> <p>These crises, however, are surmountable. We know this because there are writers out there, leading somewhat normal lives, even healthy and happy ones. You can too, if you don’t give up.</p> <p>The ones who persist are the ones who prevail.</p> <p><strong>6. Be visible</strong></p> <p>Many writers would prefer they remain hidden in a dark cave for all eternity. But stories demand to be communicated, which means leaving that cave. Whether it’s you or your written word, or both, broaching the bubble of self-isolation is important.</p> <p>This doesn’t mean assaulting every social platform and attending every festival and convention. Find the kind of engagement that suits you and embrace it, and don’t overdo it. Remember: you still have to write.</p> <p><strong>7. Be professional</strong></p> <p>Don’t lie. Don’t belittle your peers and don’t steal from them. Keep your promises. Communicate. Try to behave like someone people will want to work with – because we all have to do that, at some point.</p> <p><strong>8. Listen</strong></p> <p>Heed what people you’re working with are saying, because you never know what gems of knowledge you might glean – about craft, about the market, about something you’re working on – among the knowledge you (think you) already possess.</p> <p><strong>9. Don’t settle</strong></p> <p>Every story requires different skills. You’ll never, therefore, stop learning how to write. The day you think you’ve worked it out is the day the ground beneath you begins to erode, dropping you headlong into a metaphorical sinkhole – and nobody wants that. Least of all your readers.</p> <p>Readers can tell when you’re getting lazy, just like they can tell when you’re faking. You’re one of them. Deep down, you’ll be the first to know.</p> <p><strong>10. Work hard</strong></p> <p>Put in the hours and you’re likely to get some return on your investment. How many hours, though?</p> <p>There’s a wonderful saying: “Even a thief takes ten years to learn her trade.” Writing is no different to any other career. Hope for overnight success; plan for being like everyone else.</p> <p><strong>The bonus commandments</strong></p> <p>When I put this list to my friends, several raised the importance of finding your people. Although I agree this is an important principle, I would argue it is implicit in commandments 6-8: these have no meaning without engaging. I decided to encapsulate this as <strong>10.5. Embrace community</strong></p> <p>After I’d been teaching and giving talks on this topic for several years, someone suggested another commandment that lies beneath the rest. It is so fundamental none will work unless you have this in spades. It is <strong>0. Really want it</strong>, which sounds so obvious that it barely needs stating – except it does.</p> <p>One day, I may no longer want to write. If that happens, I will take every mention of writing from this list and substitute the name of a new vocation – because this list applies to everything.</p> <p><em>Written by Sean Williams. Republished with permission of <a href="https://theconversation.com/10-commandments-of-writing-129069">The Conversation.</a></em></p>

Retirement Life

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5 tips to help ease your grandchild back into school mode after the holidays

<p>Most children in Australia are going back to school in just over a week. Children experience a <a href="https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/children-australia/article/selfreported-perceptions-readiness-and-psychological-wellbeing-of-primary-school-students-prior-to-transitioning-to-a-secondary-boarding-school/C86DEA7A6CD20AAF29C26C6947A01F7E">mix of emotions</a> when it comes to going to school.</p> <p>Easing back after the holidays can range from feeling really excited and eager to concern, fear or anxiety. Getting butterflies or general worry about going back to school is <a href="https://kidshealth.org/en/teens/school-stress.html">common</a>.</p> <p>Among the <a href="https://media.bloomsbury.com/rep/files/ch2-outline.pdf">biggest worries of preschool children</a> are feeling left out, being teased or saying goodbye to their caregiver at drop off. Concerns of <a href="https://learning.nspcc.org.uk/research-resources/childline-annual-review/">school-aged children are about </a> exams (27%), not wanting to return to school (13%), and problems with teachers (14%). Some feel lonely and isolated.</p> <p>The <a href="https://www.missionaustralia.com.au/publications/youth-survey/1326-mission-australia-youth-survey-report-2019/file">main concerns</a> for teens are coping with stress (44.7%), school or study problems (34.3%) and mental health (33.2%).</p> <p>Not thinking about school until it is time to go back is one way to enjoy the last week of holidays. But for some, this can make going back to school more difficult.</p> <p>Supporting parents, children and young people with back-to-school challenges can help reduce negative school experiences using the below steps.</p> <p><strong>1. Set up a back-to-school routine</strong></p> <p>Create structure about going back with a <a href="https://healthyfamilies.beyondblue.org.au/age-6-12/mental-health-conditions-in-children/anxiety/tackling-back-to-school-anxiety">school routine</a>. Be guided by your knowledge and history of what best supports your child during times of change and transition.</p> <p><a href="https://raisingchildren.net.au/school-age/school-learning/school-homework-tips/morning-routine-for-school">Set up a practical chart of getting ready</a>. You could include:</p> <ul> <li>what needs to be done each day for school like getting up, eating breakfast, dressing</li> <li>what help does your child need from you to get ready?</li> <li>what they can do on their own? (Establish these together).</li> </ul> <p>The first week back can cause disruption from being in holiday mode so don’t forget <a href="https://childmind.org/article/encouraging-good-sleep-habits/">healthy habits around sleep</a> (<a href="https://www.health.qld.gov.au/news-events/news/physical-activity-exercise-sleep-screen-time-kids-teens">around 9-11 hours for children aged 5-13</a> and 8-10 hours for those aged 14-17), <a href="https://www1.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/health-pubhlth-strateg-phys-act-guidelines#npa517">exercise</a> (around <a href="https://www1.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/health-pubhlth-strateg-phys-act-guidelines#npa517">one hour per day</a> of moderate to vigorous physical activity <a href="https://raisingchildren.net.au/toddlers/nutrition-fitness/physical-activity/physical-activity-how-much">three times a week</a>) and <a href="https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/healthyliving/food-and-your-life-stages">diet</a>.</p> <p>Having <a href="https://www1.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/health-pubhlth-strateg-phys-act-guidelines#npa517">consistent bed and wake-up </a> times helps too. The National Sleep Foundation <a href="https://www.sleepfoundation.org/articles/plan-ahead-start-back-school-bedtime-routines-now">suggest starting two weeks</a> before the first day of school to set sleep routine habits. But a week beforehand will help get your kid on their way.</p> <p>In some way, parents go back to school with their children. Consider adjusting your own schedule to make the transition smoother. If you can’t in the mornings, arrange the evenings so you can give as much time as your child needs, especially during the first week.</p> <p><strong>2. Talk about going back to school</strong></p> <p>Most children deal with some level of stress or anxiety about school. They have insight into their school experiences, so find out what worries them by asking directly.</p> <p>You can offer support by normalising experiences of worry and nerves. <a href="https://www.heysigmund.com/how-to-deal-with-school-anxiety-no-more-distressing-goodbyes/">Reassure your child</a> the feelings they have are common and they will likely overcome them once they have settled in. Worries and courage can exist together.</p> <p>Depending on your child’s age, you can also try the following to help:</p> <ul> <li>early years/pre-school – write <a href="https://www.andnextcomesl.com/2018/08/free-social-stories-about-going-to-school.html">a social story </a> about going to daycare or school and the routine ahead</li> <li>primary years – set up a <a href="https://www.education.vic.gov.au/Documents/childhood/professionals/learning/trkpp6.pdf">peer-buddy system</a> where a peer or older child meets yours at the school gate or, if neighbours, kids can go into school together</li> <li>secondary years – establish healthy routines as a family. Support each other around <a href="https://theconversation.com/how-parents-and-teens-can-reduce-the-impact-of-social-media-on-youth-well-being-87619">technology</a> use, sleep and <a href="https://www.education.vic.gov.au/parents/going-to-school/Pages/tips-starting-school.aspx">schoolwork</a>.</li> </ul> <p><strong>3. Help create a sense of school belonging</strong></p> <p>A sense of belonging at school <a href="https://theconversation.com/many-australian-school-students-feel-they-dont-belong-in-school-new-research-97866">can affect</a> academic success and student well-being. Parents can facilitate positive attitudes about school by setting an encouraging tone when talking about it.</p> <p>Also show an interest in school life and work, and be available to support your child both <a href="https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10648-016-9389-8">academically and socially</a>.</p> <p><a href="https://www.webmd.com/special-reports/kids-and-stress/20150827/stress-survey">More than half of the parents in one survey</a> said homework and schoolwork were the greatest drivers of stress in their children. When parents are more engaged in their child’s schoolwork, they are better able to support them through it.</p> <p><strong>4. Look out for signs of stress</strong></p> <p>Research suggests <a href="https://www.webmd.com/special-reports/kids-and-stress/20150827/stress-survey">parents can miss stress or anxiety</a> in their children. Parents can spot stress if their child (depending on age):</p> <ul> <li>is more clingy than usual or tries escape from the classroom</li> <li>appears restless and flighty or cries</li> <li>shows an increased desire to avoid activities through negotiations and deal-making</li> <li>tries to get out of going to school</li> <li>retreats to thumb sucking, baby language or increased attachment to favourite soft toys (for younger students).</li> </ul> <p>If these behaviours persist for about half a term, talk to your classroom teacher or school well-being coordinator about what is happening. Together work on a strategy of support. There may be something more going on than usual school nerves, like <a href="https://lens.monash.edu/@christine-grove/2018/01/18/1299375/no-one-size-fits-all-approach-in-tackling-cyberbullying">bullying</a>.</p> <p><strong>5. Encourage questions</strong></p> <p>Encourage questions children and teens may have about the next term. What will be the same? What will be different?</p> <p>Often schools provide transition information. If the school hasn’t, it might be worth contacting them to see if they can share any resources.</p> <p>Most importantly, let your child know nothing is off limits to talk about. <a href="https://www.heysigmund.com/school-anxiety-what-parents-can-do/">Set up times to chat</a> throughout the school term – it can help with back-to-school nerves.</p> <p><em>Written by Christine Grové and Kelly-Ann Allen. Republished with permission of <a href="https://theconversation.com/5-tips-to-help-ease-your-child-back-into-school-mode-after-the-holidays-129780">The Conversation.</a></em></p>

Art

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Stone tools reveal epic trek of nomadic Neanderthals

<p>Neanderthal (<em>Homo neanderthalensis</em>) fossils were first discovered in western Europe in the mid nineteenth century. That was just the first in a long line of surprises thrown up by our closest evolutionary cousins.</p> <p>We reveal another in <a href="https://www.pnas.org/content/early/2020/01/21/1918047117">our new study</a> of the Neanderthals who lived in Chagyrskaya Cave in southern Siberia around 54,000 years ago. Their distinctive stone tools are dead ringers for those found thousands of kilometres away in eastern and central Europe.</p> <p>The intercontinental journey made by these intrepid Neanderthals is equivalent to walking from Sydney to Perth, or from New York to Los Angeles, and is a rare example of long-distance migration by Palaeolithic people.</p> <p><strong>Knuckleheads no more</strong></p> <p>For a long time Neanderthals were seen as intellectual lightweights. However, <a href="https://theconversation.com/neanderthals-were-no-brutes-research-reveals-they-may-have-been-precision-workers-103858">several recent finds</a> have forced a rethink of their cognitive and creative abilities.</p> <p>Neanderthals are now believed to have created 176,000 year-old enigmatic structures made from broken stalactites in a <a href="https://www.nationalgeographic.com/news/2016/05/neanderthals-caves-rings-building-france-archaeology/">cave in France</a>, and <a href="https://theconversation.com/how-we-discovered-that-neanderthals-could-make-art-92127">cave art in Spain</a>that dates back more than 65,000 years.</p> <p>They also used <a href="https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045927">bird feathers</a> and <a href="https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aar5255">pierced shells</a> bearing traces of red and yellow ochre, possibly as personal ornaments. It seems likely Neanderthals had cognitive capabilities and symbolic behaviours similar to those of modern humans (<em>Homo sapiens</em>).</p> <p>Our knowledge of their geographical range and the nature of their encounters with other groups of humans has also expanded greatly in recent years.</p> <p>We now know that Neanderthals ventured beyond Europe and western Asia, reaching at least as far east as the Altai Mountains. Here, they interbred with another group of archaic humans dubbed the <a href="https://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/scientists-recreate-face-denisovan-using-dna-180973177/">Denisovans</a>.</p> <p>Traces of Neanderthal interactions with our own ancestors also persist in the DNA of all living people of Eurasian descent. However, we can still only speculate why the Neanderthals vanished around 40,000 years ago.</p> <p><strong>Banished to Siberia</strong></p> <p>Other questions also remain unresolved. When did Neanderthals first arrive in the Altai? Were there later migration events? Where did these trailblazers begin their trek? And what routes did they take across Asia?</p> <p><a href="https://www.antiquity.ac.uk/projgall/derevyanko345">Chagyrskaya Cave</a> is nestled in the foothills of the Altai Mountains. The cave deposits were first excavated in 2007 and have yielded almost 90,000 stone tools and numerous bone tools.</p> <p>The excavations have also found 74 Neanderthal fossils – the richest trove of any Altai site – and a range of animal and plant remains, including the abundant bones of bison hunted and butchered by the Neanderthals.</p> <p>We used <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/520438a">optical dating</a> to determine when the cave sediments, artefacts and fossils were deposited, and conducted a detailed study of more than 3,000 stone tools recovered from the deepest archaeological levels. Microscopy analysis revealed that these have remained intact and undisturbed since accumulating during a period of cold and dry climate about 54,000 years ago.</p> <p>Using a variety of statistical techniques, we show that these artefacts bear a striking similarity to so-called <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Micoquien">Micoquian</a> artefacts from central and eastern Europe. This type of <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Middle_Paleolithic">Middle Palaeolithic</a> assemblage is readily identified by the distinctive appearance of the bifaces – tools made by removing flakes from both sides – which were used to cut meat.</p> <p>Micoquian-like tools have only been found at one other site in the Altai. All other archaeological assemblages in the Altai and central Asia lack these distinctive artefacts.</p> <p>Neanderthals carrying Micoquian tools may never have reached <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-019-00353-0">Denisova Cave</a>, as there is no fossil or sedimentary DNA evidence of Neanderthals there after 100,000 years ago.</p> <p><strong>Going the distance</strong></p> <p>The presence of Micoquian artefacts at Chagyrskaya Cave suggests at least two separate dispersals of Neanderthals into southern Siberia. Sites such as Denisova Cave were occupied by Neanderthals who entered the region before 100,000 years ago, while the Chagyrskaya Neanderthals arrived later.</p> <p>The Chagyrskaya artefacts most closely resemble those found at sites located 3,000–4,000 km to the west, between the Crimea and northern Caucasus in eastern Europe.</p> <p>Comparison of genetic data supports these geographical links, with the <a href="https://www.eva.mpg.de/genetics/genome-projects/chagyrskaya-neandertal/home.html">Chagyrskaya Neanderthal</a> sharing closer affinities with several European Neanderthals than with a Neanderthal from Denisova Cave.</p> <p>When the Chagyrskaya toolmakers (or their ancestors) left their Neanderthal homeland in eastern Europe for central Asia around 60,000 years ago, they could have headed north and east around the land-locked <a href="https://www.britannica.com/place/Caspian-Sea">Caspian Sea</a>, which was much reduced in size under the prevailing cold and arid conditions.</p> <p>Their intercontinental odyssey over thousands of kilometres is a rarely observed case of long-distance dispersal in the Palaeolithic, and highlights the value of stone tools as culturally informative markers of ancient population movements.</p> <p>Environmental reconstructions from the animal and plant remains at Chagyrskaya Cave suggest that the Neanderthal inhabitants survived in the cold, dry and treeless environment by hunting bison and horses on the steppe or tundra-steppe landscape.</p> <p>Our discoveries reinforce the emerging view of Neanderthals as creative and intelligent people who were skilled survivors. If this was the case, it makes their extinction across Eurasia even more mysterious. Did modern humans deal the fatal blow? The enigma endures, for now.</p> <p><em>Written by Kseniya Kolobova, Maciej T. Krajcarz and Richard 'Bert' Roberts. Republished with permission of <a href="https://theconversation.com/stone-tools-reveal-epic-trek-of-nomadic-neanderthals-129886">The Conversation.</a></em></p>

Travel Tips

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Alleged love child of Prince Charles and Duchess Camilla launches legal bid

<p>A British-born man who was adopted and moved to Australia believes he is the love child of the Prince of Wales and the Duchess of Cornwall.</p> <p>While it has been perhaps a great rumour believed by few and questioned by many, Simon Dorante-Day, 53, is taking his beliefs one step further by going to the country’s High Court to try and force Britain’s future King and his wife to take a DNA test.</p> <p>Simon says he is not deterred from his “40 year search” for truth, despite court clerks laughing when he first filed his papers and his legal claim being thrown out three times already.</p> <p>He believes that his parentage will have been discussed by the Queen, Prince Charles, Prince William and Prince Harry at this month's Sandringham summit where the terms of Harry and Meghan's 'Megxit' deal were thrashed out.</p> <p>In 2019, Simon caused upset when he claimed Princess Diana's death in Paris in August 1997 came after 'she was going to go public with it'. </p> <p>The 53-year-old claims his adoptive grandparents Winifred and Ernest worked for the Queen and Prince Philip as a cook and a gardener respectively and had told him “many times” that he was indeed “Charles and Camilla's child”. </p> <blockquote style="background: #FFF; border: 0; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: 0 0 1px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.5),0 1px 10px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.15); margin: 1px; max-width: 540px; min-width: 326px; padding: 0; width: calc(100% - 2px);" class="instagram-media" data-instgrm-permalink="https://www.instagram.com/p/Btt6-uXlNZr/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" data-instgrm-version="12"> <div style="padding: 16px;"> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: row; align-items: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; flex-grow: 0; height: 40px; margin-right: 14px; width: 40px;"></div> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: column; flex-grow: 1; justify-content: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; margin-bottom: 6px; width: 100px;"></div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; width: 60px;"></div> </div> </div> <div style="padding: 19% 0;"></div> <div style="display: block; height: 50px; margin: 0 auto 12px; width: 50px;"></div> <div style="padding-top: 8px;"> <div style="color: #3897f0; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: 550; line-height: 18px;">View this post on Instagram</div> </div> <p style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; line-height: 17px; margin-bottom: 0; margin-top: 8px; overflow: hidden; padding: 8px 0 7px; text-align: center; text-overflow: ellipsis; white-space: nowrap;"><a style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: 17px; text-decoration: none;" rel="noopener" href="https://www.instagram.com/p/Btt6-uXlNZr/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" target="_blank">A post shared by Royal Life Europe 👑 (@royal_life_europe)</a> on Feb 10, 2019 at 2:10pm PST</p> </div> </blockquote> <p>“I know it sounds unbelievable, but anything I say is checkable... I’m simply a man looking for my biological parents, and every road has led me back to Camilla and Charles,” he said.</p> <p>Mr Dorante was born in Gosport, Hampshire in April 1966 and was adopted when he was 18-months-old by Winifred and Ernest. </p> <p>If Simon’s odd allegations are actually true, it means he would have been conceived in 1965, when Charles and Camilla were just 17 and 18.</p> <p>He claims his “compelling” evidence is his Windsor-like cheekbones and teeth, as well as his “Camilla-style hair”.</p> <p>The Brit also says he has compelling evidence proving his claim but said online: “As things are all part of the court case at the moment I can't discuss much further.”’</p> <p>Simon now resiudes in Queensland and has spoken many times about his belief that he was adopted out by an 18-year-old Camilla Shand – a claim his adoptive grandparents also allegedly support.</p> <p>“My grandmother, who worked for the Queen, told me outright that I was Camilla and Charles' son many times,” he explained to <a rel="noopener noreferrer" href="https://www.newidea.com.au/princes-charles-camilla-secret-son-exposed-paternity-case" target="_blank">New Idea</a>.</p> <p>His wife Elvianna said: “We believe that Camilla fell pregnant to Charles and that Camilla, with the help of her family and the royals, kept Simon until he was 18 months old.”</p> <blockquote style="background: #FFF; border: 0; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: 0 0 1px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.5),0 1px 10px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.15); margin: 1px; max-width: 540px; min-width: 326px; padding: 0; width: calc(100% - 2px);" class="instagram-media" data-instgrm-permalink="https://www.instagram.com/p/BtgyXvvF6x5/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" data-instgrm-version="12"> <div style="padding: 16px;"> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: row; align-items: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; flex-grow: 0; height: 40px; margin-right: 14px; width: 40px;"></div> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: column; flex-grow: 1; justify-content: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; margin-bottom: 6px; width: 100px;"></div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; width: 60px;"></div> </div> </div> <div style="padding: 19% 0;"></div> <div style="display: block; height: 50px; margin: 0 auto 12px; width: 50px;"></div> <div style="padding-top: 8px;"> <div style="color: #3897f0; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: 550; line-height: 18px;">View this post on Instagram</div> </div> <p style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; line-height: 17px; margin-bottom: 0; margin-top: 8px; overflow: hidden; padding: 8px 0 7px; text-align: center; text-overflow: ellipsis; white-space: nowrap;"><a style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: 17px; text-decoration: none;" rel="noopener" href="https://www.instagram.com/p/BtgyXvvF6x5/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" target="_blank">A post shared by Royal Life Europe 👑 (@royal_life_europe)</a> on Feb 5, 2019 at 11:44am PST</p> </div> </blockquote> <p>The 53-year-old filed papers to the High Court just before Christmas, claiming his story is the “most explosive” thing to happen to the palace.  </p> <p>“It's definitely the most significant step I've taken so far – I've had to force a deadline, hold them to a date, because we need answers,” he said.  </p> <p>In the wake of Prince Harry and Duchess Meghan announcing they were stepping down from their senior royal positions, Mr Dorante-Day is adamant his case would have come up during crisis talks at Sandringham Estate. </p> <p>“While the whole world was thinking they were talking about Harry, we believe this legal battle would've also been on the agenda and discussed,” he said. </p> <p>Simon, who goes by “Prince Simon Charles” on social media, regularly posts updates on Facebook of his bid to be recognised by royal family members.</p>

