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Prince Andrew claims he 'didn't sweat' – here's the science

<p>Sweating is a controversial topic at the moment. In his <a href="https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/prince-andrew-interview-latest-jeffrey-epstein-bbc-paedophile-a9206661.html">extraordinary</a> recent <a href="https://www.bbc.co.uk/iplayer/episode/m000c1j4/newsnight-prince-andrew-the-epstein-scandal-the-newsnight-interview">BBC interview</a>, Prince Andrew <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sE9iJPEuYHE">dismissed</a> some of the <a href="https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-50446065">allegations</a> made against him by Virginia Giuffre (known previously as Virginia Roberts) on the grounds that he couldn’t sweat at the time – she had claimed he had been <a href="https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-50451953">“profusely sweating”</a>. During the interview, Prince Andrew, who has <a href="https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-50446065">categorically denied</a> all of the claims against him, said:</p> <blockquote> <p>I didn’t sweat at the time because I had suffered what I would describe as an overdose of adrenaline in the Falklands War, when I was shot at … it was almost impossible for me to sweat.</p> </blockquote> <p><iframe width="440" height="260" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/sE9iJPEuYHE?wmode=transparent&amp;start=0" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen=""></iframe></p> <p>But what makes us sweat, why do we do it – and can some conditions prevent us from doing it at all?</p> <p>The human body is an amazing entity and responds to thousands of internal and external signals every day. These responses enable us to survive in rapidly changing conditions.</p> <p>The skin is the largest and heaviest organ of the human body. It is calculated to <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022202X15503679">weigh</a> approximately three to 4.5kg and, over the course of your life, you will lose about <a href="https://pubs.acs.org/doi/full/10.1021/es103894r">35kg</a> of skin. Skin constantly repairs and replaces itself and performs many functions. It protects the body against pathogens, provides insulation, synthesises vitamin D, provides sensation and most importantly regulates temperature.</p> <p>The regulation of temperature is complex. Nerve fibres detect the temperature of whatever is in contact with the skin and relay this information to the brain, which makes a decision about what to do next – take off a jumper or put on a coat. But there are also more primitive and uncontrollable responses.</p> <p>The skin is covered in most places by hair. When cold, the brain causes these hairs to stand on end, trapping a layer of insulating air next to the skin. Conversely, when it’s too hot, the body sweats, producing fluid from the approximately 4m sweat glands in the skin to help heat evaporate away from the body – cooling us down.</p> <h2>What is sweating?</h2> <p>Sweating is the release of a water-like fluid from special glands in the skin to help regulate body temperature. The fluid is approximately 99% water but also <a href="https://academic.oup.com/chemse/article/35/2/101/483325">contains</a> electrolytes, fatty acids, urea (as found in urine) and lactic acid. Many of these chemicals are now being <a href="https://journals.humankinetics.com/view/journals/ijsnem/18/5/article-p457.xml">analysed</a> to detect health and <a href="http://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/3c33/33413c4cb5674f56e3783a9105a6c7a2d773.pdf">hydration</a> levels, and assist in diagnosing diseases such as <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022347608003983">cystic fibrosis</a>.</p> <p>The body is composed of up to 75% water and the loss of as little as 1% of this can cause dehydration. A 10% loss, meanwhile, can lead to life-threatening changes to the body.</p> <p>A sedentary adult loses approximately <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/ejcn2009111">450ml</a> of water through invisible perspiration a day, while athletes in hot, dry environments can produce <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK236237/">1,200ml</a> of sweat per hour. Total water loss can often be between two and three litres a day through sweating, breathing and other routes in a sedentary adult. But in warmer climates and with activity, these rates can increase hugely.</p> <h2>How does sweating work?</h2> <p>Sweating is usually initiated by an increase in body temperature from the normal 37C. When the body senses it is getting too hot, an area of the brain called the <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK507838/">hypothalamus</a> controls the response. It does this through the sympathetic nervous system – also known as the “fight or flight” mechanism, because it also helps us fight for our lives or run away when we’re in danger. In this case, it triggers nervous impulses to release neurotransmitters (chemicals) that activate the sweat glands.</p> <p>The main neurotransmitter involved in controlling sweating is called acetylcholine and its presence causes sweat glands to produce sweat – although a few also respond to a different neurotransmitter called adrenaline. The reason some respond to different neurotransmitters is to do with the receptors they have on their surface. Think of this as a lock and key – only the correct neurotransmitter (key) can fit in the receptor (lock) to cause the sweat gland to function.</p> <p>In stressful situations, cold sweats are usually mediated by adrenaline. This is because the adrenaline causes the blood vessels to narrow and a few sweat glands to become active – producing a drop in skin temperature and a cold sweat. Most temperature-related sweating, however, is controlled by acetylcholine and the presence of adrenaline would not have any consequence on the function of these sweat glands.</p> <h2>Does everyone sweat?</h2> <p>Sweating is normal and just about everyone does it. Some people, however, do it more or less than others.</p> <p>A complete absence of sweating is called anhidrosis. It can occur in particular areas of the body or be global – where more than 80% of the body has no ability to sweat. The causes are usually damage or pathology of the nervous system, or they may be inherited, such as in the case of <a href="https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/sjogrens-syndrome/">Sjogrens Syndrome</a>. Some individuals suffer from hypohidrosis which is a reduction in sweating and can be indicative of dehydration.</p> <p>Regarding Prince Andrew’s claim, an excess or continual exposure to adrenaline is not widely recognised as causing a lack of sweating in humans. However, there is some data in <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6359664">horses</a> that has suggested that exposure to extreme temperatures may result in damage to the type of sweat glands that respond to adrenaline.</p> <p>Similarly, the fact that the central nervous system, and parts of it that are linked to controlling the “fight or flight” response system, can also be involved or damaged in psychological trauma, means it is impossible to rule out this possibility without more information. There are a number of reports of individuals who have developed an idiopathic (unexplained) inability to sweat during <a href="https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/f593/bab5d37b0f21754a17eb9ab28e29b8c231a9.pdf">military</a> and extreme training.</p> <p>At the opposite end of the spectrum is hyperhidrosis, which is excessive sweating. This condition can be systemic (body-wide) or localised. It is known that axillary hyperhidrosis (excessive armpit sweating) affects approximately <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15280843">3%</a> of the US population. Interference of tumours and other <a href="https://casereports.bmj.com/content/2013/bcr-2013-009732">pathologies</a> with the central nervous system can result in this symptom.</p> <p>While sweating is seen to have its primary role in reducing body temperature, it is becoming clear that what is contained in sweat is far more interesting. Sweat even appears to be able to convey a person’s emotional state.</p> <p>Women who were exposed to <a href="https://academic.oup.com/chemse/article/31/5/415/395942">sweat samples</a> that were collected from donors who were exhibiting fear while watching videos, for example, performed better in word association tasks than those women who were exposed to sweat which was produced by people watching neutral videos or samples that had no sweat on them at all. The sweat appears to contain a “signal” that suggests the person was undertaking a task that produced a heightened emotional or fearful state.</p> <p>We may never know the truth about Prince Andrew’s sweating, but it’s something we all do and rely on – and researchers will continue to unlock its secrets for years to come.<!-- Below is The Conversation's page counter tag. Please DO NOT REMOVE. --><img style="border: none !important; box-shadow: none !important; margin: 0 !important; max-height: 1px !important; max-width: 1px !important; min-height: 1px !important; min-width: 1px !important; opacity: 0 !important; outline: none !important; padding: 0 !important; text-shadow: none !important;" src="https://counter.theconversation.com/content/127280/count.gif?distributor=republish-lightbox-basic" alt="The Conversation" width="1" height="1" /><!-- End of code. If you don't see any code above, please get new code from the Advanced tab after you click the republish button. The page counter does not collect any personal data. More info: http://theconversation.com/republishing-guidelines --></p> <p><em>Written by <span>Adam Taylor, Professor and Director of the Clinical Anatomy Learning Centre, Lancaster University</span>. Republished with permission of </em><a rel="noopener" href="https://theconversation.com/prince-andrew-claims-he-didnt-sweat-heres-the-science-127280" target="_blank"><em>The Conversation</em></a><em>. </em></p>

Body

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The restaurant that sells $287 sandwich

<p><span>It’s a restaurant chain that boasts famous names such as David Beckham and Ed Sheeran as its patrons. </span></p> <p><span>And now Wagyumafia is ready to expand beyond Asia.</span></p> <p><span>The company, which currently has five restaurants spread across Japan and Hong Kong, has made waves around the world with its selection of Kobe beef cuts.</span></p> <p><span>The most famous dish is the 20,000 yen (NZ$287) “sando” Chateaubriand sandwich, which consists of Chateaubriand from Tajima cattle coated in panko breadcrumb mix, complemented with lightly toasted milk bread and special tangy steak sauce made with 20-year aged Kamebishi soy sauce from Kagawa and Fuji vinegar from Kyoto. </span></p> <blockquote style="background: #FFF; border: 0; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: 0 0 1px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.5),0 1px 10px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.15); margin: 1px; max-width: 540px; min-width: 326px; padding: 0; width: calc(100% - 2px);" class="instagram-media" data-instgrm-permalink="https://www.instagram.com/p/B4Ud5p1BqFQ/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" data-instgrm-version="12"> <div style="padding: 16px;"> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: row; align-items: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; flex-grow: 0; height: 40px; margin-right: 14px; width: 40px;"></div> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: column; flex-grow: 1; justify-content: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; margin-bottom: 6px; width: 100px;"></div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; width: 60px;"></div> </div> </div> <div style="padding: 19% 0;"></div> <div style="display: block; height: 50px; margin: 0 auto 12px; width: 50px;"></div> <div style="padding-top: 8px;"> <div style="color: #3897f0; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: 550; line-height: 18px;">View this post on Instagram</div> </div> <p style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; line-height: 17px; margin-bottom: 0; margin-top: 8px; overflow: hidden; padding: 8px 0 7px; text-align: center; text-overflow: ellipsis; white-space: nowrap;"><a style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: 17px; text-decoration: none;" rel="noopener" href="https://www.instagram.com/p/B4Ud5p1BqFQ/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" target="_blank">A post shared by HISATO HAMADA (@wagyumafia)</a> on Nov 1, 2019 at 3:40am PDT</p> </div> </blockquote> <p><span>There is a reason behind the high price. Today, only pure-blood Tajima cattle bred, raised and slaughtered in Japan’s Hyogo prefecture can be called Kobe beef. Just about 4,500 cattle are certified each year.</span></p> <p><span>Wagyumafia co-founder Hisato Hamada said he buys around 100 full Kobe cattle each year for his business.</span></p> <p><span>Those looking for more affordable options may opt for other cuts at different price points.</span></p> <p><span>Meat enthusiasts in other countries could anticipate more stores opening, as more Wagyumafia outposts are coming. Hamada told <a href="https://edition.cnn.com/travel/article/wagyumafia-restaurants-japan/index.html"><em>CNN</em></a> that he is looking to open a Manila branch soon and set up four more restaurants around the world, including in the United States. </span></p>

International Travel

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Duchess Meghan and Prince Harry reportedly weeks away from relocation to US

<p>The Duke and Duchess of Sussex are considering setting up a second base in the US and are reportedly using their upcoming trip to California to test out the move.</p> <p>The trip to California will be next month and is set to be baby Archie’s first visit to the States.</p> <p>The<span> </span><em><a rel="noopener" href="https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-7621137/Prince-Harry-Meghan-Markle-considering-creating-second-base-US.html" target="_blank">Daily Mail</a></em><span> </span>have reported that the Sussex’s are set to take a six-week holiday over the Thanksgiving period to spend the holidays with Meghan’s mum Doria Ragland.</p> <p>The trip will mean that it is the first Christmas since Prince Harry has been deployed in Afghanistan that he won’t be spending it with his family and The Queen.</p> <p>A source spoke to<span> </span>The Sun<span> </span>about the move, saying that royal staff who work for the Queen and Prince Charles are concerned a move could pave an exit from the family.</p> <p>“There's an acceptance that things haven't worked out with the Sussexes full-time in Windsor so they could have a second base in America.”</p> <p>The Queen’s former butler Paul Burrell said to<span> </span><a rel="noopener" href="https://www.thesun.co.uk/fabulous/10386149/the-queen-prince-harry-meghan-markle-upset-christmas-paul-burrell/" target="_blank"><em>The Sun</em></a><span> </span>that the Queen will be “upset” by Prince Harry and Meghan not spending the holidays in Sandringham.</p> <p>"She loves her family around her - she's a grannie and a mum,” he explained.</p> <p>"She loves to have them all around her at Sandringham and take the little ones to decorate the Christmas tree. They put on the last baubles and she really revels in that."</p> <p>However, despite being “upset” at the lack of attendance by the Sussex family, she understands that the family want a “different lifestyle”.</p> <p> "But she understand as well that Harry and his new wife want a different lifestyle and Meghan is half-American so she's going to bring up her children half in America and half here.</p> <p>"She's [Meghan] going to give them both cultures - that's clear to me."</p>

International Travel

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Shocking new details emerge of elderly woman who was bashed at her retirement village

<p>The daughter of an elderly woman who was attacked in her bedroom in a retirement village says that her mother “doesn’t want to be in this world anymore” as she feels so unsafe.</p> <p>Patricia, 84, had only just moved to the North Turramurra facility six weeks ago and came face-to-face with a stranger when she returned to her room on Saturday afternoon.</p> <p>The man assaulted her before fleeing, but she was left with a fractured nose, bleeding on her brain and cuts to her face, chest and arms.</p> <p>She was taken to hospital in a serious but stable condition and continues to undergo treatment at Sydney Adventist Hospital.</p> <p>Patricia’s daughter Caroline said that her mother was recently widowed and had arrived back to her new home just before the attack.</p> <p>"This has been a very, very shocking and distressing event in our family and mum is a very, very strong lady, and we will help her get over this, hopefully, and get her home again," she told<span> </span><a rel="noopener" href="https://au.news.yahoo.com/woman-bashed-sydney-retirement-village-recently-widow-065130154.html" target="_blank">reporters</a><span> </span>in Sydney on Wednesday.</p> <p>"But this should never, ever, ever happen to the most vulnerable of vulnerable in our community and we are absolutely outraged, appalled."</p> <p><iframe src="https://www.facebook.com/plugins/video.php?href=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.facebook.com%2Fnswpoliceforce%2Fvideos%2F415655339127292%2F&amp;show_text=0&amp;width=560" width="560" height="315" style="border: none; overflow: hidden;" scrolling="no" frameborder="0" allowtransparency="true" allowfullscreen="true"></iframe></p> <p>Caroline also mentioned that Patricia’s husband died in April, which is an event that she is still grieving over.</p> <p>"And now she's got to grieve the loss of her independence and her safety and her security in a home that she'd just moved into. She'd only been there six weeks," Caroline said.</p> <p>"I feel so sad that my mum, who is 84, who's just lost her husband, is now in a position where she just doesn't want to be in this world anymore because she just feels so unsafe."</p> <p>Investigators are now seeking further assistance from the community and would like to speak with anyone who noticed anything suspicious in the area.</p>