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Princess Diana’s butler shows unseen letter to prove she would support Harry and Meghan

<p>Princess Diana’s former butler Paul Burrell has shared a part of a letter written by the late royal, which supports the theory she would have backed her son, Prince Harry and his wife, Duchess Meghan, wholeheartedly.</p> <blockquote style="background: #FFF; border: 0; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: 0 0 1px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.5),0 1px 10px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.15); margin: 1px; max-width: 540px; min-width: 326px; padding: 0; width: calc(100% - 2px);" class="instagram-media" data-instgrm-permalink="https://www.instagram.com/p/B74YiECHn44/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" data-instgrm-version="12"> <div style="padding: 16px;"> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: row; align-items: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; flex-grow: 0; height: 40px; margin-right: 14px; width: 40px;"></div> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: column; flex-grow: 1; justify-content: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; margin-bottom: 6px; width: 100px;"></div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; width: 60px;"></div> </div> </div> <div style="padding: 19% 0;"></div> <div style="display: block; height: 50px; margin: 0 auto 12px; width: 50px;"></div> <div style="padding-top: 8px;"> <div style="color: #3897f0; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: 550; line-height: 18px;">View this post on Instagram</div> </div> <p style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; line-height: 17px; margin-bottom: 0; margin-top: 8px; overflow: hidden; padding: 8px 0 7px; text-align: center; text-overflow: ellipsis; white-space: nowrap;"><a style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: 17px; text-decoration: none;" rel="noopener" href="https://www.instagram.com/p/B74YiECHn44/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" target="_blank">A post shared by The Royal Family (@british.royals)</a> on Jan 28, 2020 at 3:00pm PST</p> </div> </blockquote> <p>The former butler and confidante to the Princess of Wales' says her words are "as appropriate today as they were when she wrote them".</p> <p>The handwritten note was sent from Diana to Burrell, who worked with the princess until her death in 1997.</p> <p>He posted the snippet of the letter on Instagram along with a black and white photo of Prince William and Prince Harry, with the caption: "As Harry, Meghan and Archie embark on a new life, I am reminded of some poignant words which Princess Diana wrote to me many years ago.</p> <blockquote style="background: #FFF; border: 0; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: 0 0 1px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.5),0 1px 10px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.15); margin: 1px; max-width: 540px; min-width: 326px; padding: 0; width: calc(100% - 2px);" class="instagram-media" data-instgrm-permalink="https://www.instagram.com/p/B7yDcEVj9C-/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" data-instgrm-version="12"> <div style="padding: 16px;"> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: row; align-items: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; flex-grow: 0; height: 40px; margin-right: 14px; width: 40px;"></div> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: column; flex-grow: 1; justify-content: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; margin-bottom: 6px; width: 100px;"></div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; width: 60px;"></div> </div> </div> <div style="padding: 19% 0;"></div> <div style="display: block; height: 50px; margin: 0 auto 12px; width: 50px;"></div> <div style="padding-top: 8px;"> <div style="color: #3897f0; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: 550; line-height: 18px;">View this post on Instagram</div> </div> <p style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; line-height: 17px; margin-bottom: 0; margin-top: 8px; overflow: hidden; padding: 8px 0 7px; text-align: center; text-overflow: ellipsis; white-space: nowrap;"><a style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: 17px; text-decoration: none;" rel="noopener" href="https://www.instagram.com/p/B7yDcEVj9C-/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" target="_blank">A post shared by Paul Burrell RVM (@officialpaulburrell)</a> on Jan 26, 2020 at 4:00am PST</p> </div> </blockquote> <p>"They are a mother's words of unconditional love which are as appropriate today as they were when she wrote them over 24 years ago."</p> <p>Diana's note read: "I love my boys to death and hope that the seeds I've planted will grow and bring the strength, knowledge and stability that is needed."</p> <blockquote style="background: #FFF; border: 0; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: 0 0 1px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.5),0 1px 10px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.15); margin: 1px; max-width: 540px; min-width: 326px; padding: 0; width: calc(100% - 2px);" class="instagram-media" data-instgrm-captioned="" data-instgrm-permalink="https://www.instagram.com/p/Bz6b0WCHphA/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" data-instgrm-version="12"> <div style="padding: 16px;"> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: row; align-items: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; flex-grow: 0; height: 40px; margin-right: 14px; width: 40px;"></div> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: column; flex-grow: 1; justify-content: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; margin-bottom: 6px; width: 100px;"></div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; width: 60px;"></div> </div> </div> <div style="padding: 19% 0;"></div> <div style="display: block; height: 50px; margin: 0 auto 12px; width: 50px;"></div> <div style="padding-top: 8px;"> <div style="color: #3897f0; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: 550; line-height: 18px;">View this post on Instagram</div> </div> <p style="margin: 8px 0 0 0; padding: 0 4px;"><a style="color: #000; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: 17px; text-decoration: none; word-wrap: break-word;" rel="noopener" href="https://www.instagram.com/p/Bz6b0WCHphA/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" target="_blank">A beautiful throwback of Diana and her wonderful Butler Paul Burrell☺️❤️ • • • #PrincessDiana #PaulBurrell #PrincessOfWales #PeoplesPrincess #EnglandsRose #QueenOfHearts #LadyDiana #British #England #UnitedKingdom ✨🇬🇧</a></p> <p style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; line-height: 17px; margin-bottom: 0; margin-top: 8px; overflow: hidden; padding: 8px 0 7px; text-align: center; text-overflow: ellipsis; white-space: nowrap;">A post shared by <a style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: 17px;" rel="noopener" href="https://www.instagram.com/tiarasandteapots/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" target="_blank"> British Obsessed💗✨</a> (@tiarasandteapots) on Jul 14, 2019 at 2:56pm PDT</p> </div> </blockquote> <p>Burrell has previously shared his personal support for the Duke and Duchess of Sussex, claiming Meghan was forced to find her own place within the royal family without support.</p> <blockquote style="background: #FFF; border: 0; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: 0 0 1px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.5),0 1px 10px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.15); margin: 1px; max-width: 540px; min-width: 326px; padding: 0; width: calc(100% - 2px);" class="instagram-media" data-instgrm-permalink="https://www.instagram.com/p/B74Or0cHOn9/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" data-instgrm-version="12"> <div style="padding: 16px;"> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: row; align-items: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; flex-grow: 0; height: 40px; margin-right: 14px; width: 40px;"></div> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: column; flex-grow: 1; justify-content: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; margin-bottom: 6px; width: 100px;"></div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; width: 60px;"></div> </div> </div> <div style="padding: 19% 0;"></div> <div style="display: block; height: 50px; margin: 0 auto 12px; width: 50px;"></div> <div style="padding-top: 8px;"> <div style="color: #3897f0; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: 550; line-height: 18px;">View this post on Instagram</div> </div> <p style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; line-height: 17px; margin-bottom: 0; margin-top: 8px; overflow: hidden; padding: 8px 0 7px; text-align: center; text-overflow: ellipsis; white-space: nowrap;"><a style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: 17px; text-decoration: none;" rel="noopener" href="https://www.instagram.com/p/B74Or0cHOn9/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" target="_blank">A post shared by Harryandmeghan_ (@harryandmeghan_)</a> on Jan 28, 2020 at 1:34pm PST</p> </div> </blockquote> <p>Speaking to Reuters after Harry and Meghan's tell-all interview in Africa, Burrell said: "There's no guidance. There's no support. There's no rulebook".</p> <p>"Harry said that [he and William] are on different paths. I know what he means by that. William and Kate have a map in front of them. They're headed for monarchy."</p>

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He’s human after all: Federer slapped with code violation

<p><span>The star can speak eight different languages, and now one of them has gotten him in trouble.</span></p> <p>Roger Federer faced off with a lineswoman on Tuesday after he was penalised for swearing on court during a thrilling five-set match at the Australian Open.</p> <p>The atmosphere was tense in Melbourne as the 20-time major winner trailed unseeded American Tennys Sandgren at Melbourne Park.</p> <p>During the third game of the third set, Federer began to become visibly frustrated as he swore on the court after hitting the net on a return shot.</p> <p>The commentators revealed that the tennis champion – who speaks eight languages – said an “R-rated German word.”</p> <p>Chair umpire Marijana Veljovic called a code violation for an “audible obscenity”, something the 38-year-old wasn’t expecting.</p> <p>“What did I say?” asked Federer, completely shocked as to how she understood him.</p> <p>Veljovic, who is Serbian, replied: “I can’t repeat that,” before saying that she heard him “very clearly.”</p> <p>A furious Federer then walked over to confront the lineswoman, before walking back to Veljovic who stood firmly on her decision.</p> <p>He then requested a medical timeout before returning to the court to hold serve.</p> <p>Speaking at the post-match press conference after a stunning victory, Federer, who was now much more relaxed admitted to swearing in two different languages.</p> <p>“It was a mix. Clearly she [the lineswoman] speaks mixed. Didn’t know that,” he said.</p> <p>“Next time I got to check the linespeople.”</p> <p>Federer, who was born in Basel, Switzerland, is fluent in German, French and English, and can also speak some Swedish, Spanish and Italian.</p>

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“Super brave girl”: Rafael Nadal's heartwarming gesture towards ball girl

<p>Rafael Nadal’s sweet gesture towards a ball girl has moved tennis fans around the world.</p> <p>The world number one player was on track to score a straight-sets win against Argentina’s Federico Delbonis at the Australian Open on Thursday.</p> <p>But on the third set of their second-round match on Rod Laver Arena, Nadal slammed a forehand that hit a young ball girl on the head by accident.</p> <p>The girl gave a thumbs up to indicate she was fine, but Nadal and Delbonis went over to check on her. Nadal lifted the girl’s hat before kissing her on the cheek, drawing cheers from the audience.</p> <blockquote class="twitter-tweet"> <p dir="ltr">😱(🎥<a href="https://twitter.com/Eurosport_RU?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">@Eurosport_RU</a> ) <a href="https://t.co/IR5B2Z42fu">pic.twitter.com/IR5B2Z42fu</a></p> — doublefault28 (@doublefault28) <a href="https://twitter.com/doublefault28/status/1220321521077489665?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">January 23, 2020</a></blockquote> <p>Nadal went on to win the match 6-3 7-6 (7-5) 6-1.</p> <p>“For her, probably it was not a good moment,” Nadal said after the match. “I was so scared for her, honestly.</p> <p>“She’s a super brave girl.”</p> <blockquote class="twitter-tweet"> <p dir="ltr">*𝒯𝒽𝒶𝓉* ballkid moment, narrated by <a href="https://twitter.com/RafaelNadal?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">@RafaelNadal</a> 📚<br /><br />❤️❤️❤️❤️❤️❤️❤️<a href="https://twitter.com/hashtag/AO2020?src=hash&amp;ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">#AO2020</a> | <a href="https://twitter.com/hashtag/AusOpen?src=hash&amp;ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">#AusOpen</a> <a href="https://t.co/tElLurAnQ1">pic.twitter.com/tElLurAnQ1</a></p> — #AusOpen (@AustralianOpen) <a href="https://twitter.com/AustralianOpen/status/1220324139296329730?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">January 23, 2020</a></blockquote> <p> </p>

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Here’s what will happen the moment Prince Charles is crowned king