Retirement Life

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Princess Diana’s iconic gown goes on sale

<p>Throughout her lifetime, Princess Diana had been known for her iconic style and fashion-forward looks.</p> <p>One of such looks was the midnight blue off-shoulder velvet evening gown by Victor Edelstein, which she wore when she danced with <em>Saturday Night Fever </em>actor John Travolta during her visit to a White House state dinner in 1985. The princess’s twirl around the dance floor with Travolta became one of her most memorable moments.</p> <p>In June 1997, two months before her death, Princess Diana auctioned off many of her dresses including the Edelstein gown. The <a href="https://www.harpersbazaar.com/celebrity/latest/a29829294/princess-diana-john-travolta-dance-dress-auction/">proceeds from the clothing</a> went to the Royal Marsden Hospital Cancer Fund and the AIDS Crisis Trust.</p> <p>Now, after numerous changes of hands, the famous dress is once again made available as part of Kerry Taylor Auctions’ upcoming <em>Passion for Fashion </em>auction.</p> <p>“This is considered one of the most important and iconic gowns ever worn by the princess,” <span>Lucy Bishop of Kerry Taylor Auctions told <em><a href="https://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/fashion/princess-diana-dress-john-travolta-gown-white-house-auction-a9206966.html">The Independent</a></em></span>.</p> <p>The <a href="https://kerrytaylorauctions.com/Catalog/?id=457#tab-2">online listing</a> reads, “This dress must have been of special significance to the Princess because in 1997 she chose to wear it for her portrait by Lord Snowdon - with the same necklace she had worn twelve years earlier at that infamous event.”</p> <p>The dress is expected to sell for between £250,000 and £350,000 when the auction takes place in London, December 9.</p>

Beauty & Style

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Prince Andrew quits royal duties "for the foreseeable future"

<p>Prince Andrew has announced that he is stepping down from his royal duties for the “foreseeable future” amidst anger over the Jeffrey Epstein scandal.</p> <p>“It has become clear to me over the last few days that the circumstances relating to my former association with Jeffrey Epstein has become a major disruption to my family’s work and the valuable work going on in the many organisations and charities that I am proud to support,” he said in a statement issued by Buckingham Palace.</p> <p>“Therefore, I have asked Her Majesty if I may step back from public duties for the foreseeable future, and she has given her permission.</p> <p>“I continue to unequivocally regret my ill-judged association with Jeffrey Epstein. His suicide has left many unanswered questions, particularly for his victims, and I deeply sympathise with everyone who has been affected and wants some form of closure.</p> <p>“I can only hope that, in time, they will be able to rebuild their lives.</p> <p>“Of course, I am willing to help any appropriate law enforcement agency with their investigations, if required.”</p> <blockquote class="twitter-tweet" data-lang="en-gb"> <p dir="ltr">A statement by His Royal Highness The Duke of York KG. <a href="https://t.co/LfMFwMyhcb">pic.twitter.com/LfMFwMyhcb</a></p> — The Royal Family (@RoyalFamily) <a href="https://twitter.com/RoyalFamily/status/1197213153852977153?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">20 November 2019</a></blockquote> <p>The Duke of York’s decision to no longer perform public duties as a member of the royal family means that this takes him out of the spotlight, and it’s been suggested that he’s hoping that it helps dampen the anger over his links with Epstein.</p> <p>In the statement was a bombshell detail of the Duke of York publicly expressing regret over his relationship with Epstein as well as expressing sympathy for Epstein’s victims.</p> <p>This was something that was not expressed in the hour-long interview with the BBC’s<span> </span><em>Newsnight</em><span> </span>interview that sparked outrage, as Prince Andrew said he did not regret his friendship with Epstein as well as not expressing any sympathy for Epstein’s victims.</p> <p><em>BBC</em><span> </span>royal correspondent Daniela Relph said that this current statement from Prince Andrew is “completely different in tone” and “addressed all the issues that he’d been criticised for”.</p> <p>"I can't state enough that this statement is completely unprecedented - for a royal to step down, because of a scandal, in this way," she<span> </span><a rel="noopener" href="https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-50496539" target="_blank">added</a>.</p> <p>The fallout over this scandal continues as several businesses and charities have pulled their support from Prince Andrew’s royal work.</p> <p>The FBI is continuing their investigation into Epstein and his associates and it still remains to be seen as to whether or not Prince Andrew will be called in to testify.</p> <p>Prince Andrew continues to aggressively deny allegations that he sexually abused girls while visiting his then-friend Epstein at his various properties around the world.</p>

News

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Should over 50's avoid that afternoon coffee?