<p>Unlike his mother, who unexpectedly became queen at just 25 years old when her father, King George VI, died suddenly, 71-year-old Prince Charles has spent his entire life in preparation to wear the crown. He’s the longest waiting heir apparent and will be the oldest British monarch to ever take the throne – and it’s still uncertain when that will happen. Although Queen Elizabeth II is 93 years old and the <a rel="noopener" href="https://www.royal.uk/her-majesty-the-queen" target="_blank">longest-reigning</a> British monarch ever, longevity runs in her family: her father may have died young, but her mother lived to the age of 101. But with recent <a rel="noopener" href="https://www.nytimes.com/2019/12/01/world/europe/prince-charles-andrew-queen.html" target="_blank">reports</a> asserting Prince Charles is now taking charge of the monarchy more than ever, could he become king sooner than expected? We explore the different scenarios that may play out when the beloved Queen dies – or maybe even before.</p> <div class="at-below-post addthis_tool" data-url="https://www.readersdigest.com.au/culture/13-things-that-will-happen-when-prince-charles-becomes-king"><strong>1. The Queen may still be alive when Prince Charles becomes King</strong></div> <div class="at-below-post addthis_tool" data-url="https://www.readersdigest.com.au/culture/13-things-that-will-happen-when-prince-charles-becomes-king"> <div id="page2" class="slide-show"> <div id="test" class="slide"> <div class="slide-description"> <p>Rumours have been swirling in the <a rel="noopener" href="https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-4785166/Is-Queen-preparing-abdicate.html" target="_blank">British press</a> that as the Queen becomes older, she may pass the crown to her son, who’s fully prepared to take on all the responsibilities of the monarchy while she is still alive. This would be called a ‘regency’. But, there are many reasons<span> </span><a rel="noopener" href="https://www.readersdigest.com.au/culture/13-reasons-queen-elizabeth-ii-will-never-give-up-the-throne" target="_blank">Queen Elizabeth will never give up the throne</a>.</p> <p>“I think it is unlikely that the Queen will officially retire, or that the Prince of Wales will formally assume the title of regent,” says Carolyn Harris, PhD, historian and author of <em>Raising Royalty: 1000 Years of Royal Parenting</em>. “In a radio broadcast on her 21st birthday, she vowed to devote her whole life, whether it was long or short, to the service of her people.”</p> <p>Although <a rel="noopener" href="https://www.ucl.ac.uk/constitution-unit/research/monarchy-church-and-state/accession-and-coronation/planning-next-accession-and-coronation#Q11" target="_blank">comparison</a> has been made to other older European monarchs who have abdicated in recent years, Harris points out they were sworn into office through secular installation ceremonies rather than the Queen’s religious coronation ceremony in 1953, which contained sacred oaths. Even practically speaking, “the Queen is sovereign of 16 Commonwealth realms, and not all of them have a formal provision for a regency,” Harris says. “A regency might complicate the appointment of new Governors General in some of the Commonwealth realms.”</p> <div class="at-below-post addthis_tool" data-url="https://www.readersdigest.com.au/culture/13-things-that-will-happen-when-prince-charles-becomes-king"><strong>2. If the Queen is incapacitated, Prince Charles will become regent</strong></div> <div class="at-below-post addthis_tool" data-url="https://www.readersdigest.com.au/culture/13-things-that-will-happen-when-prince-charles-becomes-king"> <div id="page3" class="slide-show"> <div id="test" class="slide"> <div class="slide-description"> <p>But in the event that the Queen cannot actually act as queen, such as in the case of severe illness of mind or body, a regency with Prince Charles as Regent would be formed. According to the <a rel="noopener" href="https://www.ucl.ac.uk/constitution-unit/research/monarchy-church-and-state/accession-and-coronation/planning-next-accession-and-coronation#Q11" target="_blank">Constitution Unit</a> of the University of London’s (UCL) School of Public Policy, medical evidence is required, and three people out of the following have to agree to declare the sovereign is incapacitated: the Queen’s consort (her husband, Prince Philip), the Lord Chancellor, the Speaker of the House of Commons, the Lord Chief Justice, and the Master of the Rolls.</p> <p>But, this isn’t the most probable scenario. Instead, what will likely happen as the Queen ages is, “The Queen will retain her title and certain royal duties, while her son the Prince of Wales assumes a greater number of her public engagements and increased decision-making power behind the scenes,” Harris says. “The Prince of Wales already undertakes overseas travel to the Commonwealth on the Queen’s behalf, and in the coming years, he will assume more of the Queen’s duties in the United Kingdom.”</p> <div class="at-below-post addthis_tool" data-url="https://www.readersdigest.com.au/culture/13-things-that-will-happen-when-prince-charles-becomes-king"><strong>3. Upon Queen Elizabeth's death, Prince Charles will immediately become King</strong></div> <div class="at-below-post addthis_tool" data-url="https://www.readersdigest.com.au/culture/13-things-that-will-happen-when-prince-charles-becomes-king"> <p>So, in all probability, the Queen will retain the crown until she passes. Here’s<span> </span><a rel="noopener" href="https://www.readersdigest.com.au/true-stories-lifestyle/drama/16-things-will-happen-once-queen-elizabeth-ii-dies" target="_blank">what will happen when Queen Elizabeth dies</a>: At the moment of her death, Prince Charles will become king. An ‘<a rel="noopener" href="https://www.royal.uk/accession" target="_blank">Accession Council</a>’, consisting of the group of advisors to the sovereign known as the Privy Council, will convene at St James’s Palace, London, to formally recognise the transition and to proclaim Charles as the monarch. The King will then take an <a rel="noopener" href="https://privycouncil.independent.gov.uk/privy-council/the-accession-council/" target="_blank">oath</a> to, interestingly enough, preserve the <a rel="noopener" href="https://www.royal.uk/queens-relationship-churches-england-and-scotland-and-other-faiths" target="_blank">Church of Scotland</a> (this is because the sovereign is only the head of the Church of England, not the Presbyterian Church of Scotland). Parliament will then be recalled for its members to take oaths of allegiance.</p> <p><strong>4. Prince Charles might not be King Charles</strong></p> <div id="page5" class="slide-show"> <div id="test" class="slide"> <div class="slide-description"> <p>‘Charles’ was an interesting choice for Queen Elizabeth to name her future heir, because the first two King Charles are associated with the 17th-century English Civil War, when the monarchy was ousted for the first and only time in <a rel="noopener" href="https://www.royal.uk/kings-and-queens-1066" target="_blank">British history</a>. Charles I was beheaded, although Charles II was eventually restored to the throne and well-liked. But Elizabeth, who kept her given name as Queen, was actually unusual in doing so: most other British monarchs changed their names upon taking the throne. For example, Queen Victoria’s first name was Alexandrina. That said, “the Prince of Wales has been known by the public as Prince Charles for his whole life, so it is certainly possible that he will retain Charles as his regnal name as King,” Harris says, making him King Charles III. “Charles also has the option of choosing one of his middle names. If he were to choose George, he would be George VII, with his grandson Prince George of Cambridge likely to eventually become George VIII.”</p> <div class="at-below-post addthis_tool" data-url="https://www.readersdigest.com.au/culture/13-things-that-will-happen-when-prince-charles-becomes-king"><strong>5. Charles may change one of his titles</strong></div> <div class="at-below-post addthis_tool" data-url="https://www.readersdigest.com.au/culture/13-things-that-will-happen-when-prince-charles-becomes-king"> <div id="page6" class="slide-show"> <div id="test" class="slide"> <div class="slide-description"> <p>His first name may not be the only part of his title Prince Charles changes when he becomes King. The full title of the current sovereign is “Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and of Her other Realms and Territories Queen, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith.” That’s a mouthful, but there’s one part of it – one little word, actually – Charles has an issue with. “Prince Charles has taken a strong interest in interfaith dialogue, and there has been speculation that he would prefer the title of Defender of Faiths [or Faith] rather than Defender of the Faith,” Harris says.</p> <p>Charles has since rolled back his initial statements on the wording, though. “I said I would rather be seen as Defender of Faith all those years ago because…I mind about the inclusion of other people’s faiths and their freedom to worship in this country,” he told the <a rel="noopener" href="https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2015/feb/08/prince-charles-expresses-alarm-about-radicalisation-in-britain" target="_blank">BBC</a>. “And it always seems to me that while at the same time being defender of the faith you can also be protector of faiths.” Charles does have a say in the <a rel="noopener" href="https://www.ucl.ac.uk/constitution-unit/research/monarchy-church-and-state/accession-and-coronation/planning-next-accession-and-coronation#Q11" target="_blank">wording</a>, UCL says, so we’ll have to wait until his coronation to see what he finally settles on.</p> <div class="at-below-post addthis_tool" data-url="https://www.readersdigest.com.au/culture/13-things-that-will-happen-when-prince-charles-becomes-king"><strong>6. The coronation may be different</strong></div> <div class="at-below-post addthis_tool" data-url="https://www.readersdigest.com.au/culture/13-things-that-will-happen-when-prince-charles-becomes-king"> <div id="page7" class="slide-show"> <div id="test" class="slide"> <div class="slide-description"> <p>Speaking of the coronation, which as Harris says is a religious ceremony, Prince Charles may adapt this ritual as well. This ceremony is traditionally presided over by the Archbishop of Canterbury at Westminster Abbey and takes place several months after the last monarch’s death to allow for a period of mourning. At the ceremony, the new sovereign takes the coronation oath, which includes a promise to maintain the Church of England, and is ‘anointed, blessed and consecrated’ by the Archbishop,” the royal family’s <a rel="noopener" href="https://www.royal.uk/coronation" target="_blank">official website</a> states.</p> <p>But what about Charles? “The coronation will continue to be an Anglican service, but finding a place for other Christian denominations and other religions, as happened at the recent royal wedding,” UCL’s <a rel="noopener" href="https://www.ucl.ac.uk/constitution-unit/research/monarchy-church-and-state/accession-and-coronation/planning-next-accession-and-coronation#Q11" target="_blank">Constitution Unit</a> says. “Such people may be invited to give readings; and religious leaders other than Anglicans are likely to be seated prominently, as happened at the Queen’s Diamond Jubilee service at St Paul’s in 2012.”</p> <div class="at-below-post addthis_tool" data-url="https://www.readersdigest.com.au/culture/13-things-that-will-happen-when-prince-charles-becomes-king"><strong>7. Camilla may be queen</strong></div> <div class="at-below-post addthis_tool" data-url="https://www.readersdigest.com.au/culture/13-things-that-will-happen-when-prince-charles-becomes-king"> <p>Although it didn’t always seem likely, right now the feeling among royal watchers is that Camilla will be named Queen Consort. “The longer the couple are married before Charles’s accession to the throne, and the greater Camilla’s public profile, the more likely she is to be formally styled Queen when Charles becomes King,” Harris says. Why wasn’t it thought previously that she’d be Queen? It had to do with her choice of current title. “Camilla is entitled to be Princess of Wales, as the wife of the Prince of Wales, but she instead uses another one of her titles, Duchess of Cornwall, as the title of Princess of Wales was closely associated with Prince Charles’s first wife, Diana, Princess of Wales,” Harris says.</p> <p>“Camilla’s use of a secondary title prompted speculation at the time of her marriage to Charles that she might be styled Princess Consort instead of Queen when Charles becomes King.” But as her popularity is increasing, this seems less likely now.</p> <p><strong>8. All eyes will be on Prince William</strong></p> <p>When Charles becomes King, Prince William will take on new titles, including the traditional styling given to the king-in-waiting. “William becomes Duke of Cornwall when Charles becomes King, and will be invested [formally named] as Prince of Wales,” Harris says. But that’s not the only way William’s role will change: because his father is already at an advanced age, it might not be long before Prince William takes the throne himself. “As the Prince of Wales will be in his 70s when he succeeds to the throne, there will be a lot of public interest in William and Catherine, the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge, and how William will be preparing to eventually assume the throne,” Harris says.</p> <p><strong>9. Charles will likely be a more outspoken monarch</strong></p> <p>The sovereign is supposed to be above politics, but Prince Charles is actually somewhat of a rebel in his <a rel="noopener" href="https://www.express.co.uk/news/royal/1206933/prince-charles-news-royal-family-queen-elizabeth-ii-monarchy-collapse-spt" target="_blank">tendency</a> to express his views on social and environmental issues. “In contrast to the Queen, who is careful to avoid expressing strong opinions in public – and instead encourages the people she meets at garden parties, receptions and walkabouts to speak about their own experiences – Charles is known to hold firm opinions on a variety of subjects including organic farming, architecture and sustainable development,” Harris says. “Climate change and environmental conservation are key political issues in the 21st century, and Charles will certainly not be seen as an impartial figure on these subjects, as his views are well-known.”</p> <div id="page10" class="slide-show"> <div id="test" class="slide"> <div class="slide-description"> <div class="at-below-post addthis_tool" data-url="https://www.readersdigest.com.au/culture/13-things-that-will-happen-when-prince-charles-becomes-king"><strong>10. But, he may temper his opinions</strong></div> <div class="at-below-post addthis_tool" data-url="https://www.readersdigest.com.au/culture/13-things-that-will-happen-when-prince-charles-becomes-king"> <div id="page11" class="slide-show"> <div id="test" class="slide"> <div class="slide-description"> <p>Prince Charles noted in a recent <a rel="noopener" href="https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-46133114" target="_blank">BBC</a> interview, though, that his vocal manner will be toned down when he becomes king. “The idea somehow that I’m going to go on in exactly the same way, if I have to succeed, is complete nonsense,” he said. “I do realise that it is a separate exercise being sovereign.” But, he also expressed that the line between charitable works and “meddling” in politics isn’t always clear; for example, when he created the Prince’s Trust in 1976 to help underprivileged youth. “I’ve always been intrigued, if it’s meddling to worry about the inner cities as I did 40 years ago,” he said. “If that’s meddling, I’m very proud of it.”</p> <p>Plus, the Prince’s candidness may only be unusual when compared to the current monarch. “Queen Elizabeth II has reigned for such a long time, that her approach to her duties has become synonymous with constitutional monarchy in the popular imagination – her predecessors sometimes expressed open political opinions, but the Queen has been careful to remain above politics in the United Kingdom,” Harris says. Even so, “Charles will likely moderate his own approach to public duties to follow the Queen’s example, as the public expects the monarch to remain above politics.”</p> <div class="at-below-post addthis_tool" data-url="https://www.readersdigest.com.au/culture/13-things-that-will-happen-when-prince-charles-becomes-king"><strong>11. The monarchy may shrink</strong></div> <div class="at-below-post addthis_tool" data-url="https://www.readersdigest.com.au/culture/13-things-that-will-happen-when-prince-charles-becomes-king"> <p>Another change that the Prince of Wales reportedly will institute has had royal watchers buzzing: he may trim down the monarchy in terms of the number of royals actively carrying out official responsibilities. “Prince Charles favours a more streamlined royal family with fewer people undertaking public duties,” Harris says. “In the Queen’s reign, her cousins the Duke of Kent, the Duke of Gloucester and Princess Alexandra undertake public duties, and the entire extended family gathers for pre-Christmas lunch and at Trooping the Colour in June. In Charles’s reign, there will be a strong focus on the monarch’s immediate family – his sons, daughters-in-law and grandchildren – and less of a public role for the extended royal family.” However, given Harry and Meghan’s recent defection, it remains to be seen how this will affect Charles position.</p> <p><strong>12. The Prince's brother may get the axe as well</strong></p> <div id="page13" class="slide-show"> <div id="test" class="slide"> <div class="slide-description"> <p>The notion of trimming down the monarchy gained steam recently after the Queen’s second son and Prince Charles’s brother, Prince Andrew, gave a disastrous interview about his friendship with convicted sex offender Jeffrey Epstein. The brothers had <a rel="noopener" href="https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2180012/Princes-war-How-Charles-plans-slimmed-monarchy-driven-dagger-Andrews-heart--sparked-Palace-power-struggle.html" target="_blank">reportedly</a> already been on the outs over the idea of a streamlined monarchy since 2012 when only Prince Charles’ family stood on the Buckingham Palace balcony following the Queen’s Diamond Jubilee. In the wake of this public scandal, Andrew made an <a rel="noopener" href="https://thedukeofyork.org/other/a-statement-by-his-royal-highness-the-duke-of-york-kg/" target="_blank">announcement</a> that he would “step back from public duties for the foreseeable future”. Prince Charles – and Prince William –<span> </span><a rel="noopener" href="https://www.vanityfair.com/style/2019/11/prince-charles-prince-andrew-showdown" target="_blank">reportedly</a> were in damage control and advised the Queen that Andrew had to be removed. With a smaller monarchy expected once Prince Charles becomes King, it may be <a rel="noopener" href="https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-7699443/RICHARD-KAY-asks-time-Prince-Charles-plan-streamlined-monarchy.html" target="_blank">unlikely</a> Andrew will return.</p> <div class="at-below-post addthis_tool" data-url="https://www.readersdigest.com.au/culture/13-things-that-will-happen-when-prince-charles-becomes-king"><strong>13. The sounds and sights of Britain will be different</strong></div> <div class="at-below-post addthis_tool" data-url="https://www.readersdigest.com.au/culture/13-things-that-will-happen-when-prince-charles-becomes-king"> <p>In accordance with the normal changes that occur when a new British monarch takes the throne, certain differences will be apparent in the United Kingdom – including the wording of the national anthem. Instead of ‘God Save the Queen’, the wording of the national anthem will be ‘God Save the King’. The royal family’s <a rel="noopener" href="https://www.royal.uk/national-anthem" target="_blank">official website</a> states that although there’s no authorised version of the national anthem, “words are a matter of tradition…substituting ‘Queen’ for ‘King’ where appropriate.” In addition, the royal cypher (basically a fancy monogram), which appears on England’s iconic red postal boxes, will change from ‘ER’ for ‘Elizabeth II Regina’ to the new King’s cypher. <a rel="noopener" href="https://www.postalmuseum.org/blog/royal-cypher-appearances/" target="_blank">The Postal Museum</a> notes that this will only happen when new postal boxes are added; old ones won’t change. In addition, new stamps and banknotes will bear the <a rel="noopener" href="https://www.express.co.uk/news/royal/830010/banknotes-when-queen-elizabeth-dies-prince-charles-new-10-ten-note" target="_blank">King’s likeness</a>.</p> <div id="page14" class="slide-show"> <div id="test" class="slide"> <div class="slide-description"> <p><em>Source: <a rel="noopener" href="https://www.rd.com/culture/what-happens-prince-charles-becomes-king/" target="_blank">RD.com</a></em></p> <p><em>Written by Tina Donvito. This article first appeared in </em><a href="https://www.readersdigest.com.au/culture/13-things-that-will-happen-when-prince-charles-becomes-king" title="https://www.readersdigest.com.au/culture/13-things-that-will-happen-when-prince-charles-becomes-king"><em>Reader’s Digest</em></a><em>. For more of what you love from the world’s best-loved magazine, </em><a href="http://readersdigest.innovations.co.nz/c/readersdigestemailsubscribe?utm_source=over60&amp;utm_medium=articles&amp;utm_campaign=RDSUB&amp;keycode=WRN93V"><em>here’s our best subscription offer.</em></a></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div>

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Prince Harry vows to “stop” The Crown series

<p>Prince Harry reportedly made a vow to a reporter to “stop” the popular Netflix series,<em> The Crown,</em> which focusses on the lives of his family.</p> <p>The Duke of Sussex made the startling statement to Royal Biographer Angela Levin during her appearance on breakfast TV, when she met him.</p> <p>"I'm going to make sure I stop it before they get to me," Levin claims Prince Harry had said.</p> <blockquote style="background: #FFF; border: 0; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: 0 0 1px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.5),0 1px 10px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.15); margin: 1px; max-width: 540px; min-width: 326px; padding: 0; width: calc(100% - 2px);" class="instagram-media" data-instgrm-permalink="https://www.instagram.com/p/B7lqR75nqNi/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" data-instgrm-version="12"> <div style="padding: 16px;"> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: row; align-items: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; flex-grow: 0; height: 40px; margin-right: 14px; width: 40px;"></div> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: column; flex-grow: 1; justify-content: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; margin-bottom: 6px; width: 100px;"></div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; width: 60px;"></div> </div> </div> <div style="padding: 19% 0;"></div> <div style="display: block; height: 50px; margin: 0 auto 12px; width: 50px;"></div> <div style="padding-top: 8px;"> <div style="color: #3897f0; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: 550; line-height: 18px;">View this post on Instagram</div> </div> <p style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; line-height: 17px; margin-bottom: 0; margin-top: 8px; overflow: hidden; padding: 8px 0 7px; text-align: center; text-overflow: ellipsis; white-space: nowrap;"><a style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: 17px; text-decoration: none;" rel="noopener" href="https://www.instagram.com/p/B7lqR75nqNi/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" target="_blank">A post shared by FAN PAGE (@mxghanmarkle)</a> on Jan 21, 2020 at 8:29am PST</p> </div> </blockquote> <p>While standing beside<span> </span><em>The Crown'</em>s historical consultant Robert Lacey while appearing on <em>BBC Breakfast</em>, Levin chimed in about Harry's views on the series after Lacey was asked if the drama was likely to cover the recent Sussex crisis.</p> <p>"When I went to interview Harry at the palace, the first thing he said to me when he shook my hand was 'Are you watching <em>The Crown?'</em>," the author revealed.</p> <p>"And I had been at the time and I felt very embarrassed," she also said.</p> <p>Skipping forward to the very end of their interview, Levin said: "I got up and he said 'I'm going to make sure I stop it before they get to me'".</p> <blockquote class="twitter-tweet"> <p dir="ltr">Time tests us all. Queen Elizabeth II, played by Olivia Colman. <a href="https://t.co/U93SDwh3rk">pic.twitter.com/U93SDwh3rk</a></p> — The Crown (@TheCrownNetflix) <a href="https://twitter.com/TheCrownNetflix/status/1187746324885704704?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">October 25, 2019</a></blockquote> <p>The admission follows after both Prince Harry and his wife Meghan announced they would be taking a step back from their senior royal duties in order to see a self-funded lifestyle.</p> <p>Memes and trolling images popped up on social media just days after, which showed Duchess Meghan –who starred on the Netflix series<span> </span>Suits<span> </span>– appearing on<span> </span><em>The Crown</em><span> </span>as herself.</p> <p>However, the executive producer of the award-winning show, says it is highly unlikely to ever happen.</p> <p>"To be honest, whatever the life of <em>The Crown</em> is after where we are now, I doubt we'll ever go as far into the present day," Suzanne Mackie told<span> </span>PA.</p> <p>Season Three of the series, which is the latest season and currently streaming, is covering the royal events between 1964 and 1977.</p> <blockquote style="background: #FFF; border: 0; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: 0 0 1px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.5),0 1px 10px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.15); margin: 1px; max-width: 540px; min-width: 326px; padding: 0; width: calc(100% - 2px);" class="instagram-media" data-instgrm-permalink="https://www.instagram.com/p/B7lqZDBgNzB/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" data-instgrm-version="12"> <div style="padding: 16px;"> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: row; align-items: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; flex-grow: 0; height: 40px; margin-right: 14px; width: 40px;"></div> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: column; flex-grow: 1; justify-content: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; margin-bottom: 6px; width: 100px;"></div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; width: 60px;"></div> </div> </div> <div style="padding: 19% 0;"></div> <div style="display: block; height: 50px; margin: 0 auto 12px; width: 50px;"></div> <div style="padding-top: 8px;"> <div style="color: #3897f0; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: 550; line-height: 18px;">View this post on Instagram</div> </div> <p style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; line-height: 17px; margin-bottom: 0; margin-top: 8px; overflow: hidden; padding: 8px 0 7px; text-align: center; text-overflow: ellipsis; white-space: nowrap;"><a style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: 17px; text-decoration: none;" rel="noopener" href="https://www.instagram.com/p/B7lqZDBgNzB/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" target="_blank">A post shared by Alquilistas (@alquilistas)</a> on Jan 21, 2020 at 8:30am PST</p> </div> </blockquote> <p>Olivia Coleman stars as Queen Elizabeth II, Tobias Menzies is Prince Philip and Josh O'Connor plays as a young Prince Charles.</p>

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How contagious is the Wuhan coronavirus and can you spread it before symptoms start?