<p>Sleep is good. This is one thing both experts and the person in the street can agree on about that knitter up of the unravelled sleeve of care <a href="#1"><sup>[1]</sup></a>. Getting decent sleep not only leaves you feeling refreshed, but lack of good quality sleep is associated not just with fatigue and lower life quality, but can also increase the risk of diseases such as Alzheimer’s and type II diabetes.</p> <p>Sadly, as we age we are less likely to get good sleep, we sleep less deeply than when we were younger, wake more and are more likely to be disturbed in our sleep. Recently the <a href="http://www.aarp.org/health/brain-health/global-council-on-brain-health/">Global Council on Brain Health</a> (GCBH) published <a href="http://www.aarp.org/content/dam/aarp/health/healthy-living/2017/01/gcbh-recommendations-sleep-and-brain-health-aarp.pdf">20 recommendations</a> that would help people over 50 years of age to have better sleep.</p> <p>Now in reporting this did the newspapers focus on the recommendations to not drink alcohol three hours before bed time, keeping mobile phones and tablet devices out of the bedroom or keeping pets out of the bedroom?</p> <p>No, they focused on the recommendation to avoid caffeine after lunch time, with headlines such as “<a href="http://www.bbc.com/news/health-38573835">Sleep tips: Avoid afternoon coffee, over-50s advised</a>” and “<a href="http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-4107668/Middle-aged-want-good-night-s-sleep-Don-t-cuppa-lunch-Stimulants-drinks-takes-longer-absorb-50s.html">Middle aged and want a good night’s sleep? Don’t have a cuppa after lunch</a>”.</p> <p><strong>Well, that’s disappointing, I like my afternoon cuppa</strong></p> <p>Yes, as does my Mum and thousands of Australians rich in years.</p> <p>The advice is sensible though. After all, caffeine is a stimulant, and who amongst us has not used strong coffee to try and <a href="http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780444538178000062">stave off sleep</a>. Ironically enough, moderate coffee consumption is associated with lower risks of <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26944757">Dementia</a> and <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3898757/">type II diabetes</a>.</p> <p>The effects of caffeine can persist some time, taking 400 milligrams of caffeine can cause you to lose <a href="http://www.aasmnet.org/jcsm/ViewAbstract.aspx?pid=29198">up to an hours sleep</a> and have to have more disturbed sleep up to six hours after you have taken it.</p> <p><strong>But, you are going to say “But …” aren’t you</strong></p> <p>But, 400 milligrams of caffeine is roughly the equivalent of chugging four espressos at once, and is the <a href="https://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/pub/4102">maximum recommended daily caffeine intake</a>. And you really shouldn’t consume more than 300 milligrams in one go.</p> <p>A typical afternoon cuppa will have between 50-100 milligram caffeine, depending on whether it is tea or coffee, instant or brewed. This is 1/8th to ¼ the amount used in the sleep study. Here are some representative levels of a variety of caffeinated beverages per typical serve.</p> <pre>375 ml Iced Coffee: 68 mg caffeine Average espresso: 75-85 mg Caffeine Instant coffee: ~ 65 mg Caffeine Tea: 50-80 mg caffeine Colas: 30- 70 mg caffeine Energy Drinks: 80-160 mg caffeine </pre> <p>Now, you won’t drink 400 milligrams of caffeine in one hit usually, people typically have between 2-4 cups per day. This makes calculating the amount of caffeine in your body a little tricky, as the amount present in your body accumulates to different levels depending on how often you drink it.</p> <p>Simulations I have run suggest that the level of caffeine in your body six hours after consuming 400 milligrams of caffeine (the amount that can lose you an hour of sleep) is a bit under the maximum amount of caffeine in your body after consuming 100 milligrams of caffeine <a href="#1"><sup>[2]</sup></a>.</p> <p style="text-align: center;"><a href="https://images.theconversation.com/files/152611/original/image-20170113-8672-xez3hw.png?ixlib=rb-1.1.0&amp;q=45&amp;auto=format&amp;w=1000&amp;fit=clip"><img style="display: block; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;" src="https://images.theconversation.com/files/152611/original/image-20170113-8672-xez3hw.png?ixlib=rb-1.1.0&amp;q=45&amp;auto=format&amp;w=754&amp;fit=clip" alt="" /></a> <span class="caption">Bllod levels of caffeine simulated after one 400 mg dose of caffeine (top line) or three 100 mg doses taken every three hours (bottom line)</span> <span class="attribution"><span class="source">Ian Musgrave</span></span></p> <p>If you drink you last caffeinated drink with 100 milligrams of caffeine in it at 4 pm, then you need to wait around four hours for the caffeine levels to fall below the levels associated with the loss of one hours sleep, make it six hours to be safe and if you have had a beverage with 100 milligrams of caffeine in it at 4 pm, you should be going to bed at 10 pm (or put it another way, if you want to go to bed at 10pm, you last caffeinated drink with 100 milligrams caffeine should be at 4 pm).</p> <p>Of course I have calculated these values based on the average amount of time it takes the body to absorb caffeine and break it down.</p> <p><strong>You are going to say “It’s complicated” now, aren’t you</strong></p> <p>Well, yes. The amount of time peoples bodies take to break down caffeine is roughly 4 hours on average, but this can vary from as little as 2.5 hours to as much as 9 hours. This can produce huge differences in the amount of caffeine in the body (roughly three fold between the slowest and fastest rate of breakdown.</p> <p>As well, the pathways in the brain that are responsible for the stimulant effect of caffeine can vary in sensitivity.</p> <p>So you can have someone like me who can drink espresso late at night with no apparent effect on sleep, and my partner, who cannot drink a cup of tea after 3 pm without having disturbed sleep.</p> <p><strong>So what about age, which is the whole point of this</strong></p> <p>As you age, your body’s ability to break down drugs and natural products is reduced.</p> <p>However, it turns out that caffeine is not affected; in fact <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6886969">older folk break caffeine down slightly faster than young people</a>. But they also absorb it more slowly, so the effects basically cancel out and older people and young people have very similar levels of caffeine after consuming it.</p> <p>On the basis of caffeine concentrations alone, the recommendation to avoid caffeine after lunch is being a little over cautious <a href="#1"><sup>[3]</sup></a>.</p> <p>On the other hand the brain systems that caffeine interacts with to cause stimulation alter with age, and this may make older people more sensitive to caffeine’s effects.</p> <p><strong>What is the bottom line then?</strong></p> <p>Getting good sleep is about more than cutting out tea and coffee after lunch.</p> <p>The Global Council on Brain Health has suggested <a href="http://www.aarp.org/content/dam/aarp/health/healthy-living/2017/01/gcbh-recommendations-sleep-and-brain-health-aarp.pdf">several approaches</a> to improving sleep quality, so that you can get about 7- 8 hours of sleep in a 24-hour period.</p> <p>These include not drinking alcohol three hours before bedtime (this recommendation will disturb my in-laws most), not eating or drinking generally for three hours before bed <a href="#1"><sup>[4]</sup></a>, getting regular exercise, getting more outdoor light exposure, losing weight if you are overweight, having a regular bedtime routine and not having smart phones and tablet devices in the bedroom at night as the screens light is distracting.</p> <p>Avoiding (NOT do not drink tea or coffee at all all) caffeine is sensible advice as part of a coordinated approach to better sleep. Slamming back double espressos late at night is guaranteed to disturb your sleep, but an afternoon cuppa is unlikely to bother you (unless of course you are caffeine sensitive).</p> <p>Be sensible, use a coordinated approach to the recommendations rather than fixating on one thing and hopefully you will sleep better.</p> <p><a>[1]</a> Sleeping in the street is not recommended.</p> <p>[2] These are simplistic simulations, using the data on caffeine breakdown by young and old men from <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6886969">https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6886969</a> Comparative pharmacokinetics of caffeine in young and elderly men and assuming you drink 100 milligrams of caffeine at 10 am, 1 pm and 4 pm.</p> <p>[3] The recommendation to <em>avoid</em> caffeine after lunch has been widely <strong>misinterpreted</strong> as to mean having <em>no</em> caffeinated beverages after lunch.</p> <p>[4] As I write this a large part of Australia is in the grip of a massive heat wave, keeping hydrated, especially for older people, is essential in the conditions, so make sure you are getting plenty of fluids even at night.<!-- Below is The Conversation's page counter tag. Please DO NOT REMOVE. --><img style="border: none !important; box-shadow: none !important; margin: 0 !important; max-height: 1px !important; max-width: 1px !important; min-height: 1px !important; min-width: 1px !important; opacity: 0 !important; outline: none !important; padding: 0 !important; text-shadow: none !important;" src="https://counter.theconversation.com/content/71270/count.gif?distributor=republish-lightbox-basic" alt="The Conversation" width="1" height="1" /><!-- End of code. If you don't see any code above, please get new code from the Advanced tab after you click the republish button. The page counter does not collect any personal data. More info: http://theconversation.com/republishing-guidelines --></p> <p><em>Written by <span>Ian Musgrave, Senior lecturer in Pharmacology, University of Adelaide</span>. Republished with permission of </em><a rel="noopener" href="https://theconversation.com/should-over-50s-avoid-that-afternoon-coffee-maybe-71270" target="_blank"><em>The Conversation</em></a><em>. </em></p>

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3 can’t miss places in Australia according to Chris Hemsworth

<p><span>Chris Hemsworth quickly rose to fame after his appearance in superhero film Thor which solidified his place in the Marvel universe.</span></p> <p><span>However, despite the atmospheric rise to fame, he still calls Australia home and loves to explore when he gets an opportunity.</span></p> <p><span>He sat down with <em><a href="https://www.travelandleisure.com/trip-ideas/places-to-visit-in-australia-according-to-australians">Travel + Leisure</a></em> and spoke about his favourite places around the nation.</span></p> <p><span>“Australia has some of the most diverse, vibrant, and pristine coastlines in the world,” says Hemsworth. </span></p> <p><span>The quality of life here is second to none; plus we have some of the most unique marine wildlife. There are places where the red dirt meets crystal turquoise water, and you can go days exploring the coast without seeing anyone else. </span></p> <p><span>“You can be in the heart of a buzzing city, like Sydney or Melbourne, with great restaurants and beaches just around the corner.”</span></p> <p><span>However, his three favourite places are as follows:</span></p> <p><strong><span>1. The Kimberley</span></strong></p> <p><span>Hemsworth recently went to the Kimberley in the Northern Territory and was in awe of the natural wonders there. </span></p> <p><span>“In The Kimberley, we went fishing in one particular spot that rivalled Jurassic Park — there were crocodiles, snakes, buffalo, and an abundance of other amazing native wildlife. Sunset dinners in The Kimberley are another absolute must. </span></p> <p><span>“The colours of the skyline there are as rich and vibrant as anywhere I've seen, and it is pretty special to see the millions of stars of the Australian outback’s night sky. We stayed at a beautiful place called Berkeley River Lodge, having dinner each night on a sand dune, barefoot in the desert sand was pretty cool.</span></p> <blockquote style="background: #FFF; border: 0; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: 0 0 1px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.5),0 1px 10px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.15); margin: 1px; max-width: 540px; min-width: 326px; padding: 0; width: calc(100% - 2px);" class="instagram-media" data-instgrm-permalink="https://www.instagram.com/p/B35W_PRFPbY/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" data-instgrm-version="12"> <div style="padding: 16px;"> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: row; align-items: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; flex-grow: 0; height: 40px; margin-right: 14px; width: 40px;"></div> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: column; flex-grow: 1; justify-content: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; margin-bottom: 6px; width: 100px;"></div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; width: 60px;"></div> </div> </div> <div style="padding: 19% 0;"></div> <div style="display: block; height: 50px; margin: 0 auto 12px; width: 50px;"></div> <div style="padding-top: 8px;"> <div style="color: #3897f0; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: 550; line-height: 18px;">View this post on Instagram</div> </div> <p style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; line-height: 17px; margin-bottom: 0; margin-top: 8px; overflow: hidden; padding: 8px 0 7px; text-align: center; text-overflow: ellipsis; white-space: nowrap;"><a style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: 17px; text-decoration: none;" rel="noopener" href="https://www.instagram.com/p/B35W_PRFPbY/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" target="_blank">A post shared by The Berkeley River Lodge (@berkeleyriverlodge)</a> on Oct 21, 2019 at 3:00pm PDT</p> </div> </blockquote> <p><span>“And one of the best afternoons in The Kimberley was swimming in a secluded waterhole at the base of a waterfall. We helicoptered down along the winding Berkeley River and then boated across to this really private spot. It's something I'll never forget.”</span></p> <p><strong><span>2. The Whitsundays</span></strong></p> <p><span>The Whitsundays are a must-see if you’re interested in seeing the Great Barrier Reef, which is the world’s largest coral reef at 2,300kms long. </span></p> <p><span>“In the Whitsundays, we stayed at One&amp;Only Hayman Island, which was a real highlight. Amazing food and wine, it overlooks the reef — plus, they have an awesome kids club, with face painting, fish feeding, jewellery making, and some great swimming pools for us to chill out as a family,” Hemsworth remembered.</span></p> <blockquote style="background: #FFF; border: 0; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: 0 0 1px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.5),0 1px 10px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.15); margin: 1px; max-width: 540px; min-width: 326px; padding: 0; width: calc(100% - 2px);" class="instagram-media" data-instgrm-permalink="https://www.instagram.com/p/B47KYzXh1Qm/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" data-instgrm-version="12"> <div style="padding: 16px;"> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: row; align-items: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; flex-grow: 0; height: 40px; margin-right: 14px; width: 40px;"></div> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: column; flex-grow: 1; justify-content: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; margin-bottom: 6px; width: 100px;"></div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; width: 60px;"></div> </div> </div> <div style="padding: 19% 0;"></div> <div style="display: block; height: 50px; margin: 0 auto 12px; width: 50px;"></div> <div style="padding-top: 8px;"> <div style="color: #3897f0; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: 550; line-height: 18px;">View this post on Instagram</div> </div> <p style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; line-height: 17px; margin-bottom: 0; margin-top: 8px; overflow: hidden; padding: 8px 0 7px; text-align: center; text-overflow: ellipsis; white-space: nowrap;"><a style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: 17px; text-decoration: none;" rel="noopener" href="https://www.instagram.com/p/B47KYzXh1Qm/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" target="_blank">A post shared by Małgorzata Stępińska (@mstepinska67)</a> on Nov 16, 2019 at 3:20am PST</p> </div> </blockquote> <p><span>“On the Great Barrier Reef, I went scuba diving for the first time, which was amazing. It’s like visiting another planet. We also had an afternoon at Whitehaven Beach, which was absolutely stunning—it has the most pristine white sand and crystal-clear water. </span></p> <p><span>“The next day we took the kids for a picnic and a bit of beach cricket on Langford Island, just off Hayman Island. The kids loved running along the sand and playing in the shallows.”</span></p> <p><strong><span>3. Uluru</span></strong></p> <p><span>Hemsworth said that the first time he saw the rock monolith was “really awesome”.</span></p> <blockquote style="background: #FFF; border: 0; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: 0 0 1px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.5),0 1px 10px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.15); margin: 1px; max-width: 540px; min-width: 326px; padding: 0; width: calc(100% - 2px);" class="instagram-media" data-instgrm-permalink="https://www.instagram.com/p/B5CFZJqg6rY/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" data-instgrm-version="12"> <div style="padding: 16px;"> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: row; align-items: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; flex-grow: 0; height: 40px; margin-right: 14px; width: 40px;"></div> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: column; flex-grow: 1; justify-content: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; margin-bottom: 6px; width: 100px;"></div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; width: 60px;"></div> </div> </div> <div style="padding: 19% 0;"></div> <div style="display: block; height: 50px; margin: 0 auto 12px; width: 50px;"></div> <div style="padding-top: 8px;"> <div style="color: #3897f0; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: 550; line-height: 18px;">View this post on Instagram</div> </div> <p style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; line-height: 17px; margin-bottom: 0; margin-top: 8px; overflow: hidden; padding: 8px 0 7px; text-align: center; text-overflow: ellipsis; white-space: nowrap;"><a style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: 17px; text-decoration: none;" rel="noopener" href="https://www.instagram.com/p/B5CFZJqg6rY/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" target="_blank">A post shared by Southern Travelnet Limited (@stravelnet)</a> on Nov 18, 2019 at 7:51pm PST</p> </div> </blockquote> <p><span>“</span>We had the very special experience of meeting with Sammy Wilson, a local Anangu Traditional Owner. Listening to the local Indigenous people speaking with us about the cultural and spiritual significance of Uluru was fascinating and inspiring.</p> <p>“The kids loved running around the base of the rock and exploring all the little caves and trails.”</p>

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Brave Australian woman who helped lock Rolf Harris behind bars goes public: "Bad day with a dirty old man"