<p>Cases of the Wuhan coronavirus have increased dramatically over the past week, prompting concerns about how contagious the virus is and how it spreads.</p> <p>According to the <a href="https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/situation-reports">World Health Organisation</a>, 16-21% of people with the virus in China became severely ill and 2-3% of those infected have died.</p> <p>A key factor that influences transmission is whether the virus can spread in the absence of symptoms – either during the incubation period (the days before people become visibly ill) or in people who never get sick.</p> <p>On Sunday, <a href="https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-china-51254523">Chinese officials said</a> transmission had occurred during the incubation period.</p> <p>So what does the evidence tell us so far?</p> <p><strong>Can you transmit it before you get symptoms?</strong></p> <p>Influenza is the <a href="https://www.infectiousdiseaseadvisor.com/home/topics/respiratory/influenza/transfluas-study-asymptomatic-influenza-transmission-in-acute-health-care/">classic example</a> of a virus that can spread when people have no symptoms at all.</p> <p>In contrast, people with <a href="https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/sars/">SARS</a> (severe acute respiratory syndrome) only spread the virus when they had symptoms.</p> <p>No published scientific data are available to support China’s claim transmission of the Wuhan coronavirus occurred during the incubation period.</p> <p>However, <a href="https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(20)30154-9/fulltext">one study published in the Lancet medical journal showed</a> children may be shedding (or transmitting) the virus while asymptomatic. The researchers found one child in an infected family had no symptoms but a chest CT scan revealed he had pneumonia and his test for the virus came back positive.</p> <p>This is different to transmission in the incubation period, as the child never got ill, but it suggests it’s possible for children and young people to be infectious without having any symptoms.</p> <p>This is a concern because if someone gets sick, you want to be able to identify them and track their contacts. If someone transmits the virus but never gets sick, they may not be on the radar at all.</p> <p>It also makes airport screening less useful because people who are infectious but don’t have symptoms would not be detected.</p> <p><strong>How infectious is it?</strong></p> <p>The Wuhan coronavirus epidemic began when people exposed to an <a href="https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(20)30183-5/fulltext">unknown source at a seafood market</a> in Wuhan began falling ill in early December.</p> <p>Cases remained below 50 to 60 in total until around January 20, when numbers surged. There have now been <a href="https://flutrackers.com/forum/forum/-2019-ncov-new-coronavirus/823378-2019-ncov-confirmed-case-list-by-country-w-links-to-sources-total-cases-4-576-total-deaths-106-as-of-9-40-et-january-27-2020-disclaimer-we-do-not-endorse-any-of-these-numbers">more than 4,500 cases – mostly in China – and 106 deaths</a>.</p> <p>Researchers and public health officials determine how contagious a virus is by calculating a reproduction number, or R0. The R0 is the average number of other people that one infected person will infect, in a completely non-immune population.</p> <p>Different experts have <a href="https://www.imperial.ac.uk/mrc-global-infectious-disease-analysis/news--wuhan-coronavirus/">estimated</a> the R0 of the Wuhan coronavirus is anywhere from 1.4 to over five, however the <a href="https://www.bmj.com/content/bmj/368/bmj.m308.full.pdf">World Health Organisation believes</a> the RO is between 1.4 and 2.5.</p> <p>If the R0 was higher than 2-3, we should have seen more cases globally by mid January, given Wuhan is a travel and trade hub of 11 million people.</p> <p><strong>How is it transmitted?</strong></p> <p>Of the person-to-person modes of transmission, we fear respiratory transmission the most, because infections spread most rapidly this way.</p> <p>Two kinds of respiratory transmission are through large droplets, which is thought to be short-range, and airborne transmission on much smaller particles over longer distances. Airborne transmission is the most difficult to control.</p> <p>SARS was considered to be transmitted by contact and over short distances by droplets but can also be transmitted through smaller aerosols over long distances. In Hong Kong, <a href="https://academic.oup.com/cid/article/58/5/683/365793">infection was transmitted</a> from one floor of a building to the next.</p> <p>Initially, most cases of the Wuhan coronavirus were assumed to be from an animal source, localised to the seafood market in Wuhan.</p> <p>We <a href="https://jglobalbiosecurity.com/articles/51/">now know</a> it can spread from person to person in some cases. The Chinese government announced it can be spread by touching and contact. We don’t know how much transmission is person to person, but we have some clues.</p> <p>Coronaviruses are respiratory viruses, so they can be found in the nose, throat and lungs.</p> <p>The amount of Wuhan coronavirus appears to be <a href="https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(20)30183-5/fulltext">higher in the lungs</a> than in the nose or throat. If the virus in the lungs is expelled, it could possibly be spread via fine, airborne particles, which are inhaled into the lungs of the recipient.</p> <p><strong>How did the virus spread so rapidly?</strong></p> <p>The continuing surge of cases in China since January 18 – despite the lockdowns, extended holidays, travel bans and banning of the wildlife trade – could be explained by several factors, or a combination of:</p> <ol> <li> <p>increased travel for New Year, resulting in the spread of cases around China and globally. Travel is a major factor in the spread of infections</p> </li> <li> <p>asymptomatic transmissions through children and young people. Such transmissions would not be detected by contact tracing because health authorities can only identify contacts of people who are visibly ill</p> </li> <li> <p>increased detection, testing and reporting of cases. There has been increased capacity for this by doctors and nurses coming in from all over China to help with the response in Wuhan</p> </li> <li> <p>substantial person-to-person transmission</p> </li> <li> <p>continued environmental or animal exposure to a source of infection.</p> </li> </ol> <p>However, with an incubation period as short as <a href="https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200127-sitrep-7-2019--ncov.pdf?sfvrsn=98ef79f5_2">one to two days</a>, if the Wuhan coronavirus was highly contagious, we would expect to already have seen widespread transmission or outbreaks in other countries.</p> <p>Rather, the increase in transmission is likely due to a combination of the factors above, to different degrees. The situation is changing daily, and we need to analyse the transmission data as it becomes available.<!-- Below is The Conversation's page counter tag. Please DO NOT REMOVE. --><img style="border: none !important; box-shadow: none !important; margin: 0 !important; max-height: 1px !important; max-width: 1px !important; min-height: 1px !important; min-width: 1px !important; opacity: 0 !important; outline: none !important; padding: 0 !important; text-shadow: none !important;" src="https://counter.theconversation.com/content/130686/count.gif?distributor=republish-lightbox-basic" alt="The Conversation" width="1" height="1" /><!-- End of code. If you don't see any code above, please get new code from the Advanced tab after you click the republish button. The page counter does not collect any personal data. More info: http://theconversation.com/republishing-guidelines --></p> <p><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/c-raina-macintyre-101935">C Raina MacIntyre</a>, Professor of Global Biosecurity, NHMRC Principal Research Fellow, Head, Biosecurity Program, Kirby Institute, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/unsw-1414">UNSW</a></em></p> <p><em>This article is republished from <a href="http://theconversation.com">The Conversation</a> under a Creative Commons license. Read the <a href="https://theconversation.com/how-contagious-is-the-wuhan-coronavirus-and-can-you-spread-it-before-symptoms-start-130686">original article</a>.</em></p>

Travel Trouble

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Revealed: The royal who will replace Harry and Meghan

<p>With Prince Harry and Meghan officially kicking off their new life in Canada, the palace is set to enlist the help of another royal to take on more engagements.</p> <p>Sophie Wessex, who is considered to be the Queen’s “long-term favourite”, will be “replacing” the Sussexes and representing the Queen after Harry and Meghan stood down from their royal duties.</p> <p>The 55-year-old is married to Prince Edward, the Queen’s youngest son, and is being asked to help “ease the burden”.</p> <p>“[Sophie] has been singled out as a person the Palace would like to help ease the burden,” an insider told<span> </span><em>The Sun</em>.</p> <blockquote style="background: #FFF; border: 0; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: 0 0 1px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.5),0 1px 10px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.15); margin: 1px; max-width: 540px; min-width: 326px; padding: 0; width: calc(100% - 2px);" class="instagram-media" data-instgrm-captioned="" data-instgrm-permalink="https://www.instagram.com/p/B7ol_l_IuYJ/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" data-instgrm-version="12"> <div style="padding: 16px;"> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: row; align-items: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; flex-grow: 0; height: 40px; margin-right: 14px; width: 40px;"></div> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: column; flex-grow: 1; justify-content: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; margin-bottom: 6px; width: 100px;"></div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; width: 60px;"></div> </div> </div> <div style="padding: 19% 0;"></div> <div style="display: block; height: 50px; margin: 0 auto 12px; width: 50px;"></div> <div style="padding-top: 8px;"> <div style="color: #3897f0; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: 550; line-height: 18px;">View this post on Instagram</div> </div> <p style="margin: 8px 0 0 0; padding: 0 4px;"><a style="color: #000; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: 17px; text-decoration: none; word-wrap: break-word;" rel="noopener" href="https://www.instagram.com/p/B7ol_l_IuYJ/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" target="_blank">Tonight The Countess of Wessex was joined by members of a women's parliamentary group and staff during a tour of the chamber of Parliament, Freetown, on the first day of her visit to Sierra Leone. She also met the Vice President Dr. Mohamed Juldeh Jalloh at the State House. The Countess seems to wear her @maisonvalentino printed skirt and @sophiehabsburg_official Cleo clutch. Blouse and shoes NO ID. #countessofwessex #windsor #westminster #royalfamily #royals #uk #england #kensingtonpalace #kensingtonroyal #sussexroyal #buckinghampalace #royaltour #sophierhysjones #earlofwessex #followme</a></p> <p style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; line-height: 17px; margin-bottom: 0; margin-top: 8px; overflow: hidden; padding: 8px 0 7px; text-align: center; text-overflow: ellipsis; white-space: nowrap;">A post shared by <a style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: 17px;" rel="noopener" href="https://www.instagram.com/sophie.countessofwessex/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" target="_blank"> sophie.countessofwessex</a> (@sophie.countessofwessex) on Jan 22, 2020 at 11:50am PST</p> </div> </blockquote> <p>Speaking to the<span> </span><em>Daily Mail</em>, royal expert Phil Dampier revealed that the royal family is “seriously under-staffed”.</p> <p>“Sophie, has become a star in her own right. She is very close to her Majesty and is a favourite of hers. Recently she has been on several overseas trips and done fantastically well,” he said.</p> <p>Sophie is also said to be “very popular” with other senior royal members including Prince Charles, 71, and the Duchess of Cornwall, 72.</p>

International Travel

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"I like the Nick Kyrgios doing this": Nadal's reaction to epic battle

<p>Rafael Nadal has spoken up and says he wants to see more of the positivity and cunning spirit from Nick Kyrgios displayed in their gripping centre court match.</p> <p>The world no. 1 won the game in four sets, with Kyrgios battling hard against his fierce opponent. After losing the third-set tiebreak and smashing a racquet, the Australian unfortunately had an going down 6-3 3-6 7-6 7-6.</p> <p>It’s a surprising turn of attitude from Kyrgios who gave a more considerate and mature post-match performance than he has made a habit of displaying in the past.</p> <p>The star said he may have been shattered by the loss at his home major, but said “overall, this summer has been fun. I feel like I’ve made progress as a human,” he said.</p> <p>Kyrgios admitted he’s sourced inspiration and strength from his idol Kobe Bryant.</p> <p>The NBA basketball legend passed away at the age of 41, along with his 13-year-old daughter Gianna and seven others in a horrific helicopter crash.</p> <p>“It’s horrible news. If anything, it motivated me. If you look at the things he stood for, what he wanted to be remembered by, I felt like, if anything, it helped me tonight,” Kyrgios said.</p> <p>“When I was down a break in the fourth, I was definitely thinking about it. I fought back.”</p> <p>Both Nadal and Kyrgios have had their fair share of ups and downs, especially in 2019 when the loud and proudly outspoken Australian said Nadal was “super salty” and his “polar opposite”.</p> <p>Nadal had bit back and complained Kyrgios “lacked respect”.</p> <p>However, it seems the feud was left on the court on Sunday, after the world no. 1 praised his contender’s skill and spirit this summer.</p> <p>“It was a very tough match,” Nadal said in his post-match interview.</p> <p>“Against Nick you are never under control.</p> <p>“If you have a mistake, like I had in the second set with one serve of mine that I had a mistake, then he has a break it is so difficult to break him again …</p> <p>“What can I say about Nick? I think when he is playing like today with this positive factor he gives a lot of positive factor he gives a lot of positive things to our sport.  I encourage him to keep working like that, because he is one of the highest talents, honestly he is one of the highest talents that we have on our Tour.</p> <p>“And I like the Nick Kyrgios doing this.”</p>

Domestic Travel

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5 things that you should never do on a cruise

<p><strong>Constantly complain</strong></p> <p>There’s no reason to be rude if something doesn’t go your way during the cruise. Polite people never take issues out on crew members, according to Emilie Dulles, an event protocol and etiquette expert. “The crew is there to ensure that every traveller has the best experience onboard possible, yet they are also skilled human beings who should be treated with respect, grace, and kindness,” Dulles says. “Nothing is as tacky as yelling at a server, or complaining at the turn-down staff for forgetting an extra blanket, or hitting on a mixologist after one too many daiquiris.” Pay respect and attention to cruise workers.</p> <p><strong>Drink too much</strong></p> <p>Everyone should enjoy their cruise, and if that means sipping on fruity cocktails, that’s your business. If drinking regularly isn’t something you do, or you don’t know how to handle your liquor, it could lead to lots of rude behaviour. “Inhibitions go down as blood alcohol content goes up, so to avoid embarrassing oneself and disrupting other travellers’ cruise experience, it’s more polite to keep one’s cocktail count in check,” Dulles says.</p> <p><strong>Let kids run wild</strong></p> <p>Many families don’t keep a close eye on their kids while on a cruise, Dulles says. “There are assigned areas for children to run, jump, and be themselves with full energy under the supervision of trained staff,” Dulles says. “The entire ship is not their playground.” Polite people recognise that not all cruise travellers want to see or hear kids all the time. Mind the signs that show what areas are only for adults, families, or kids. “By respecting those boundaries, not only will children enjoy themselves more, but also adults will be able to relax and make the most of their time at sea.” Some cruises are especially for families.</p> <p><strong>Hoard food</strong></p> <p>All-inclusive food is very alluring. It’s easy to take things to the extreme. And although the buffet is tempting, remember not to be wasteful. “When it comes to the all-inclusive aspect of cruise voyages, many travellers will see this as an opportunity of getting as much as possible out of their fare,” Dulles says. “By piling more food than they can consume on their buffet plate and ordering cocktail after cocktail just because they can, travellers can be very wasteful and inconsiderate towards the crew who spends a lot of time and energy putting together the meals and drinks available.” Instead, take enough food for one sitting. You can always choose to go back for seconds, but this is more elegant than throwing away platefuls of perfectly good food.</p> <p><strong>Dress inappropriately</strong></p> <p>During the daytime, there are generally no dress code requirements on cruises. Tsai notes, however, if you plan on a formal dining experience with other guests, dress appropriately for the occasion. Generally, dress code requirements for the evening are in the cruise’s daily program, according to Tsai.</p> <p><em>Written by Emily DiNuzzo. This article first appeared in<a href="https://www.readersdigest.com.au/travel/10-things-polite-people-never-do-on-cruises?slide=all"> Reader’s Digest</a>. For more of what you love from the world’s best-loved magazine, </em><a href="http://readersdigest.innovations.co.nz/c/readersdigestemailsubscribe?utm_source=over60&amp;utm_medium=articles&amp;utm_campaign=RDSUB&amp;keycode=WRN93V"><em>here’s our best subscription offer.</em></a></p>

Cruising

Health

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The real reason women live longer than men

<p>Ask your smartphone how to drive from Copenhagen to Berlin and it will give you an estimate of how long the trip will take, based on current traffic. If there is a traffic jam in Hamburg, say, the extra time this traffic jam takes will be included in the estimate. But, of course, you are not at all the points of your journey now. Rather, you’ll be in Copenhagen first, then at Odense, then Kolding, and so forth. By the time you get to Hamburg, there may no longer be a traffic jam. The estimate your smartphone gave you will be off. Life expectancy is calculated in much the same way.</p> <p>Life expectancy in 2019 is calculated using the chances of survival for all ages in 2019: those who turned 70 in 2019, those who turned 69 in 2019, those who turned 71 … you get the point. But nobody actually has all their birthdays in 2019. People have at most one birthday a year (less than one for some of those who died that year and those born on February 29). Since I turned 35 in 2019, why should the 2019 chances of survival for a 70-year-old matter to me? By the time I turn 70, the world will have changed. The estimate will be off.</p> <p>But your smartphone also tells you something like “31 minutes extra travel time due to a traffic jam”. With this information, you can guess how long the trip will take assuming that the traffic jam will be resolved by the time you get there: just subtract those 31 minutes. Every part of the journey has a travelling time and you can pick those pieces apart.</p> <p>Similarly, life expectancy is built up out of many small pieces, one for each age, and demographers can pick those pieces apart. We did that to answer questions such as: “what is the part of life expectancy lived between ages 50 and 85?” (which will be a number between 0 and 35). And “suppose that in 2015 no 70-year-old died of smoking (for example through lung cancer), what would that life expectancy have been?” And “how has the importance of smoking-related deaths been changing, and was that different for men and women?”</p> <p>Throw all that in the mixer and you get some interesting results, which my colleagues and I – a team from the University of Southern Denmark and University of Groningen – published in <a href="https://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12889-020-8148-4">BMC Public Health</a>.</p> <p>We studied the part of life expectancy lived between ages 50 and 85 for high-income North America, high-income Europe and high-income Oceania for the period 1950-2015. Around 1950, males lived about two and a half years less than females. Around 1980, this difference had increased to about four and a half years. Then the difference in life expectancy declined to new lows of about two years in 2015.</p> <p>All of that increase and subsequent decrease was due to smoking. Remove smoking and you get an almost flat line at only two years, which is what the difference in life expectancy between ages 50 and 85 would have been if nobody had smoked.</p> <p><strong>Long time coming</strong></p> <p>If smoking is so bad, why are we seeing all of these early deaths? Why aren’t people smarter? Well, if cigarettes killed you right away, nobody would touch them. The problem is that cigarettes do kill you – only decades later.</p> <p>Because, historically, men started smoking earlier and heavier than women, any effect of smoking on life expectancy shows in males first. While medical doctors were coming to the conclusion that smoking is bad – basing their conclusions on evidence from men – women decided it was time to take up smoking. Now, decades later, the effect of smoking (death) is declining in males but still increasing for older females who smoked in the past. This gives rise to a four-wave pattern dubbed “the smoking epidemic”: first men smoke, then men start dying from smoking at around the same time women start smoking, then women start dying from smoking.</p> <p>In the final phase of the smoking epidemic, people get smarter and stop smoking. This last part of the smoking epidemic, however, is the more difficult part. Unfortunately, people keep smoking (big tobacco is doing just fine).</p> <p>But our study also showed some good news. Recently, there was a big drop in smoking-related deaths for people of around 50 years old. While smoking is certainly not down and out, at least some people seem to get that tobacco is a killer.<!-- Below is The Conversation's page counter tag. Please DO NOT REMOVE. --><img style="border: none !important; box-shadow: none !important; margin: 0 !important; max-height: 1px !important; max-width: 1px !important; min-height: 1px !important; min-width: 1px !important; opacity: 0 !important; outline: none !important; padding: 0 !important; text-shadow: none !important;" src="https://counter.theconversation.com/content/130142/count.gif?distributor=republish-lightbox-basic" alt="The Conversation" width="1" height="1" /><!-- End of code. If you don't see any code above, please get new code from the Advanced tab after you click the republish button. The page counter does not collect any personal data. More info: http://theconversation.com/republishing-guidelines --></p> <p><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/maarten-wensink-941141">Maarten Wensink</a>, Assistant Professor, Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Biodemography, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/university-of-southern-denmark-1097">University of Southern Denmark</a></em></p> <p><em>This article is republished from <a href="http://theconversation.com">The Conversation</a> under a Creative Commons license. Read the <a href="https://theconversation.com/the-real-reason-women-live-longer-than-men-new-study-130142">original article</a>.</em></p>