<p>An Australian woman has bravely unveiled her mask of anonymity to tell the harrowing story of her own molestation by disgraced entertainer, Rolf Harris. </p> <p>Suzi Dent was an anonymous character witness who testified in Harris’ trial in the UK. </p> <p>She aided in putting him behind bars after he was charged with 12 counts of indecent assault of girls and a young woman between 1968 and 1986. </p> <p>Ms Dent told ABC’s<span> </span><em>7.30 </em>she was just 24 when she met Rolf as a make-up artist after being offered the opportunity to work at a Channel 7 studio. </p> <p>While she said she was “very excited” to meet the TV star back in 1986, she now looks back at that “bad day with a dirty old man,” with no fondness. </p> <p>“I had an all-day groping experience with a man who couldn't keep his hands off me,” she said. </p> <p>“As soon as he sat in my make-up chair - I was wearing baggy pants at the time, baggy shorts - he'd run both hands up my legs all the way up my shorts right up to my thighs.</p> <p>“He would grab the leather belt and pull me towards him so he could crotch-grind, which never quite happened, but he certainly tried.”</p> <blockquote style="background: #FFF; border: 0; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: 0 0 1px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.5),0 1px 10px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.15); margin: 1px; max-width: 540px; min-width: 326px; padding: 0; width: calc(100% - 2px);" class="instagram-media" data-instgrm-permalink="https://www.instagram.com/p/BqQdBzXFTFi/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" data-instgrm-version="12"> <div style="padding: 16px;"> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: row; align-items: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; flex-grow: 0; height: 40px; margin-right: 14px; width: 40px;"></div> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: column; flex-grow: 1; justify-content: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; margin-bottom: 6px; width: 100px;"></div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; width: 60px;"></div> </div> </div> <div style="padding: 19% 0;"></div> <div style="display: block; height: 50px; margin: 0 auto 12px; width: 50px;"></div> <div style="padding-top: 8px;"> <div style="color: #3897f0; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: 550; line-height: 18px;">View this post on Instagram</div> </div> <p style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; line-height: 17px; margin-bottom: 0; margin-top: 8px; overflow: hidden; padding: 8px 0 7px; text-align: center; text-overflow: ellipsis; white-space: nowrap;"><a style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: 17px; text-decoration: none;" rel="noopener" href="https://www.instagram.com/p/BqQdBzXFTFi/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" target="_blank">A post shared by TV SHOWS THAT SHOULDNT HAPPEN (@tv_trauma)</a> on Nov 16, 2018 at 1:56pm PST</p> </div> </blockquote> <p>The situation caused her to freeze up. </p> <p>“I didn't jump or move or anything like that, because it's my job as a make-up artist to not upset the talent,” she explained. </p> <p>“So if I had said something to him or, you know, slapped his hand away - which I might add is not what we did in 1986 - it was not acceptable behaviour for women to stand up for themselves like that, they had to cop it on the chin and grin and bear it and be polite.”</p> <p>Ms Dent further explained the actor had made “disgusting” comments about her legs and body, making her feel like a “piece of meat.”</p> <p>“I had a rip in my shorts, and he was trying to stick his fingers in there. I'd slap his hand away like he was a naughty boy,” she said.</p> <p>“No one did anything to stop him, and I couldn't fight back because the number one rule back then – and now - was you never upset the talent.</p> <p>“I had to be a good little girl, and it was the mentality that boys will be boys.”</p> <p><img style="width: 500px; height: 281.8877551020408px;" src="https://oversixtydev.blob.core.windows.net/media/7832625/abc-1.jpg" alt="" data-udi="umb://media/53232819fd0144ccb5851be6c11e00a5" /></p> <p style="text-align: center;"><em>Ms Dent as a young woman</em></p> <p>Despite confiding in a colleague for comfort and support, the former makeup artist was shocked by their response. </p> <p>“She said to me, much to my surprise, ''Oh, I thought you knew that - his nickname's The Octopus'',” Ms Dent recalled.</p> <p>“He does that sort of thing all the time to make-up artists and he doesn't keep his hands to himself. He's like an octopus but because he puts his hands everywhere.”</p> <p>Ms Dent says that when the day of horror was over for her, it was her job to remove all makeup from Harris’ face. </p> <p>“There was absolutely no way I was going back into the makeup room by myself. I felt unsafe. I knew I was putting myself at physical risk if I went into the room alone with him,” she said. </p> <blockquote style="background: #FFF; border: 0; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: 0 0 1px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.5),0 1px 10px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.15); margin: 1px; max-width: 540px; min-width: 326px; padding: 0; width: calc(100% - 2px);" class="instagram-media" data-instgrm-permalink="https://www.instagram.com/p/Bd-QvsnHh9I/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" data-instgrm-version="12"> <div style="padding: 16px;"> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: row; align-items: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; flex-grow: 0; height: 40px; margin-right: 14px; width: 40px;"></div> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: column; flex-grow: 1; justify-content: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; margin-bottom: 6px; width: 100px;"></div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; width: 60px;"></div> </div> </div> <div style="padding: 19% 0;"></div> <div style="display: block; height: 50px; margin: 0 auto 12px; width: 50px;"></div> <div style="padding-top: 8px;"> <div style="color: #3897f0; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: 550; line-height: 18px;">View this post on Instagram</div> </div> <p style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; line-height: 17px; margin-bottom: 0; margin-top: 8px; overflow: hidden; padding: 8px 0 7px; text-align: center; text-overflow: ellipsis; white-space: nowrap;"><a style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: 17px; text-decoration: none;" rel="noopener" href="https://www.instagram.com/p/Bd-QvsnHh9I/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" target="_blank">A post shared by sinti mosi 🎛 (@sintimosi)</a> on Jan 15, 2018 at 6:05am PST</p> </div> </blockquote> <p>“If he was going to behave like that in a room full of people, who knows what he would have done in a room with me alone. I was not stupid.</p> <p>“I decided to hide in a broom cupboard. I could see up the hallway, and I saw him standing there waiting for me. </p> <p>“Eventually the bosses came down and assumed I'd already left, so he was escorted out the door.'</p> <p>When Harris was charged for his crimes, it came as little to surprise to Ms. Dent, and immediately contacted British authorities to see how she could help to prosecute during the trial in the following year. </p> <p>“I didn't need to come forward for me, because it wasn't about me. I came forward to support the women who were little girls,” Ms Dent said.</p> <p>“'I came forward for the women who were little girls when they were molested by Rolf Harris.</p> <p>“All I had to do was tell the truth about a man who couldn't keep his hands off me, and what it was like and how he behaved.”</p> <p>“They were little girls and there were other things that he did that he shouldn't have done, physical things, invasive things, that is just line crossing.”</p> <p>Thanks to Ms Dent and other women’s accounts with similar experiences, Harris was found guilty on 12 counts of indecent assault, and was sentenced to five years and nine months in jail in 2014. </p> <p> “There are women from, I think, four or five different countries around the world who say that it did [happen] and we all had very similar stories,” she said. </p> <p> “I was thrilled. I was thrilled for the process. I was happy for his victims, that maybe they would get a little bit of closure now. And be happy that they came forward to tell their story.”</p> <p>Harris, now 89, was released on parole in May 2017 after three years behind bars.</p> <p>He now lives life as a recluse in Berkshire looking after his wife of 61 years, who has Alzheimer’s disease. </p>

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Shock as Sydney grandmother scoops $7 million lottery win

<p>A Sydney grandmother could not be more thrilled with her lottery win of $7 million as she says she plans to sing and dance in the street after the win.</p> <p>She was informed of her new-found wealth by Lucky Lotteries Super Jackpot draw officials.</p> <p>The grandmother won the entire Jackpot Prize, which totalled $6,870,000 ($NZD 7,294,566).</p> <p>"My husband is still working, he isn't going to believe this. He can finally retire!" the woman told lottery officials over the phone, according to<span> </span><em><a rel="noopener" href="https://www.msn.com/en-au/news/australia/sydney-grandmother-scoops-dollar7-million-lottery-win/ar-BBWXPLt?li=AAgfYrC" target="_blank">MSN</a>.</em></p> <p>"This news has made my day, my year and we will have the best Christmas of our life! </p> <p>"We will drink champagne and dance to celebrate!"</p> <p>The woman bought the winning ticket at Foodworks in Tennyson Point, and the owner of the store, Mohammed Nawaz, is thrilled as well.</p> <p>"We've sold a Lucky Lotteries 1st Prize in the past and a division one winning entry in Monday and Wednesday Lotto but this is by far the biggest prize we've ever sold," said Mr Nawaz.  </p> <p>"We are thrilled. We will be telling all of our customers and we'll organise a celebration with all of our staff.  </p> <p>"We wish the winner all the best with her prize."</p> <p>However, if you plan on going out and trying to get the winning ticket, Oz Lotteries have warned punters that the chance of winning the jackpot is one in 18,385,876.</p>