Body

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Woman’s X-ray from car crash reveals dangers of common habit

<p>A UK police officer has released an X-ray of a car crash victim to warn other passengers against putting their feet on the dashboard.</p> <p>An unidentified woman had one of her hips broken and the other dislocated in a car accident while her feet were propped on the vehicle’s dashboard.</p> <p>Wales police sergeant Ian Price took to Twitter to share the X-ray initially posted by the Platinum Ambulance Service to warn other front-seat passengers against the habit.</p> <p>“Here is an X-ray of horrific injuries sustained to the front seat passenger who had their feet on the dashboard at the time of a collision,” he wrote. “If you see your passenger doing it stop driving and show them this.”</p> <blockquote class="twitter-tweet"> <p dir="ltr">Here is an X-ray of horrific injuries sustained to the front seat passenger who had their feet on the dashboard at the time of a collision. If you see your passenger doing it stop driving and show them this. <a href="https://t.co/f3XCT8ePvi">pic.twitter.com/f3XCT8ePvi</a></p> — 🏴󠁧󠁢󠁷󠁬󠁳󠁿 Sgt 121 Ian Price 🏴󠁧󠁢󠁷󠁬󠁳󠁿 (@DPGoSafeSkipper) <a href="https://twitter.com/DPGoSafeSkipper/status/1220030119735103489?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">January 22, 2020</a></blockquote> <p>According to trauma surgeon Dr John Crozier, putting up feet on the dashboard may in a crash cause <a href="https://www.mynrma.com.au/cars-and-driving/driver-training-and-licences/resources/feet-on-dash">death or serious injuries</a> such as a ruptured bowl, spinal cord damage and paralysis.</p> <p>In 2016, more than 400 people in Australia were admitted to hospital with injuries related to putting their feet up on the dashboard.</p>

Body

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5 foods you should never keep in your pantry

<p><strong>Tomato sauce</strong></p> <p>Your pantry may be stocked with tomato sauce you bought the last time it was a sale, but it always should go in the fridge after you open it. “In the old days, a lot of us used to keep tomato sauce in the pantry,” Lydia Buchtmann, spokeswoman for the Food Safety Information Council, told HuffPost Australia. “But since then these products have gotten a lot healthier, so they’ve got less unhealthy preservatives in them like salt.”</p> <p><strong>Dijon mustard</strong></p> <p>Although your favourite sausage condiment won’t spoil if it’s kept in the pantry, keeping it in the fridge removes any risk of your Dijon losing the flavour you love. Plus, it’ll last longer if it’s refrigerated.</p> <p><strong>Bananas</strong></p> <p>Surprised? You may be used to keeping your bananas in prime pantry real estate, but if you keep them there, they just keep ripening. When they’re ready to eat, put them in the fridge, the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics says. If the peels turn brown, they’ll still be good to eat. Food storage is one of the factors as to why professional chefs never order these foods at restaurants.</p> <p><strong>Salami</strong></p> <p>You already know to keep raw meat like chicken and beef in the fridge (or the freezer if you’re not using it right away), and the same applies for cured meat like salami. In a 2006 study, researchers found that 23 per cent of the tested 1020 dry Italian salami contained the foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes.</p> <p><strong>Pure maple syrup</strong></p> <p>If you love syrup, why would you eat anything other than the 100 per cent pure maple stuff? However, unlike syrup that’s only maple-flavoured, this pure kind must be kept in the refrigerator to prevent mould. Store it in the freezer (don’t worry, it won’t freeze solid), and it’ll keep indefinitely.</p> <p><em>Written by Claire Nowak. This article first appeared in </em><a href="https://www.readersdigest.com.au/food-home-garden/15-foods-you-should-never-keep-in-your-pantry?slide=allhttps://www.readersdigest.com.au/food-home-garden/15-foods-you-should-never-keep-in-your-pantry?slide=all"><em>Reader’s Digest</em></a><em>. For more of what you love from the world’s best-loved magazine,</em><span><em> </em></span><a href="http://readersdigest.innovations.co.nz/c/readersdigestemailsubscribe?utm_source=over60&amp;utm_medium=articles&amp;utm_campaign=RDSUB&amp;keycode=WRN93V"><em>here’s our best subscription offer.</em></a></p>

Caring

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Can’t do what you need to do in a public toilet? You’re not alone

<p>Most of us don’t give much thought to going to the toilet. We go when we need to go.</p> <p>But for a small minority of people, the act of urinating or defecating can be a major source of anxiety – especially when public restrooms are the only facilities available.</p> <p>Paruresis (shy bladder) and parcopresis (shy bowel) are little known mental health conditions, yet they can significantly compromise a person’s quality of life.</p> <p>We don’t know how many people have shy bowel, but research has estimated around <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0022399916305542">2.8%-16.4% of the population</a> are affected by shy bladder. The condition is more common in males.</p> <p>Our research explored the thought processes that underpin these conditions, with a view to understanding how they might best be treated.</p> <p><strong>What are the symptoms?</strong></p> <p>Most of us will feel a little “grossed out” from time to time when using public toilets. But what we’re talking about here is different and more serious.</p> <p>People with shy bladder and shy bowel experience <a href="https://www1.racgp.org.au/ajgp/2019/april/latest-thinking-on-paruresis-and-parcopresis">significant anxiety</a> when trying to go to the toilet, especially in public places like shopping centres, restaurants, at work or at school. Sufferers may also experience symptoms in their own home when family or friends are around.</p> <p>Their anxiety can present in the form of increased heart rate, excessive sweating, rapid breathing, muscle tension, heart palpitations, blushing, nausea, trembling, or a combination of these.</p> <p>Symptoms range in severity. Some people who are more mildly affected can experience anxiety but still be able to “go”, for example when the bathroom is completely empty. Others may urinate or defecate with difficulty – for example their urine stream may be inconsistent. Some people will sit on the toilet and not be able to go at all.</p> <p>In severe cases, sufferers may hold it in until they get home. This is uncomfortable and can even have <a href="https://www.sciencealert.com/what-happens-when-you-hold-in-pee-science-2017">health consequences</a>, such as urinary tract infections.</p> <p>Sufferers report difficulties relating to <a href="https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/da.10061">employment, relationships and social life</a>. For example, they might avoid travelling, going to parties, or attending large events like sports matches because of their symptoms.</p> <p>Unfortunately, people with shy bladder or shy bowel will often feel shame and embarrassment, making them less likely to seek help.</p> <p><strong>It’s a type of social anxiety disorder</strong></p> <p>The <a href="https://www.psychiatry.org/psychiatrists/practice/dsm">DSM-5</a>, a manual designed to help clinicians diagnose mental health conditions, classifies shy bladder as a sub-type of social anxiety disorder.</p> <p>The DSM-5 doesn’t make specific mention of shy bowel, but with more research we hope to see it included in the future.</p> <p>Social anxiety disorder is characterised by an <a href="https://adaa.org/understanding-anxiety/social-anxiety-disorder">excessive fear of social situations</a>, including contact with strangers. People with the condition fear scrutiny by others, whether negative or positive evaluation.</p> <p>We wanted to understand whether the thought processes that underpin shy bladder and shy bowel are similar to those demonstrated in people with social anxiety disorder.</p> <p><strong>Our research</strong></p> <p>We canvassed <a href="https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12144-019-00376-w">316 undergraduate students</a> in an online survey on shy bladder and shy bowel. Some 72 participants (22.8%) self-reported symptoms of either one or both conditions.</p> <p>We found these symptoms were influenced by particular patterns of thinking, including:</p> <ul> <li>a misinterpretation or distortion of information (for example, interpreting laughter in the restroom as being directed towards them)</li> <li>fears around potential perceived negative evaluation (for example, a fear of being criticised for taking too long to defecate, or for sounds and smells produced during urination or defecation)</li> <li>fears around potential perceived positive evaluation (for example, a fear of being evaluated too positively for a strong urine stream).</li> </ul> <p>Using statistical modelling, we found fear of negative evaluation was the factor most strongly associated with shy bladder or shy bowel symptoms.</p> <p><strong>Treatment</strong></p> <p>While our study was small and more research is needed, the thought processes we identified as underpinning shy bladder and shy bowel are very similar to those we know predict social anxiety symptoms.</p> <p>As such, people with shy bladder or shy bowel may benefit from the sorts of treatments that help people with social anxiety disorder.</p> <p>Cognitive behavioural therapy, for example, <a href="https://www.psychology.org.au/getmedia/23c6a11b-2600-4e19-9a1d-6ff9c2f26fae/Evidence-based-psych-interventions.pdf">is known</a> to reduce social anxiety symptoms.</p> <p>The best way to help people with these conditions will be addressing the thought processes behind shy bladder and shy bowel, especially concerns around the perceptions others might evaluate or criticise one’s urination or defecation.</p> <p>As well as targeting unhelpful thinking, like all anxiety conditions, reducing avoidance through gradual exposure work (putting oneself in anxiety-inducing situations where one will build confidence and tolerance around anxiety) is also likely to help.</p> <p>If you can’t do what you need to do in a public restroom, know you’re not alone and you’re not going crazy. Shy bladder and shy bowel are genuine anxiety conditions and can have significant effects on your day-to-day functioning.</p> <p>Discussing these symptoms with your doctor and/or mental health professional is likely to be an important step to freeing yourself from these conditions.</p> <p><em>Written by Kenley Kuoch and Simon Robert Knowles. Republished with permission of <a href="https://theconversation.com/cant-do-what-you-need-to-do-in-a-public-toilet-youre-not-alone-and-theres-help-127719">The Conversation.</a> </em></p>

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The science is in: Gardening is good for you

<p>“That’s all very well put,” says Candide, in the final line of Voltaire’s novel of the same name, “but we must go and work our garden.”</p> <p>I studied this text at high school before I became a gardener and professional horticulturist. We were taught that Candide’s gardening imperative was metaphorical not literal; a command for finding an authentic vocation, not a call to take up trowels and secateurs.</p> <p>In fact, Voltaire himself really believed that active gardening was a great way to stay sane, healthy and free from stress. That was 300 years ago.</p> <p>As it turns out, the science suggests he was right.</p> <p><strong>The science of therapeutic horticulture</strong></p> <p>Gardens and landscapes have long been designed as sanctuaries and retreats from the stresses of life – from great urban green spaces such as Central Park in New York to the humblest suburban backyard. But beyond the passive enjoyment of a garden or of being in nature more generally, researchers have also studied the role of actively caring for plants as a therapeutic and educational tool.</p> <p>“Therapeutic horticulture” and “horticultural therapy” have become recognised treatments for stress and depression, which have served as a healing aid in settings ranging from prisons and mental health treatment facilities to schools and hospitals.</p> <p><strong>Gardening and school</strong></p> <p>Studies of school gardening programs – which usually centre on growing food – show that students who have worked on designing, creating and maintaining gardens develop more positive attitudes about health, nutrition and the <a href="http://www.kohalacenter.org/HISGN/pdf/HPP_2011_MMR_Sample1.pdf">consumption</a> of <a href="http://search.proquest.com/openview/61a8bb123ec000d6a6348aeb950645fa/1?pq-origsite=gscholar">vegetables</a>.</p> <p>They also <a href="http://horttech.ashspublications.org/content/15/3/439.short">score better</a> on science <a href="http://aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu/syllabi/435/Articles/Klemmer.pdf">achievement</a>, have better attitudes about school, and improve their <a href="http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15330150701318828">interpersonal skills</a> and <a href="https://food-hub.org/files/resources/Blair_The%20Child%20in%20the%20Garden_J.%20Environ%20Educ_2009.pdf">classroom behaviour</a>.</p> <p>Research on students confirms that gardening leads to higher levels of self-esteem and responsibility. Research suggests that incorporating gardening into a <a href="http://kohalacenter.org/HISGN/pdf/Thechildinthegarden.pdf">school setting</a> can boost group cohesiveness.</p> <p><strong>Gardening and mental health</strong></p> <p>Tailored gardening programs have been shown to increase quality of life for people with <a href="http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1300/J004v16n01_02">chronic mental illnesses</a>, including <a href="http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1300/J004v16n01_02">anxiety and depression</a>.</p> <p>Another study on the use of therapeutic horticulture for patients with clinical depression sought to understand why gardening programs were effective in lessening patient experience of depression. They found that structured gardening activities gave patients existential purpose. Put simply, it <a href="http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.3109/01612840.2010.528168">gave their lives meaning</a>.</p> <p>In jails and corrective programs, horticultural therapy programs have been used to give inmates positive, purposeful activities that lessen aggression and hostility during and after incarceration.</p> <p>In one detailed study from a San Francisco program, involvement in therapeutic horticulture was particularly effective in <a href="http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1300/J076v26n03_10">improving psychosocial functioning</a> across prison populations (although the benefits were not necessarily sustained after release.)</p> <p>Gardening has been shown to help improve the lives of <a href="https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Jacqueline_Atkinson/publication/265575473_AN_EVALUATION_OF_THE_GARDENING_LEAVE_PROJECT_FOR_EX-MILITARY_PERSONNEL_WITH_PTSD_AND_OTHER_COMBAT_RELATED_MENTAL_HEALTH_PROBLEMS/links/55094b960cf26ff55f852b50.pdf">military veterans</a> and <a href="http://www.joe.org/joe/2007june/iw5p.shtml">homeless people</a>. Various therapeutic horticulture <a href="https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/dspace-jspui/handle/2134/2930">programs</a> have been used to help people with learning difficulties, asylum seekers, refugees and victims of torture.</p> <p><strong>Gardening and older people</strong></p> <p>As populations in the West age, hands-on gardening programs have been used for older people in nursing homes and related facilities.</p> <p>A systematic review of 22 studies of gardening programs for older adults found that gardening was a powerful <a href="http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01924788.2013.784942">health-promoting activity</a> across diverse populations.</p> <p>One <a href="http://journals.lww.com/jcrjournal/Abstract/2005/09000/Effects_of_Horticultural_Therapy_on_Mood_and_Heart.8.aspx">study</a> sought to understand if patients recovering from heart attack might benefit from a horticultural therapy program. It concluded:</p> <blockquote> <p><em>[Our] findings indicate that horticultural therapy improves mood state, suggesting that it may be a useful tool in reducing stress. Therefore, to the extent that stress contributes to coronary heart disease, these findings support the role of horticultural therapy as an effective component of cardiac rehabilitation.</em></p> </blockquote> <div class="embed-responsive embed-responsive-16by9"><iframe class="embed-responsive-item" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/Yvir4sm2G7Q"></iframe></div> <p>While the literature on the positive effects of gardening, reflecting both qualitative and quantitative studies, is large, most of these studies are from overseas.</p> <p>Investment in horticultural therapy programs in Australia is piecemeal. That said, there are some standout success stories such as the <a href="https://www.kitchengardenfoundation.org.au/">Stephanie Alexander Kitchen Garden Foundation</a> and the work of nurse <a href="https://www.anmfvic.asn.au/membership/member-profiles/steven-wells">Steven Wells at the Royal Talbot Rehabilitation Centre</a> and beyond.</p> <p>Finally, without professionally trained horticulturists none of these programs – in Australia or internationally – can take place.<!-- Below is The Conversation's page counter tag. Please DO NOT REMOVE. --><img style="border: none !important; box-shadow: none !important; margin: 0 !important; max-height: 1px !important; max-width: 1px !important; min-height: 1px !important; min-width: 1px !important; opacity: 0 !important; outline: none !important; padding: 0 !important; text-shadow: none !important;" src="https://counter.theconversation.com/content/65251/count.gif?distributor=republish-lightbox-basic" alt="The Conversation" width="1" height="1" /><!-- End of code. If you don't see any code above, please get new code from the Advanced tab after you click the republish button. The page counter does not collect any personal data. More info: http://theconversation.com/republishing-guidelines --></p> <p><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/chris-williams-300083">Chris Williams</a>, Lecturer in urban horticulture, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/university-of-melbourne-722">University of Melbourne</a></em></p> <p><em>This article is republished from <a href="http://theconversation.com">The Conversation</a> under a Creative Commons license. Read the <a href="https://theconversation.com/the-science-is-in-gardening-is-good-for-you-65251">original article</a>.</em></p>

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Instagram influencer hits back at online bullies over white doona dust-up

<p>An Aussie Instagram influencer has spoken up after receiving online attacks over her post on a white doona cover.</p> <p>Tasmanian woman Claire is the manager of @thekmartlover, an Instagram page that provides tips and updates on fashion and home décor featuring products from Kmart and other stores in Australia.</p> <p>After posting about a white quilt cover from Kmart with the part of caption reading “white is right” on Friday, she received messages calling her “racist” and “white supremacist”.</p> <p>She then replaced the line “white is right” with: “Can you beat a white quilt cover for a relaxing entrance to a bedroom? I love it!”</p> <blockquote style="background: #FFF; border: 0; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: 0 0 1px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.5),0 1px 10px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.15); margin: 1px; max-width: 540px; min-width: 326px; padding: 0; width: calc(100% - 2px);" class="instagram-media" data-instgrm-captioned="" data-instgrm-permalink="https://www.instagram.com/p/B7sdBqAJPEK/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" data-instgrm-version="12"> <div style="padding: 16px;"> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: row; align-items: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; flex-grow: 0; height: 40px; margin-right: 14px; width: 40px;"></div> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: column; flex-grow: 1; justify-content: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; margin-bottom: 6px; width: 100px;"></div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; width: 60px;"></div> </div> </div> <div style="padding: 19% 0;"></div> <div style="display: block; height: 50px; margin: 0 auto 12px; width: 50px;"></div> <div style="padding-top: 8px;"> <div style="color: #3897f0; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: 550; line-height: 18px;">View this post on Instagram</div> </div> <p style="margin: 8px 0 0 0; padding: 0 4px;"><a style="color: #000; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: 17px; text-decoration: none; word-wrap: break-word;" rel="noopener" href="https://www.instagram.com/p/B7sdBqAJPEK/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" target="_blank">Can you beat a white quilt cover for a relaxing entrance to a bedroom? I love it! This is the @kmartaus waffle quilt cover, $45 for the king. Of course it’s teamed with the stunning new $69 wool blend shirred rug and poppy cushion $12. Decorative ladder $25 and throw (old stock sorry) also from Kmart Bed @freedom_australia</a></p> <p style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; line-height: 17px; margin-bottom: 0; margin-top: 8px; overflow: hidden; padding: 8px 0 7px; text-align: center; text-overflow: ellipsis; white-space: nowrap;">A post shared by <a style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: 17px;" rel="noopener" href="https://www.instagram.com/thekmartlover/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" target="_blank"> • C L A I R E •</a> (@thekmartlover) on Jan 23, 2020 at 11:48pm PST</p> </div> </blockquote> <p>On Saturday, Claire spoke about the controversy on Instagram Story. “I’m not racist. I was purely talking about a bloody doona cover and it does hurt. It hurts me. I put in time to this page. It’s my page,” she said.</p> <p>She shared another post addressing the controversy.</p> <p>“This week I have been trolled for having too many hats and contributing to landfill. This week I have been trolled as being racist for saying ‘white is right’ about the depicted doona cover. This week I have been trolled for having too many clothes and that I should donated more, that I am wasteful, not thoughtful and that I should influence people in a far better way,” she wrote.</p> <p>“I am using my voice so that hopefully this changes the mindset of one person out there that has thought about writing something negative in any online forum.”</p> <blockquote style="background: #FFF; border: 0; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: 0 0 1px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.5),0 1px 10px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.15); margin: 1px; max-width: 540px; min-width: 326px; padding: 0; width: calc(100% - 2px);" class="instagram-media" data-instgrm-permalink="https://www.instagram.com/p/B7vDSUUJAW7/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" data-instgrm-version="12"> <div style="padding: 16px;"> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: row; align-items: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; flex-grow: 0; height: 40px; margin-right: 14px; width: 40px;"></div> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: column; flex-grow: 1; justify-content: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; margin-bottom: 6px; width: 100px;"></div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; width: 60px;"></div> </div> </div> <div style="padding: 19% 0;"></div> <div style="display: block; height: 50px; margin: 0 auto 12px; width: 50px;"></div> <div style="padding-top: 8px;"> <div style="color: #3897f0; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: 550; line-height: 18px;">View this post on Instagram</div> </div> <p style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; line-height: 17px; margin-bottom: 0; margin-top: 8px; overflow: hidden; padding: 8px 0 7px; text-align: center; text-overflow: ellipsis; white-space: nowrap;"><a style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: 17px; text-decoration: none;" rel="noopener" href="https://www.instagram.com/p/B7vDSUUJAW7/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" target="_blank">A post shared by • C L A I R E • (@thekmartlover)</a> on Jan 25, 2020 at 12:01am PST</p> </div> </blockquote> <p>She encouraged her 111,000 followers to support her collaboration t-shirt project with Small Print Design. For every t-shirt sold, $5 will be donated to anti-bullying organisation Bully Zero.</p> <p>Claire told <em><a href="https://10daily.com.au/lifestyle/life/a200127crina/it-hurts-me-aussie-instagram-influencer-viciously-attacked-over-white-doona-cover-20200128">10daily</a></em>, “If you do not like it, then simply unfollow and use your time in another manner. Obviously a message of mine is Just Be Kind. A little kindness goes a long way.”</p>

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The biology of coffee

<p>You’re reading this with a cup of coffee in your hand, aren’t you? Coffee is the most popular drink <a href="https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2013/12/20/chart-of-the-week-coffee-and-tea-around-the-world/">in many parts of the world</a>. Americans drink more coffee than soda, juice and tea — <a href="https://www.marketwatch.com/story/international-coffee-day-americans-drink-more-coffee-than-soda-tea-and-juice-combined-2017-09-29">combined</a>.</p> <p>How popular is coffee? When news first broke that Prince Harry and Meghan were considering Canada as their new home, Canadian coffee giant Tim Hortons offered free coffee for life as an extra enticement.</p> <p>Given coffee’s popularity, it’s surprising how much confusion surrounds how this hot, dark, nectar of the gods affects our biology.</p> <p><strong>Coffee’s ingredients</strong></p> <p>The main biologically active ingredients in coffee are caffeine (a stimulant) and a suite of antioxidants. What do we know about how caffeine and antioxidants affect our bodies? The fundamentals are pretty simple, but the devil is in the details and the speculation around how coffee could either help or harm us runs a bit wild.</p> <p>The stimulant properties of caffeine mean that you can count on a cup of coffee to wake you up. In fact, coffee, or at least the caffeine it contains, is the most <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/0165-0173(92)90012-B">commonly used psychoactive drug in the world</a>. It seems to work as a stimulant, at least in part, by blocking adenosine, which promotes sleep, from binding to its receptor.</p> <p>Caffeine and adenosine have similar ring structures. Caffeine acts as a molecular mimic, filling and blocking the adenosine receptor, preventing the body’s natural ability to be able a rest when it’s tired.</p> <p>This blocking is also the reason why too much coffee can leave you feeling jittery or sleepless. You can only postpone fatigue for so long before the body’s regulatory systems begin to fail, leading to simple things like the jitters, but also more serious effects like <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/0165-0173(92)90012-B">anxiety or insomnia</a>. Complications may be common; a possible link between coffee drinking and insomnia was identified <a href="https://www.doi.org/10.2307/1413116">more than 100 years ago</a>.</p> <p style="text-align: center;"><iframe width="440" height="260" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/TTDy-L0NKIg?wmode=transparent&amp;start=0" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen=""></iframe></p> <p style="text-align: center;"><span class="caption">The National Film Board of Canada produced a documentary on the cultural history of coffee called <em>Black Coffee: Part One, The Irresistible Bean</em></span></p> <p><strong>Unique responses</strong></p> <p>Different people respond to caffeine differently. At least some of this variation is from having <a href="https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.clpt.6100102">different forms of that adenosine receptor</a>, the molecule that caffeine binds to and blocks. There are <a href="https://academic.oup.com/hmg/article/20/10/2071/680367">likely other sites of genetic variation as well</a>.</p> <p>There are individuals who don’t process caffeine and to whom drinks like coffee <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0273230015301379">could pose medical danger</a>. Even away from those extremes, however, there is variation in how we respond to that cup of coffee. And, like much of biology, that variation is a function of environment, our past coffee consumption, genetics and, honestly, just random chance.</p> <p>We may be interested in coffee because of the oh-so-joyous caffeine buzz, but that doesn’t mean that caffeine is the most biologically interesting aspect of a good cup of coffee.</p> <p>In one study using rats, caffeine triggered smooth muscle contraction, so it is possible that <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-5085(19)38364-7">caffeine directly promotes bowel activity</a>. Other studies, though, have shown that decaffeinated coffee can have as strong an effect on bowel activity as regular coffee, suggesting <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gut.31.4.450">a more complex mechanism involving some of the other molecules in coffee</a>.</p> <p><strong>Antioxidant benefits</strong></p> <p>What about <a href="https://dx.doi.org/10.3390%2Fantiox2040230">the antioxidants in coffee</a> and the buzz that surrounds them? Things actually start out pretty straightforward. Metabolic processes produce the energy necessary for life, but they also create waste, often in the form of oxidized molecules that can be harmful in themselves or in damaging other molecules.</p> <p>Antioxidants are a broad group of molecules that can scrub up dangerous waste; all organisms produce antioxidants as part of their metabolic balance. It is unclear if supplementing our diet with additional antioxidants can augment these natural defences, but that hasn’t stopped speculation.</p> <p>Antioxidants have been linked to almost everything, including <a href="https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1743-6109.2005.20236.x">premature ejaculation</a>.</p> <p>Are any of the claims of positive effects substantiated? Surprisingly, the answer is again a resounding maybe.</p> <p><strong>Coffee and cancer</strong></p> <p>Coffee won’t cure cancer, but it may help to prevent it and possibly other diseases as well. Part of answering the question of coffee’s connection to cancer lies in asking another: what is cancer? At its simplest, cancer is uncontrolled cell growth, which is fundamentally about regulating when genes are, or are not, actively expressed.</p> <p>My research group studies <a href="https://doi.org/10.1534/g3.114.012484">gene</a> <a href="https://dx.doi.org/10.1534%2Fgenetics.111.133231">regulation</a> and I can tell you that even a good cup of coffee, or boost of caffeine, won’t cause genes that are turned off or on at the wrong time to suddenly start playing by the rules.</p> <p>The antioxidants in coffee may actually have <a href="https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/causes-prevention/risk/diet/antioxidants-fact-sheet">a cancer-fighting effect</a>. Remember that antioxidants fight cellular damage. One type of damage that <a href="https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1521-1878(199903)21:3%3C238::AID-BIES8%3E3.0.CO;2-3">they may help reduce is mutations to DNA</a>, and cancer is caused by mutations that lead to the misregulation of genes.</p> <p>Studies have shown that <a href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-9561-8_45">consuming coffee fights cancer in rats</a>. Other studies in humans have shown that <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26656410">coffee consumption is associated with lower rates of some cancers</a>.</p> <p>Interestingly, coffee consumption has also been linked to reduced rates of other diseases as well. Higher coffee consumption is linked to <a href="http://doi.org/10.3233/JAD-2010-091525">lower rates of Parkinson’s disease</a> and some other forms of dementia. Strikingly, at least one experimental study in mice and cell culture shows that <a href="https://dx.doi.org/10.1073%2Fpnas.1813365115">protection is a function of a combination of caffeine and antioxidants in coffee</a>.</p> <p>Higher coffee consumption has also been linked to <a href="https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.112.048603">lower rates of Type 2 diabetes</a>. Complexity, combined effects and variation between individuals seems to be the theme across all the diseases.</p> <p>At the end of the day, where does all this leave us on the biology of coffee? Well, as I tell my students, it’s complicated. But as most reading this already know, coffee will definitely wake you up in the morning.<!-- End of code. If you don't see any code above, please get new code from the Advanced tab after you click the republish button. The page counter does not collect any personal data. More info: http://theconversation.com/republishing-guidelines --></p> <p><span><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/thomas-merritt-389077"><em>Thomas Merritt</em></a><em>, Professor and Canada Research Chair, Chemistry and Biochemistry, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/laurentian-university-1089">Laurentian University</a></em></span></p> <p><em>This article is republished from <a href="http://theconversation.com">The Conversation</a> under a Creative Commons license. Read the <a href="https://theconversation.com/the-biology-of-coffee-one-of-the-worlds-most-popular-drinks-129179">original article</a>.</em></p>

Food & Wine

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Queen gives Prince William new title after Harry steps down

<p>Queen Elizabeth has given her grandson, the Duke of Cambridge, a shiny new title after the Duke and Duchess of Sussex stepped down to seek a financially independent life.</p> <p>The royal heir has been appointed Lord High Commissioner to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland for 2020, it was revealed on Sunday.</p> <p>Prince William, 37, was chosen by Her Majesty to represent The Firm at the General Assembly in May, where he will make the opening and closing statements.</p> <p>“The Queen has appointed Prince William as Lord High Commissioner to the General Assembly of the @churchscotland this year,” Kensington Palace announced on Twitter.</p> <p>The Lord High Commissioner may sound like a tough title, but its goal is simple: maintain the relationship between the State and the Church.</p> <p>The Commissioner is given to a new person each year, on the advice of the Prime Minister and for 2020, her dear grandson has been given the honour.</p> <p>The Lord High Commissioner makes opening and closing addresses to the General Assembly and reports to the Queen on its proceedings.</p> <p>The Queen's children Prince Charles, Princess Anne, Prince Andrew and Prince Edward, have all served as Lord High Commissioners in the past.</p> <p>Just like his predecessors, Prince William will be required to stay at the Palace of Holyroodhouse for the duration of his week-long event and receive a Guard of Honour, a 21-Gun Salute and the keys to the City of Edinburgh, as reported by the <em><a rel="noopener noreferrer" href="http://royal.uk/" target="_blank">Royal.uk</a>.</em></p> <p>It seems the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge’s calendars are quickly filling up this year, as another royal engagement has been announced for the pair just this week.</p> <p>The couple will attend the red carpet at the glitzy British Academy of Film and Television Arts awards - or BAFTAs - on February 2.</p> <p>2020 is a special year for Prince William as he will be celebrating a decade as BAFTAs president.</p> <p>Prince William and his wife Duchess Catherine are regulars at the lavish awards ceremony and this year, they will celebrate William's 10th year as President of the British Academy of Film and Television Arts.</p>

Relationships

Finance

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How to cope with extreme heat days without racking up the aircon bill

<p>Summer in Australia is <a href="http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/updates/articles/a032.shtml">getting hotter</a>. Extreme heat events, with daytime temperatures over 35 degrees Celsius, are becoming more common and we are getting more of these days in a row.</p> <p>We all need to prepare ourselves, our homes and our neighbourhoods for hot and very hot days. Since 2016, the <a href="https://www.westernsydney.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0020/1161470/cooling-the-commons-report.pdf">Cooling the Commons</a> research project has been working with people living in some of Sydney’s hottest neighbourhoods to learn how they cope with heat.</p> <p>Discussion groups with residents across hotspots in Western Sydney, including Penrith, Cranebrook and St Marys, highlighted a wealth of things we can do to manage heat. We published some of the following tips in a recent <a href="https://www.westernsydney.edu.au/ics/news/new_resource_by_institute_researchers_provides_advice_on_how_to_prepare_for_heat">flier</a>.</p> <p><strong>Why can’t we all just rely on air conditioning?</strong></p> <p>Official advice for extreme heat is often to stay inside and turn on the air conditioning. While air conditioning can play a role, <a href="https://www.canstarblue.com.au/appliances/air-conditioning-running-costs/">not everyone can afford it</a>. Low-income and older households can be especially vulnerable to bill shock and are more likely to feel the impacts of extreme heat.</p> <p>There is also the risk that running air conditioners uses <a href="https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2019/jul/09/australias-emissions-reach-the-highest-on-record-driven-by-electricity-sector">energy resources that contribute further to global warming</a>. More immediately, hot exhaust air from air-conditioning units can <a href="https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/2013JD021225">make the local environment hotter</a>. This means keeping one home cool can make it harder for neighbours to keep their homes cool and make being outside even more uncomfortable.</p> <p>Air conditioning in private homes creates a cool refuge for only some. Unless those homes have an open-door policy on hot days, many of us will need to find other ways to keep cool. If you do have air conditioning, think about how you could share your air with those near you who might really need it.</p> <p><strong>Prepare before the heat hits</strong></p> <p><strong><em>Shade is important for creating more comfortable living spaces.</em></strong></p> <p>Identify which parts of your home get the most afternoon sun in summer. Can you plant trees or vines, or move a pot plant outside the window to create a green screen? Can you attach awnings to shade the windows?</p> <p>Low-cost temporary solutions can include attaching light-coloured shade cloth outside the window using removable hooks, or installing heavy drapes or blinds inside. Blankets or even aluminium foil are a low-cost creative way of keeping heat out.</p> <p><strong><em>Open up to let in cool air at night</em></strong></p> <p>Can you open the windows and doors overnight to let in cooler air? If you are concerned about security, look for options for locking the windows in an open position, or using flyscreens and security grilles on windows and doors.</p> <p>A low-cost option to keeping flying insects at bay on hot nights is a mosquito net over the window or around the bed.</p> <p><strong><em>Use low-cost resources to prepare in advance.</em></strong></p> <p>Ceiling or portable fans are one of the best ways to cool your body when it’s hot. But remember fans don’t cool rooms, so turn off the fan when you leave the room or you’re just burning electricity.</p> <p>Find ice trays and containers to freeze water – cake tins and storage containers are a good option. Putting these in front of a portable fan will mean the fan blows cool air.</p> <p>Putting a wet face cloth on the insides of your wrists, around your ankles or on the back of your neck will bring down your body temperature. Hanging damp sheets in doorways or in front of a fan will help keep the temperature down – although the trick with the sheets won’t work if it’s a really humid day.</p> <p><strong>How to stay cool and comfortable on hot days</strong></p> <p>Morning is likely to be the coolest time of the day. Open up your windows and doors to let in the cooler morning air.</p> <p>It’s the best time to be active – walk the dog, take the kids to the park, go for a swim. If possible, do your cleaning, cooking or outside work now. Plan meals that don’t require an oven.</p> <p><strong><em>Close up as it heats up.</em></strong></p> <p>As the day starts to get hot, close the house up – shut windows, blinds and curtains. This could be as early as 9am on really hot days. If you are heading out to work, do this before you leave home.</p> <p>Closing internal doors can help to keep the heat in one part of your home. You need to close doors to any parts of the home that get hot before the day gets hot.</p> <p><strong><em>Stay hydrated.</em></strong></p> <p>Drink plenty of water throughout the day. Put a jug of tap water in the fridge and remember to top it up.</p> <p>Don’t forget to move pet water bowls and day beds out of the sun. If you live in a dry area, it can’t hurt to put out extra water bowls for needy wildlife!</p> <p><strong><em>Find a cooling refuge.</em></strong></p> <p>If your home gets uncomfortably hot, find the closest cooling refuges in your neighbourhood. These are places where you can go to cool down. Good examples that won’t break the bank are the local swimming pool or library.</p> <p>Some local councils provide <a href="http://coolparramatta.com.au/">lists</a> of <a href="https://www.penrithcity.nsw.gov.au/waste-environment/cooling-the-city/beat-the-heat">cooling centres</a> on their websites.</p> <p><strong><em>Save air conditioning for when it’s most needed.</em></strong></p> <p>Try to save air conditioning for the hottest parts of the day. It will be most effective and cheapest to run if your home is well insulated and you’ve closed it up for the day.</p> <p><strong><em>Look after neighbours.</em></strong></p> <p>Remember to check on elderly or frail neighbours. Along with the very young, they are usually more affected by the heat and may need to cool down sooner than you do.</p> <p>If your neighbours are in need, consider inviting them into your home to cool down. When it’s hot, let’s <a href="https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Infrastructures-of-Care%3A-Opening-up-%E2%80%9CHome%E2%80%9D-as-in-a-Lopes-Healy/1920004e258483d40017ff468370e4892e11fce5">think of our cities as social commons</a> rather than a collection of private spaces.</p> <p><span><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/emma-power-250930"><em>Emma Power</em></a><em>, Senior Research Fellow, Geography and Urban Studies, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/western-sydney-university-1092">Western Sydney University</a>; <a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/abby-mellick-lopes-388977">Abby Mellick Lopes</a>, Associate Professor, Design, School of Humanities and Communication Arts, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/western-sydney-university-1092">Western Sydney University</a>, and <a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/louise-crabtree-128457">Louise Crabtree</a>, Associate Professor, Institute for Culture and Society, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/western-sydney-university-1092">Western Sydney University</a></em></span></p> <p><em>This article is republished from <a href="http://theconversation.com">The Conversation</a> under a Creative Commons license. Read the <a href="https://theconversation.com/how-to-cope-with-extreme-heat-days-without-racking-up-the-aircon-bills-128857">original article</a>.</em></p>

Money & Banking

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Prince Harry and Duchess Meghan offer to pay for their security – but it comes with a catch