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“Completely deluded”: Fiery backlash after Israel Folau linked Aussie bushfires to abortion and same-sex marriage

<p>Ex-Wallabies star Israel Folau ruffled feathers after claiming that the bushfires that have devastated Australia and left six dead are God’s punishment for legalising abortion and same-sex marriage.</p> <p>The 10-minute recording has Folau, 30, saying that the timing of the bushfire crisis is no coincidence, but a taste of God’s judgement should nothing change.</p> <p>“I’ve been looking around at the events that’s been happening in Australia, this past couple of weeks, with all the natural disasters, the bushfires and the droughts,” he says.</p> <p>He then reads from the Book of Isaiah in the Bible: “The earth is defiled by its people; they have disobeyed the laws, violated the statutes and broken the everlasting covenant. Therefore a curse consumes the earth; its people must bear their guilt. Therefore, earth’s inhabitants are burned up, and very few are left.”</p> <p>Folau continued with his sermon, saying that it’s okay to “murder” unborn children.</p> <p>“The events that have happened here in Australia, in the last couple of years – God’s word says for a man and a woman to be together … they’ve come and changed this law,” he says.</p> <p>“Abortion, it’s OK now to murder, kill infants, unborn children.”</p> <p>“Look how rapid these bushfires these droughts, all these things have come in a short period of time. Do you think it’s a coincidence or not?</p> <p>“God is speaking to you guys. Australia, you need to repent and take these laws and turn it back to what is right.”</p> <p>Many have hit back at his comments, including a Twitter account run by “God”.</p> <p>“Don’t tell me how to do My job, Izzy. I don’t go to your job and … oh wait, you don’t have a job anymore,” the Twitter account “TheTweetofGod” wrote.</p> <blockquote class="twitter-tweet" data-lang="en-gb"> <p dir="ltr">Don't tell me how to do My job, Izzy. I don't go to your job and... oh wait, you don't have a job anymore.<br /><a href="https://t.co/B9nnjYNg5l">https://t.co/B9nnjYNg5l</a> via <a href="https://twitter.com/smh?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">@smh</a></p> — God (@TheTweetOfGod) <a href="https://twitter.com/TheTweetOfGod/status/1196232777676386305?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">18 November 2019</a></blockquote> <p>Hillsong Church Founder Brian Houston tweeted a message of support to Australians impacted by the bushfires, with a shot at Folau saying:</p> <p>“Pray for your Nation, don’t condemn it.”</p> <blockquote class="twitter-tweet" data-lang="en-gb"> <p dir="ltr">Pray for your Nation, don’t condemn it. 🇦🇺<br /><br />John 3:17.<br />“For God did not send His Son into the world to condemn the world, but that the world through Him might be saved.” <a href="https://t.co/MWT0cSGXB3">https://t.co/MWT0cSGXB3</a></p> — Brian Houston (@BrianCHouston) <a href="https://twitter.com/BrianCHouston/status/1196323979134263297?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">18 November 2019</a></blockquote> <p>Ex-Ireland rugby player Allan Quinlan told<span> </span><em>Off The Ball</em><span> </span>that Folau has “lost the plot”.</p> <p>“It’s becoming sad at this stage. This guy is obviously completely deluded,” Quinlan said. “It’s shocking bulls*** that he is continuously preaching to people. Some will argue that it is just him preaching in his church, but he knows it is going to get out.</p> <p>“I’d say now, aside from believing any of this stuff, he’s damaging his case against Rugby Australia even more so, and I don’t think he’ll ever win that case.</p> <p>“People talk about free speech, but this is crazy speech. He’s saying it is out of love, but people have died here – Jesus, did you ever hear such crap in all your life?! There’s no way back for this guy now.”</p> <p>Even Prime Minister Scott Morrison denounced the comments from Folau.</p> <p>“I thought these were appallingly insensitive comments,” Morrison said to<span> </span><em><a rel="noopener" href="https://www.news.com.au/sport/sports-life/fiery-reaction-after-israel-folau-links-australian-bushfires-to-same-sex-marriage/news-story/35d07139e6ba4b69fae67a3388071a97" target="_blank">news.com.au</a></em>.</p> <p>“They were appalling comments and he is a free citizen, he can say whatever he likes. But that doesn’t mean he can’t have regard to the grievous offence this would have caused to people whose homes have been burnt down.</p> <p>“And I’m sure to many Christians around Australia for whom that is not their view at all and who’s thoughts and prayers, let me stress, are very much with those who are suffering.”</p>

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Prince Andrew accused of using N-word in meeting just days after BBC interview

<p>Prince Andrew has been accused of using the “n-word” in a meeting at Buckingham Palace with a Downing Street adviser who is of Sri Lankan descent.</p> <p>Tech founder and adviser Rohan Silva was a key economic aide for former British Prime Minister David Cameron. Silva claims that the Duke of York used the word during a meeting in which Silva raised a question about the Department of Trade.</p> <p>Mr Silva said Prince Andrew responded: “Well, if you’ll pardon the expression, that really is the n***** in the woodpile.”</p> <p>“I’m ashamed to say that I didn’t do anything about it — I felt overawed and extremely conscious of the gulf in status between the two of us. The meeting ended shortly afterwards, and I remember distinctly how I walked blinking into the sunshine outside Buckingham Palace, reeling at the prince’s use of language,” Mr Silva wrote in the <a href="https://www.standard.co.uk/comment/comment/prince-andrew-rohan-silva-language-a4289571.html" target="_self"><em>London Evening Standard.</em></a></p> <p>Palace sources have denied Prince Andrew used the phrase.</p> <p>It comes as the Duke of York is facing calls to submit to questioning by US authorities under oath over his friendship with the late convicted sex offender Jeffrey Epstein.</p> <p>The Duke of York took part in a hour-long interview with<span> </span><em><a rel="noopener" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QtBS8COhhhM" target="_blank">BBC Newsnight</a></em> in which he said he did not regret his friendship with Epstein and denied having met or had sex with Virginia Roberts.</p> <p>He also defended his decision to invite Jeffrey Epstein to Princess Beatrice’s 18th birthday and said he could not have had sex with Roberts on the night she alleged because he was at a pizza restaurant in Woking.</p> <p>Spencer Kuvin, a lawyer for three of Jeffrey Epstein’s alleged victims said that it was “depressing” that Prince Andrew did not seem to grasp the victims’ perspective.</p> <p>"A man that has been to all three of Epstein’s homes can’t avoid seeing what had been going on in those homes and girls being shuttled in and out,” he told the<span> </span><em><a rel="noopener" href="https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b006qj9z/episodes/player" target="_blank">BBC’s Today</a></em><span> </span>show.</p> <p>“It’s sad that powerful, wealthy and influential people are not owning up to their responsibilities with respect to the victims that are out there."</p> <p>"The mere fact that he was friends with a convicted sex offender and chose to continue his relationship with him – it just shows a lack of acknowledgment of the breadth of what this man [Epstein] did to these girls," he said.</p> <p>"The government has failed them, the prosecutors have failed them, the US Attorney's Office has failed them, the politicians have failed them – now royalty has failed them.”</p> <p>"It's just by now empty promises. So, unfortunately they're not very hopeful but they will continue the fight."</p>

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Travel

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The simple outfit Duchess Meghan wore that caused mass sales