<p>The Duke and Duchess of Sussex have offered to pay for their own security, except there is a catch to this deal.</p> <p>Provided the couple are successful in their new non-royal business endeavours, Prince Harry and Duchess Meghan maintain they have every intention to reimburse taxpayers for the cost of their security during private business engagements not connected to royal events.</p> <blockquote style="background: #FFF; border: 0; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: 0 0 1px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.5),0 1px 10px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.15); margin: 1px; max-width: 540px; min-width: 326px; padding: 0; width: calc(100% - 2px);" class="instagram-media" data-instgrm-permalink="https://www.instagram.com/p/B7qgx95giNA/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" data-instgrm-version="12"> <div style="padding: 16px;"> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: row; align-items: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; flex-grow: 0; height: 40px; margin-right: 14px; width: 40px;"></div> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: column; flex-grow: 1; justify-content: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; margin-bottom: 6px; width: 100px;"></div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; width: 60px;"></div> </div> </div> <div style="padding: 19% 0;"></div> <div style="display: block; height: 50px; margin: 0 auto 12px; width: 50px;"></div> <div style="padding-top: 8px;"> <div style="color: #3897f0; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: 550; line-height: 18px;">View this post on Instagram</div> </div> <p style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; line-height: 17px; margin-bottom: 0; margin-top: 8px; overflow: hidden; padding: 8px 0 7px; text-align: center; text-overflow: ellipsis; white-space: nowrap;"><a style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: 17px; text-decoration: none;" rel="noopener" href="https://www.instagram.com/p/B7qgx95giNA/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" target="_blank">A post shared by O, The Oprah Magazine (@oprahmagazine)</a> on Jan 23, 2020 at 5:43am PST</p> </div> </blockquote> <p><span>The </span><em><a rel="noopener noreferrer" href="https://www.telegraph.co.uk/royal-family/2020/01/22/prince-harry-meghan-markle-offer-pay-security-tony-blair-style/" target="_blank">Telegraph</a></em><span> reported the pair’s intention to pay is entirely genuine, except the amount they will reimburse will depend on how much money their new business endeavours rake in.</span></p> <p>However, it appears they may hit the jackpot on top of their already hefty bank accounts, as Netflix appears to be in the process of working with the Duke and Duchess of Sussex for either a TV series or a number of documentaries on the causes nearest and dearest to their hearts.</p> <blockquote style="background: #FFF; border: 0; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: 0 0 1px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.5),0 1px 10px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.15); margin: 1px; max-width: 540px; min-width: 326px; padding: 0; width: calc(100% - 2px);" class="instagram-media" data-instgrm-permalink="https://www.instagram.com/p/B7rJhgapp1u/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" data-instgrm-version="12"> <div style="padding: 16px;"> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: row; align-items: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; flex-grow: 0; height: 40px; margin-right: 14px; width: 40px;"></div> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: column; flex-grow: 1; justify-content: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; margin-bottom: 6px; width: 100px;"></div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; width: 60px;"></div> </div> </div> <div style="padding: 19% 0;"></div> <div style="display: block; height: 50px; margin: 0 auto 12px; width: 50px;"></div> <div style="padding-top: 8px;"> <div style="color: #3897f0; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: 550; line-height: 18px;">View this post on Instagram</div> </div> <p style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; line-height: 17px; margin-bottom: 0; margin-top: 8px; overflow: hidden; padding: 8px 0 7px; text-align: center; text-overflow: ellipsis; white-space: nowrap;"><a style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: 17px; text-decoration: none;" rel="noopener" href="https://www.instagram.com/p/B7rJhgapp1u/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" target="_blank">A post shared by 𝐌 𝐈 𝐊 𝐎 ✪ (@mikeraif)</a> on Jan 23, 2020 at 11:39am PST</p> </div> </blockquote> <p>This news follows just weeks after the Duke and Duchess of Sussex announced their intentions to step down from their senior royal positions, and instead seek out financially independent lives.</p> <p>The couple said they would be splitting their time between the UK and Canada, after doing an 8-week test in Vancouver with their 8-month-old Archie.</p> <p>British authorities have deep grievances regarding Prince Harry and Duchess Meghan’s security requirements.</p> <blockquote style="background: #FFF; border: 0; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: 0 0 1px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.5),0 1px 10px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.15); margin: 1px; max-width: 540px; min-width: 326px; padding: 0; width: calc(100% - 2px);" class="instagram-media" data-instgrm-permalink="https://www.instagram.com/p/B7rIWyyAa-0/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" data-instgrm-version="12"> <div style="padding: 16px;"> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: row; align-items: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; flex-grow: 0; height: 40px; margin-right: 14px; width: 40px;"></div> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: column; flex-grow: 1; justify-content: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; margin-bottom: 6px; width: 100px;"></div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; width: 60px;"></div> </div> </div> <div style="padding: 19% 0;"></div> <div style="display: block; height: 50px; margin: 0 auto 12px; width: 50px;"></div> <div style="padding-top: 8px;"> <div style="color: #3897f0; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: 550; line-height: 18px;">View this post on Instagram</div> </div> <p style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; line-height: 17px; margin-bottom: 0; margin-top: 8px; overflow: hidden; padding: 8px 0 7px; text-align: center; text-overflow: ellipsis; white-space: nowrap;"><a style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: 17px; text-decoration: none;" rel="noopener" href="https://www.instagram.com/p/B7rIWyyAa-0/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" target="_blank">A post shared by The Royal Family (@royal_family_baby)</a> on Jan 23, 2020 at 11:28am PST</p> </div> </blockquote> <p>Over 80,000 Canadians have signed a petition demanding that taxpayers need not be expected to fork out the security costs for the couple while they spend their time in the Great White North.</p> <p>It is believed at least six UK royal protection officers are overseeing the couple’s safety but it is speculated security will be passed on to the Royal Canadian Mounted Police.</p> <p>Around-the-clock protection there could cost around $2.9 million, security sources told the<span> </span><em><a rel="noopener noreferrer" href="https://www.telegraph.co.uk/royal-family/2020/01/22/prince-harry-meghan-markle-offer-pay-security-tony-blair-style/" target="_blank">Telegraph</a></em>.</p>

Money & Banking

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Fame and fortune isn't the key to happiness

<p>If you’ve ever dreamt of fame and fortune, Prince Harry and his wife Meghan Markle turning their backs on the royal lifestyle might seem churlish. So too their desire to be “financially independent”.</p> <p>As a senior royal, Harry is at the height of his popularity – a popularity that marrying Markle has only amplified.</p> <p>On top of the millions he has inherited from his mother and great grandmother, he gets millions more annually, both from his cut of the “sovereign grant” paid by the British government and the allowance from his father (from the revenues of Duchy of Cornwall estate).</p> <p>Harry and Meghan aren’t exiting the family firm penniless, but if they stayed they would be looked after in luxury for the rest of their lives.</p> <p>Madness? No. Research suggests Harry and Meghan would be well and truly in their right minds to be sick of royal fame and fortune.</p> <p>Psychologists, economists and philosophers have confirmed three things. First, money can’t buy happiness. Second, we want to feel we have earned our success and popularity. Third, being looked after from the cradle to the grave has its downsides.</p> <p>In short, having everything handed to you on a platter just isn’t satisfying.</p> <p><strong>Money doesn’t buy happiness</strong></p> <p>Even though this statement is arguably a cliché, there is good <a href="https://www.payscale.com/career-news/2013/05/study-proves-money-cant-buy-happiness">evidence</a> it’s true. While money buys happiness up to a point, the positive effects of money on happiness <a href="https://psychology.unl.edu/can-money-buy-happiness">level off</a> once individuals have obtained enough wealth to live a comfortable life.</p> <p>This relationship has been observed at the country level, with multiple studies showing that, once a nation reaches a certain level of wealth, national happiness does not increase in parallel with extra wealth. This is known as the <a href="https://esrc.ukri.org/about-us/50-years-of-esrc/50-achievements/the-easterlin-paradox/">Easterlin paradox</a>. According to economist John Helliwell, a co-editor of the <a href="https://worldhappiness.report/ed/2019/changing-world-happiness/">World Happiness Report</a>, the <a href="https://www.researchgate.net/publication/8364900_The_Social_Context_of_Well-Being">social context</a> – marriage and family, ties to friends and neighbours, workplace ties, civic engagement, trustworthiness and trust – is more important than wealth.</p> <div class="embed-responsive embed-responsive-16by9"><iframe class="embed-responsive-item" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/JjLh0guxERQ"></iframe></div> <p>One reason given for why wealth doesn’t buy individuals any more happiness after a certain point is that money becomes both a reason and means to distance ourselves from others. To paraphrase Christopher Ryan, author of <a href="https://www.simonandschuster.com/books/Civilized-to-Death/Christopher-Ryan/9781451659108">Civilized to Death: The Price of Progress</a>, what people tend to do with extra money is buy separation, whereas researchers “<a href="https://www.wired.com/story/why-are-rich-people-so-mean/">have concluded again and again</a> that the single most reliable predictor of happiness is feeling embedded in a community”.</p> <p>Extraordinary wealth, then, sets us against what we are programmed to do by evolution: seek out the company of others and band together in a community. Research has repeatedly shown this has a huge mental health cost.</p> <div class="embed-responsive embed-responsive-16by9"><iframe class="embed-responsive-item" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/MB5IX-np5fE"></iframe></div> <p>Importantly, too, how we earn our money affects how much we enjoy it. <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29320930">Research</a> among more than 4,000 millionaires in the US, for example, showed those who were “self-made” were moderately happier than those who inherited their wealth.</p> <p>Taken together, these factors help explain why Harry and Meghan’s wealth might, psychologically speaking, be more curse than blessing.</p> <p><strong>The popularity paradox</strong></p> <p>Most of us, particularly teenagers, <a href="https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/cracking-the-popularity-code/">crave popularity</a>. According to <a href="https://yougov.co.uk/ratings/politics/popularity/royalty/all">a YouGov poll</a>, Harry is the second-most-popular member of the British royal family – pipped only by Queen Elizabeth. Some are convinced <a href="https://theconversation.com/prince-harry-and-meghan-markle-why-half-in-half-out-just-isnt-an-option-for-royals-129726">he won’t keep this popularity</a> without his royal status.</p> <p>Why would someone want to give up being liked and loved by stepping out of the limelight?</p> <p>Because <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Attribution_(psychology)">psychological research</a> shows people feel less pride in their achievements if they attribute it to external reasons. In this case, that would being born as a royal for Harry, and being pretty and marrying into a royal family for Meghan. For their popularity and success to mean something, they would need some “internal attribution” – that it has something to do with their own abilities, effort and skill.</p> <p>In a world that values meritocracy, as Alain de Botton argues, we need to “own our success” — the very thing Harry and Meghan cannot do as royals.</p> <div class="embed-responsive embed-responsive-16by9"><iframe class="embed-responsive-item" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/MtSE4rglxbY"></iframe></div> <p><strong>Trapped by certainty</strong></p> <p>Most of us aspire to being financially secure for the rest of our lives. Many of us would give a lot to know what lies ahead.</p> <p>But while there is comfort in some sense of security and predictability, knowing exactly what the future holds might be a curse. This is because humans thrive also on feeling a sense of freedom and choice.</p> <p>So just as having no certainty can take its mental toll, so does feeling one’s future is totally predetermined and that you have no real control over the way your life will unfold.</p> <p>Psychologists call the motivation to regain a freedom after it has been lost <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4675534/">reactance</a> – and this might be something strong within someone, for example, who has lost freedom due to marrying into a high-profile family.</p> <p><strong>Seizing control</strong></p> <p>Do the reasons above explain why Harry and Meghan have left the royal fold? We can’t say that. Only they know their motivations.</p> <p>But what we do know is that all the research points to fortune, fame and security not necessarily leading to a good, happy life. These things can in fact be burdens, <a href="https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0139156">bringing out</a> our worst, not our best.</p> <p>That happiness comes more from community connection, merit, effort and making our own decisions is good news for the rest of us. Let’s hope it works out for Harry and Meghan too.<!-- Below is The Conversation's page counter tag. Please DO NOT REMOVE. --><img style="border: none !important; box-shadow: none !important; margin: 0 !important; max-height: 1px !important; max-width: 1px !important; min-height: 1px !important; min-width: 1px !important; opacity: 0 !important; outline: none !important; padding: 0 !important; text-shadow: none !important;" src="https://counter.theconversation.com/content/130132/count.gif?distributor=republish-lightbox-basic" alt="The Conversation" width="1" height="1" /><!-- End of code. If you don't see any code above, please get new code from the Advanced tab after you click the republish button. The page counter does not collect any personal data. More info: http://theconversation.com/republishing-guidelines --></p> <p><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/jolanda-jetten-301309">Jolanda Jetten</a>, Professor, School of Psychology, ARC Laureate Fellow, <a href="http://theconversation.com/institutions/the-university-of-queensland-805">The University of Queensland</a></em></p> <p><em>This article is republished from <a href="http://theconversation.com">The Conversation</a> under a Creative Commons license. Read the <a href="https://theconversation.com/the-science-backs-harry-and-meghan-turning-in-their-royal-privilege-fame-and-fortune-arent-the-keys-to-happiness-130132">original article</a>.</em></p>

Money & Banking

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Food fraud is hidden in plain sight

<p>The globalization of the food chain has resulted in increased complexity and diminished transparency and trust into how and where our foods are grown, harvested, processed and by whom.</p> <p>Furthermore, recurring incidents of <a href="https://globalnews.ca/news/4014182/food-fraud-avoiding-fake-product/">food fraud</a> remind us that some of those involved in the food chain are exploiting this complexity. Today, consumers are at an <a href="https://www.foodnavigator.com/Article/2019/02/20/Fragmented-global-supply-chains-have-led-to-an-increase-in-food-fraud">increased risk</a> of buying lower-quality food than what they paid for, or worse, eating food with unsafe ingredients or undeclared allergens.</p> <p>Historically, food chain transparency and trust was established between the shopper and the farmer or fishmonger, green grocer, butcher, milkman and baker. Dutch scholar <a href="https://research.wur.nl/en/publications/governing-chinas-food-quality-through-transparency-a-review">Arthur Mol</a> argued that this personal interaction enabled face-to-face transparency, which built trust.</p> <p>Before modern supermarkets, a local village or town grocery store stocked up to 300 items grown or processed within a 240-kilometre (150-mile) radius. In comparison, our post-modern supermarkets carry an <a href="https://www.fmi.org/our-research/supermarket-facts">average of 33,000</a> items that travel 2,400 kilometres or more. The Canadian government is poised to tackle that problem by announcing <a href="https://globalnews.ca/news/6435463/buy-canadian-promotional-campaign/">a Buy Canadian food campaign.</a></p> <p>While the extent of global food fraud is difficult to quantify, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) suggests <a href="https://inspection.gc.ca/food-safety-for-industry/information-for-consumers/food-safety-system/food-fraud/eng/1548444446366/1548444516192">food fraud</a> affects 10 per cent of commercially sold food. Various academic and industry sources suggest that globally, food fraud ranges from US$10 billion to $49 billion. This is likely a conservative range considering estimates of <a href="https://www.afr.com/life-and-luxury/food-and-wine/cracking-down-on-fake-steak-with-invisible-trackable-barcodes-20180810-h13t3n">fake Australian meats</a> alone and sold worldwide are as high as AUD$4 billion, or more than US$2.5 billion.</p> <p>If you add the sales of fake wines and alcohol, adulterated honey and spices, mislabelled fish and false claims of organic products, wild-caught fish or grain-fed meat, the numbers, and risks, increase significantly.</p> <p><strong>Are Canadian regulations adequate?</strong></p> <p>Regulations are in place to protect Canadians. The Safe Food for Canadians Act (known <a href="https://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/regulations/SOR-2018-108/index.html">as the SFCR</a>) and the <a href="https://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/F-27/page-2.html#h-234067">Food and Drug Act</a> work together to protect Canadian consumers from food safety and food fraud risks.</p> <p>The SFCR states that food businesses must have preventative controls in place as well as product traceability records to ensure imported products meet Canadian laws. A provision of the Food and Drug Act states:</p> <p><em>“No person shall sell an article of food that (a) has in or on it any poisonous or harmful substance; (b) is unfit for human consumption; (c) consists in whole or in part of any filthy, putrid, disgusting, rotten, decomposed or diseased animal or vegetable substance; (d) is adulterated; or (e) was manufactured, prepared, preserved, packaged or stored under unsanitary conditions.”</em></p> <p>Another section of the act declares:</p> <p><em>“No person shall label, package, treat, process, sell or advertise any food in a manner that is false, misleading or deceptive or is likely to create an erroneous impression regarding its character, value, quantity, composition, merit or safety”.</em></p> <p>But are the regulations being enforced?</p> <p>The CFIA is very active in food fraud prevention and detection. In July 2019, the agency received $24.4 million in new <a href="https://www.canada.ca/en/food-inspection-agency/news/2019/07/government-of-canada-prevents-nearly-12800kg-of-adulterated-honey-from-entering-the-canadian-market.html">food fraud funding</a> after announcing that 12,800 kilograms of adulterated honey was blocked from entering the Canadian market. Honey adulteration is the process of cutting pure honey with fillers and cheaper sweeteners, including corn syrup.</p> <p>The CFIA has several enforcement instruments it can apply to offenders including <a href="https://www.inspection.gc.ca/about-the-cfia/accountability/compliance-and-enforcement/amps/fact-sheet/eng/1547233099837/1547233100149">administrative monetary penalties</a>, <a href="https://www.inspection.gc.ca/about-the-cfia/accountability/compliance-and-enforcement/licences/eng/1324052022644/1324052753628">licence suspension or cancellation</a> and <a href="https://www.inspection.gc.ca/about-the-cfia/newsroom/prosecution-bulletins/eng/1298575869119/1299852705293">criminal prosecution</a>.</p> <p><strong>Is food fraud the same as consumer fraud?</strong></p> <p>No. Canada is recovering from a significant consumer fraud incident where some of the most trusted brands colluded for more than a decade to fix the price of bread in what’s <a href="https://www.competitionbureau.gc.ca/eic/site/cb-bc.nsf/eng/04335.html">often termed breadgate</a>. This was a breach of the <a href="https://www.competitionbureau.gc.ca/eic/site/cb-bc.nsf/eng/04267.html">Canadian Competition Act</a>.</p> <p>Canada was one of the first countries in the world with a formal Competition Act, initiated in 1889. While breadgate’s egregious breach of trust shocked Canadians, consumers are known to have short memories and to quickly forgive.</p> <p>The protection of insiders acting as whistle-blowers in the food industry is critically important to expose both consumer fraud and food fraud. However, most food fraud detection requires the use of advanced high-tech methods.</p> <p>In 2017, the University of Guelph’s Biodiversity Institute, in partnership with the CFIA, received $320,000 in <a href="https://news.uoguelph.ca/2017/09/u-g-cfia-collaboration-gets-320000-investment/">federal funding</a> to develop better genomics and DNA bar-coding tools, including portable devices. DNA bar-coding allows researchers to match animal and plant DNA against a reference database to identify a species.</p> <p><strong>Mislabelled fish, sausage</strong></p> <p>The partnership has published a number of research papers uncovering food fraud and <a href="https://news.uoguelph.ca/2019/02/persistent-seafood-mislabeling-persistent-throughout-canadas-supply-chain-u-of-g-study-reveals/">revealing the mislabelling of fish</a> species in Canadian restaurants and grocery stores, an area of the institute’s research that now spans more than a decade.</p> <p>In January 2019, the institute <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0963996919300304?via%3Dihub">published a paper</a> entitled “Re-visiting the occurrence of undeclared species in sausage products sold in Canada” as a followup to a previous study that showed a <a href="https://kitchener.ctvnews.ca/guelph/20-of-tested-sausages-contained-mislabeled-meat-u-of-g-study-1.3532113">20 per cent mislabelling rate for sausages</a>.</p> <p>The followup indicated 14 per cent of the 100 sausages tested still contained meat DNA that was undeclared on the label. Even more concerning for the public is that many types of food fraud and mislabelling have gone undetected. New technology and methods of testing still has to catch up.</p> <p>As social media amplifies recurring high-profile incidents of food fraud, trust in our global food supply chains remains a concern. For the foreseeable future, much of Canada’s food fraud remains hidden in plain sight, sitting right there on our grocery store shelves.</p> <p><em>Written by John G. Keogh. Republished with permission of </em><a href="https://theconversation.com/fish-sausage-even-honey-food-fraud-is-hidden-in-plain-sight-130186"><em>The Conversation.</em></a></p>

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Entertainment

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Why seeing live music as a child matters

<p>The mass media invented the teenager during the 1950s and 60s – and thus emerged a whole new audience for popular culture. What we’re seeing now is the recognition of children as an ever more important audience. Musicians and performers, including many <a href="http://www.sydneyfestival.org.au/2014/Family/">on the program</a> at the Sydney Festival, are tailoring their shows to meet the needs of their young fans.</p> <p>Of course adolescence was nothing new back in the 1950s – but teenagers became an identifiable group who were targeted by people selling music, advertising and live performance in a way that they never had been during this time.</p> <p>The follow-on effect has been quite remarkable, with 50s and 60s teenagers – AKA babyboomers – continuing their teenage patterns of music and media consumption.</p> <p>As Andy Bennett and his colleagues have noted of the emerging era of <a href="http://www.bloomsbury.com/au/ageing-and-youth-cultures-9781847888358/">Aging and Popular Music Studies</a>, “in the early 21st century, the concept of ‘youth culture’ appears increasingly ambiguous and open to interpretation”. Audiences don’t grow out of mass media consumption, live music, and arts performance – rather, they take those habits with them as they grow up and on.</p> <p><strong>Step aside, teens, the kids are in town</strong></p> <p>If the teenager was invented in the 50s and 60s, the pre-teenager, the “tween” (in between child and teenager) and even the toddler, have been created by changes in the late 1990s and into the 2000s.</p> <p>The rise of Australian children’s entertainers <a href="http://www.thewiggles.com/">The Wiggles</a> as all-round performers, composers, merchandisers and popular music innovators has proven that an audience once considered too young for “youth music” is, in fact, a group to be considered.</p> <p>Not only have The Wiggles had <a href="http://www.brw.com.au/p/brw-lounge/the_biggest_earners_in_show_business_pL28d9FkZRUrlqqg0LoCmJ">the type of financial success</a> most musicians can only dream of, theirs is a unique position in terms of influencing the next generation of music makers.</p> <p>This was demonstrated by <a href="https://shop.abc.net.au/products/rewiggled-a-tribute-to-the-wiggles">Re-Wiggled</a>, a covers album released for The Wiggles’ 20th anniversary, in which “grown-up” musicians gave the pre-school fodder serious treatment. Particularly impressive are offerings by bands with members in their twenties. Their first experiences of The Wiggles come full circle with the new recordings.</p> <p><strong>Live music for young audiences</strong></p> <p>Listening to recorded music at home with your family is such an important thing for kids, and it can unquestionably set off a lifelong love of music. But seeing music live with a group of strangers is something else again.</p> <p>Live music remains an important part of a working musician’s life and a music fan’s experience, with a <a href="http://www.apra-amcos.com.au/news/allnews/LiveMusicfuelsAustralianeconomytothetuneof%2412billion.aspx">2011 study</a> finding that live music in Australia is an industry worth over a billion dollars. Once that light has been fired up, it seems, it’s hard to extinguish.</p> <p>It makes sense then that live music and performance generally for young audiences being increasingly incorporated into community festivals and live performance events.</p> <p>Dedicated kids performances and experiences, such as Ali McGregor’s <a href="http://www.sydneyfestival.org.au/2014/Family/Jazzamatazz!/">Jazzamattazz! At The Spiegeltent</a> for the current Sydney Festival, a show she previously <a href="https://www.edfringe.com/whats-on/childrens-shows/ali-mcgregor-s-jazzamatazz">toured</a> at other large cultural events such as the Edinburgh Fringe. It’s not unlike other successful shows, such as Holly Throsby’s program, in previous years.</p> <p>These aim to acknowledge the special needs of young fans with early starting times and encouraged interaction. At these events kids learn how to be audiences in person rather than consumers at home.</p> <p>We’re also seeing children’s events at key venues, such as the <a href="http://www.sydneyoperahouse.com/about/program_kids_at_the_house.aspx">Kids at the House</a> programs at the Sydney Opera House. It would be great to see more opportunities set regionally, and perhaps even staged for free or at discounted rates.</p> <p>Tailoring live music to young audiences helps provide a more rounded musical experience generally, but can also build up lifelong music and arts-going habits. By tying these shows to a broader experience – of going to the annual festival, say, or to a particular venue – the hope is that audiences may continue to visit those places/ events in years to come.</p> <p><strong>An intimate and a social experience</strong></p> <p>In a recent book, <a href="http://au.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-1405192410.html">Why Music Matters</a>, music academic and fan David Hesmondhalgh tackles the puzzle of music’s appeal.</p> <p>Exploring music across a range of different types of artistic expressions and audience experiences, he argues that “the fact that music matters so much to so many people may derive from two contrasting yet complementary dimensions of modern societies” – that is, “the intimate and the social, the private and the public”.</p> <p>Similarly, the British <a href="http://livemusicexchange.org/">Live Music Exchange</a>, headed up by iconic industry and academic commentators Martin Cloonan and Simon Frith, also makes the case for the importance of both private and public music engagement.</p> <p>Locally, initiatives such as <a href="http://slamrally.org/">Save Live Music Australia</a> actively put their weight behind the maintenance of a sustainable live music culture in Australia. The grassroots organisation is backed as much by those onstage and in the audience – a love for the live experience is something shared across the barriers as well as during all stages of life.</p> <p>Being able to access mediated music whenever we want – either via broadcasting, digital delivery or personal recorded music collections – is something that many young listeners get attached to at a very young age. But experiencing music live, as often and as young as we can, provides something special again.</p> <p>It gives a type of context for where sounds are coming from, and the first steps into learning how we socially experience something that matters so much to so many. <!-- Below is The Conversation's page counter tag. Please DO NOT REMOVE. --><img style="border: none !important; box-shadow: none !important; margin: 0 !important; max-height: 1px !important; max-width: 1px !important; min-height: 1px !important; min-width: 1px !important; opacity: 0 !important; outline: none !important; padding: 0 !important; text-shadow: none !important;" src="https://counter.theconversation.com/content/22003/count.gif?distributor=republish-lightbox-basic" alt="The Conversation" width="1" height="1" /><!-- End of code. If you don't see any code above, please get new code from the Advanced tab after you click the republish button. The page counter does not collect any personal data. More info: http://theconversation.com/republishing-guidelines --></p> <p><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/liz-giuffre-105499">Liz Giuffre</a>, Lecturer of Media, Music and Cultural Studies, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/macquarie-university-1174">Macquarie University</a></em></p> <p><em>This article is republished from <a href="http://theconversation.com">The Conversation</a> under a Creative Commons license. Read the <a href="https://theconversation.com/shows-for-little-people-why-seeing-live-music-early-matters-22003">original article</a>.</em></p>

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Apps may soon be able to predict your life expectancy, but do you want to know?

<p><em>When will I die?</em></p> <p>This question has endured across cultures and civilisations. It has given rise to a plethora of religions and spiritual paths over thousands of years, and more recently, <a href="https://apps.apple.com/us/app/when-will-i-die/id1236569653">some highly amusing apps</a>.</p> <p>But this question now prompts a different response, as technology slowly brings us closer to accurately predicting the answer.</p> <p>Predicting the lifespan of people, or their “Personal Life Expectancy” (PLE) would greatly alter our lives.</p> <p>On one hand, it may have benefits for policy making, and help optimise an individual’s health, or the services they receive.</p> <p>But the potential misuse of this information by the government or private sector poses major risks to our rights and privacy.</p> <p>Although generating an accurate life expectancy is currently difficult, due to the complexity of factors underpinning lifespan, emerging technologies could make this a reality in the future.</p> <p><strong>How do you calculate life expectancy?</strong></p> <p>Predicting life expectancy is not a new concept. <a href="http://www.bbc.com/travel/story/20170807-living-in-places-where-people-live-the-longest">Experts do this</a> at a population level by classifying people into groups, often based on region or ethnicity.</p> <p>Also, tools such as <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-23534-9">deep learning</a> and <a href="https://mipt.ru/english/news/scientists_use_ai_to_predict_biological_age_based_on_smartphone_and_wearables_data">artificial intelligence</a> can be used to consider complex variables, such as biomedical data, to predict someone’s biological age.</p> <p>Biological age refers to how “old” their body is, rather than when they were born. A 30-year-old who smokes heavily may have a biological age closer to 40.</p> <p><a href="https://www.mdpi.com/2227-7080/6/3/74/htm">Calculating a life expectancy reliably</a> would require a sophisticated system that considers a breadth of environmental, geographic, genetic and lifestyle factors – <a href="https://www1.health.gov.au/internet/publications/publishing.nsf/Content/oatsih-hpf-2012-toc%7Etier1%7Elife-exp-wellb%7E119">all of which have influence</a>.<span class="attribution"><a href="https://www.shutterstock.com/image-vector/healthy-lady-run-away-angel-death-329261456" class="source"></a></span></p> <p>With <a href="https://builtin.com/artificial-intelligence/machine-learning-healthcare">machine learning</a> and artificial intelligence, it’s becoming feasible to analyse larger quantities of data. The use of deep learning and cognitive computing, such as with <a href="https://www.ibm.com/watson-health">IBM Watson</a>, helps doctors make more accurate diagnoses than using human judgement alone.</p> <p>This, coupled with <a href="https://www.cio.com/article/3273114/what-is-predictive-analytics-transforming-data-into-future-insights.html">predictive analytics</a> and increasing computational power, means we may soon have systems, or even apps, that can calculate life expectancy.</p> <p><strong>There’s an app for that</strong></p> <p>Much like <a href="https://www.mdanderson.org/for-physicians/clinical-tools-resources/clinical-calculators.html">existing tools</a> that predict cancer survival rates, in the coming years we may see apps attempting to analyse data to predict life expectancy.</p> <p>However, they will not be able to provide a “death date”, or even a year of death.</p> <p>Human behaviour and activities are so unpredictable, it’s almost impossible to measure, classify and predict lifespan. A personal life expectancy, even a carefully calculated one, would only provide a “natural life expectancy” based on generic data optimised with personal data.</p> <p>The key to accuracy would be the quality and quantity of data available. Much of this would be taken directly from the user, including gender, age, weight, height and ethnicity.</p> <p>Access to real-time sensor data through fitness trackers and smart watches could also monitor activity levels, heart rate and blood pressure. This could then be coupled with lifestyle information such as occupation, socioeconomic status, exercise, diet and family medical history.</p> <hr /> <p><em> <strong> Read more: <a href="https://theconversation.com/your-local-train-station-can-predict-health-and-death-54946">Your local train station can predict health and death</a> </strong> </em></p> <hr /> <p>All of the above could be used to classify an individual into a generic group to calculate life expectancy. This result would then be refined over time through the analysis of personal data, updating a user’s life expectancy and letting them monitor it.</p> <p><img src="https://images.theconversation.com/files/308303/original/file-20191230-11891-nswi58.png?ixlib=rb-1.1.0&amp;q=45&amp;auto=format&amp;w=754&amp;fit=clip" alt="" /> <span class="caption">This figure shows how an individual’s life expectancy might change between two points in time (F and H) following a lifestyle improvement, such as weight loss.</span></p> <p><strong>Two sides of a coin</strong></p> <p>Life expectancy predictions have the potential to be beneficial to individuals, health service providers and governments.</p> <p>For instance, they would make people more aware of their general health, and its improvement or deterioration over time. This may motivate them to make healthier lifestyle choices.</p> <p>They could also be used by insurance companies to provide individualised services, such as how some car insurance companies use <a href="https://www.theguardian.com/money/2017/dec/16/motoring-myths-black-boxes-telematics-insurance">black-box technology</a> to reduce premiums for more cautious drivers.</p> <p>Governments may be able to use predictions to more efficiently allocate limited resources, such as social welfare assistance and health care funding, to individuals and areas of greater need.</p> <p>That said, there’s a likely downside.</p> <p>People <a href="https://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2017/11/the-existential-slap/544790/">may become distressed</a> if their life expectancy is unexpectedly low, or at the thought of having one at all. This raises concerns about how such predictions could impact those who experience or are at risk of mental health problems.</p> <p>Having people’s detailed health data could also let insurance companies more accurately profile applicants, <a href="https://www.abc.net.au/news/2019-07-08/fitness-tracker-used-to-set-health-insurance-premiums/11287126">leading to discrimination against groups or individuals</a>.</p> <p>Also, pharmaceutical companies could coordinate targeted medical campaigns based on people’s life expectancy. And governments could choose to tax individuals differently, or restrict services for certain people.</p> <p><strong>When will it happen?</strong></p> <p>Scientists have been working on ways to <a href="https://towardsdatascience.com/what-really-drives-higher-life-expectancy-e1c1ec22f6e1">predict human life expectancy</a> for many years.</p> <p>The solution would require input from specialists including demographers, health scientists, data scientists, IT specialists, programmers, medical professionals and statisticians.</p> <p>While the collection of enough data will be challenging, we can likely expect to see advances in this area in the coming years.</p> <p>If so, issues related to data compliance, as well and collaboration with government and state agencies will need to be carefully managed. Any system predicting life expectancy would handle highly sensitive data, raising ethical and privacy concerns.</p> <p>It would also attract cybercriminals, and various other security threats.</p> <p>Moving forward, the words of Jurassic Park’s Dr Ian Malcolm spring to mind:</p> <blockquote> <p><em>Your scientists were so preoccupied with whether or not they could, they didn’t stop to think if they should.<!-- Below is The Conversation's page counter tag. Please DO NOT REMOVE. --><img style="border: none !important; box-shadow: none !important; margin: 0 !important; max-height: 1px !important; max-width: 1px !important; min-height: 1px !important; min-width: 1px !important; opacity: 0 !important; outline: none !important; padding: 0 !important; text-shadow: none !important;" src="https://counter.theconversation.com/content/129068/count.gif?distributor=republish-lightbox-basic" alt="The Conversation" width="1" height="1" /></em><!-- End of code. If you don't see any code above, please get new code from the Advanced tab after you click the republish button. The page counter does not collect any personal data. More info: http://theconversation.com/republishing-guidelines --></p> </blockquote> <p><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/james-jin-kang-903030">James Jin Kang</a>, Lecturer, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/edith-cowan-university-720">Edith Cowan University</a> and <a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/paul-haskell-dowland-382903">Paul Haskell-Dowland</a>, Associate Dean (Computing and Security), <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/edith-cowan-university-720">Edith Cowan University</a></em></p> <p><em>This article is republished from <a href="http://theconversation.com">The Conversation</a> under a Creative Commons license. Read the <a href="https://theconversation.com/dont-die-wondering-apps-may-soon-be-able-to-predict-your-life-expectancy-but-do-you-want-to-know-129068">original article</a>.</em></p>

Technology

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Ellen DeGeneres to interview Duchess Meghan?

<p>Ellen DeGeneres has said she’s “excited” to interview Meghan, the Duchess of Sussex, seemingly confirming the first interview with the royal after her and Prince Harry’s exit from the royal family.</p> <p>Since stepping down, there has been speculation about a potential “tell-all” interview, with experts weighing in on who the couple may speak to.</p> <p>Some are guessing that the couple would choose Meghan’s friend, Gayle King, to discuss their exit, others believe that Oprah Winfrey may be the one to interview the pair.</p> <p>There was also whispers circulating that Harry and Meghan would sit down with DeGeneres for their first major interview since leaving “the firm”. And now, the talk show host may have confirmed the rumours.</p> <p>Asked on camera on Friday if she was keen to do a tell-all interview with Meghan, the 62-year-old responded: “Sure, I’m excited”.</p> <p>She was out and about in a Los Angeles neighbourhood at the time and was on a lengthy phone call, so it’s unclear how serious her response was.</p> <p>But behind the scenes, plans are reportedly already in place to set up the tell-all royal interview.</p> <p>“Ellen and Meghan have already discussed a sit-down interview. That has been in the works for quite some time now,” a source at the Ellen Show told the Daily Mail.</p> <p>Meghan and DeGeneres have met in the past at a dog shelter in LA a few years ago. The host has also defended the couple in the past, so it’s possible the Duchess would feel safe as she recounts her side of the story to someone she considers a friend.</p> <p>“I see them getting attacked and it’s not fair,” said DeGeneres a little after Archie’s birth.</p> <p>“They are two of the most down-to-earth, compassionate people, they’re doing so much good for the world.”</p> <p>The Sussexes have been extremely quiet since their departure from the royal family, as fans wonder when and if they plan to speak publicly about their decision.</p>

TV

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Bong Joon-ho: The secret of the man behind Parasite

<p>For film enthusiasts around the world, there is no reason for Bong Joon-ho not to celebrate. His hit thriller <em>Parasite </em>has continued to break records – with honours from the Golden Globes and the SAG Awards – and is now a top contender for Best Picture at the Academy Awards.</p> <p>But the man himself said he is just doing what he can to “survive”.</p> <p>In an interview with <span><a href="https://www.vanityfair.com/hollywood/2020/01/oscar-special-2020-bong-joon-ho"><em>Vanity Fair</em></a></span>, Bong said he struggled with anxiety.</p> <p>“I don’t think people around me can feel it, but I do have a lot of anxiety,” he said, mentioning his fear over appearing on <em>The Tonight Show Starring Jimmy Fallon</em>.</p> <p>“[Sometimes] I feel like a baseball player who’s forced to go up on the mound.”</p> <p>The <em>Okja </em>director and co-writer said movies saved his life.</p> <p>“A psychiatrist actually told me that I have severe anxiety, and I have severe compulsive tendencies to the point where it would be impossible for me to have a social life,” he said. “But thanks to filmmaking, I’ve been able to survive.”</p> <p>When asked whether he would take on a big studio film or a superhero franchise to reduce his anxiety, Bong rejected the idea with a laugh. “It would make me much, much, much more anxious. If I do something like that, I think I will suffocate to death,” the 50-year-old said.</p> <p>“For me to feel safe, I have to start the project, build everything up, one by one, and see it to the complete finish. I really admire directors who can easily do superhero movies and big-budget films.”</p> <p>The director is currently in talks to make a six-hour for HBO limited series of <em>Parasite</em>. “I just couldn’t include all those ideas in the two-hour running time of the film, so they’re all stored in my iPad and my goal with this limited series is to create a six-hour-long film,” Bong told TheWrap’s Sharon Waxman.</p> <p>The estimated release date for the limited series is yet to be announced.</p>

Movies