<p>The Duchess of Sussex has been crowned with being the most powerful dresser in 2019, after igniting a massive sales spike and online searches with simple-but-stylish and chic outfit looks this year. </p> <p>A global fashion search engine<span> </span><em>Lyst, crowned</em> the royal mother-of-one after scouring through more than 200 million searches online from 104 million shoppers. </p> <p>Tracking found the Duchess’ outfits triggered an average off 216 per cent increases in searches for similar styles across the year. </p> <p>The one simple item that got tongues wagging and credit cards tapping was humble shirt dresses worn on a number of occasions by the royal, including while cheering on her superstar friend Serena Williams at the US Open and official engagements on her royal tour of Southern Africa. </p> <p>“After she wore five different shirt dresses on the royal tour of South Africa, searches for the category grew 45 per cent over a month,”<span> </span><em>Lyst’s<span> </span></em>Year in Fashion report said.</p> <p>One of Meghan’s most popular outfits again was the sheer Club Monaco dress she wore while visiting Archbishop Desmond Tutu in Cape Town.</p> <p>The royal wore a black-and-white printed dress on the same day her five-month-old son Archie made his tour debut.</p> <p>The frock by Club Monaco sold out in less than 24 hours following a 570 per cent spike in searches, according to<span> </span><em>Lyst</em>. </p> <p>Scroll through the gallery to see Duchess Meghan’s most popular outfits in 2019. </p>

International Travel

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Passengers infected with gastro outbreak on way to Singapore

<p>A cruise ship that left Perth earlier this month has ended its journey to Singapore with some unhappy passengers who were infected with norovirus.</p> <p>It is understood by <em><a href="https://www.news.com.au/travel/travel-updates/incidents/2000-passengers-on-cruise-ship-evacuated-after-gastro-outbreak/news-story/79883406ce57d3e382db8c5d2c8ef0ff">news.com.au</a></em> that at least 16 passengers on board the ship had symptoms of the virus before everyone disembarked on the final day of the trip in Singapore.</p> <p>The ship had 2,000 passengers on board.</p> <p>Symptoms of norovirus generally last between one and three days. Medical experts recommend regularly washing your hands to avoid contracting the disease.</p> <p>A spokesman for Carnival Australia said that despite initial reports, the vast majority of passengers on board the ship were not impacted by the norovirus.</p> <p>“The vast majority of the 2000 guests on Sun Princess were unaffected but it takes relatively few cases of illness to be reported for on-board sanitation measures to be increased,” the statement provided to news.com.au read.</p> <p>“Creating and maintaining a healthy on-board environment is always a priority with the highest public health standards employed based on best international practice. On-board sanitation was swiftly stepped up following some guests reporting gastrointestinal symptoms confirmed as being due to Norovirus.</p> <p>“Out of an abundance of care and in line with best practice, extra cleaning of the terminal was also carried out on Wednesday.”</p> <p>Carnival Australia’s cruise ships feature casinos, pools and sporting facilities.</p>

Travel Trouble

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Duchess Meghan sets record straight on “lavish” baby shower

<p>Duchess Meghan has set the record straight about her highly publicised baby shower in New York, according to<span> </span><em><a rel="noopener" href="https://www.hellomagazine.com/royalty/2019111680667/meghan-markle-sets-record-straight-baby-shower/" target="_blank">Hello!</a> </em>magazine.</p> <p>She has denied previous reports that she intentionally left her mother, Doria Ragland, off the guest list as well as the price of the event as new court papers were filed on Friday about the baby shower.</p> <p>"The suggestion that the Claimant (Meghan) deliberately left out her mother from her baby shower and ditched her in favour of her famous friends is untrue and offensive to her," Meghan's lawyers said.</p> <p>"The Claimant’s mother was of course invited, and the Claimant also offered to buy her airline tickets. However, her mother was unable to attend due to work commitments.</p> <p>The new paperwork filed by the Duchess of Sussex’s lawyers also mentioned the cost of the event as well as the amount of famous guests who attended, including Serena Williams, Amal Clooney, Jessica Mulroney and Gayle King.</p> <p>“It was also untrue and offensive to suggest, as the article does, that ‘not a single guest had known [the Claimant] for more than a decade’. In fact, the true position was that the baby shower (which actually cost a tiny fraction of the $300k falsely stated in the article) was organised and hosted by one of her best friends from university; the fifteen guests who attended the shower were close friends and included long-term friendships some of which had existed for over 20 years."</p> <p>In early October, Prince Harry and the Duchess of Sussex announced they were taking legal action against the British tabloid<span> </span>The Daily Mail over its publication of a private letter written by Meghan.</p> <p>The couple allege it was published illegally and selectively edited to hide “lies” reported about her.</p>

International Travel

Health

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Daycare worker fired after horrific note body-shaming five-year-old

<p>A daycare employee has been fired after body-shaming a five-year-old boy and saying that he should be “put on a diet”.</p> <p>The drama unfolded after the boy’s mother Francesca Easdon sent her son Kyler to school with a sweet note inside of his lunch bag.</p> <p>The note read:</p> <p>“Please tell Kyler that his mommy loves him so much and I’m thinking about him. Thank you!”</p> <p>However, she was shocked to get a harsh response in black.</p> <p>“No! Put him on a diet and go away!”</p> <p>Francesca explained that she has been working with Kyler about “healthy options”.</p> <p>“We have been working with Kyler on his eating, he’s extremely picky! I have been introducing new healthy options in his lunchbox and discussed the changes with his school,” she said in a Facebook post.</p> <p>“And for the record, I feel that Kyler is absolutely perfect the way he is, I’m just helping him make healthier choices.”</p> <p><iframe src="https://www.facebook.com/plugins/post.php?href=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.facebook.com%2Fphoto.php%3Ffbid%3D568357070587665%26set%3Da.110845729672137%26type%3D3&amp;width=500" width="500" height="708" style="border: none; overflow: hidden;" scrolling="no" frameborder="0" allowtransparency="true" allow="encrypted-media"></iframe></p> <p>Francesca went onto explain that she was in “absolute shock” over the reply to the note.</p> <p>“I was absolutely livid and immediately reached out to the school. First thing this morning I was at the school waiting on the director with my mother in law for a meeting. I was assured that it was being investigated and handled, yet almost no remorse was shown,” she wrote.</p> <p>“I also brought to their attention the fact that on his teachers public Facebook page there were mass posts regarding drug use and other very inappropriate content. The teacher that wrote this note confessed while I was at work and was fired, but nothing has been done about the other situations. Zero remorse for their actions.”</p> <p>Francesca was “disgusted” in putting her trust in people who would openly boast about inappropriate content on their public page.</p> <p>“Kyler’s safety and level of care comes first. Sorry for the long post but I feel it’s so important to share this. I’m extremely hands on with my child’s care and still didn’t see this coming. Monitor your daycares closely and stay away from this facility, they do NOT deserve the privilege of teaching our children.”</p>

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How Julie Andrews sorts out her “demons”

<p>Julie Andrews reflected on her career and how therapy helped her become “a better mum and a better wife” in a new interview.</p> <p>Speaking to Anthony Mason on <em><a href="https://www.cbsnews.com/news/julie-andrews-mary-poppins-star-on-memoir-home-work-early-years-in-hollywood-going-to-therapy/">CBS This Morning</a></em>, the British actress said therapy “sorted out my demons and what I call the garbage that clutters your head and you don’t need”.</p> <p>“It helped me very much understand and put in perspective my childhood, of course. That was probably the biggest work I did,” the 84-year-old said. “And it makes for a lot of compassion and understanding, and you realise that everybody else is in the same boat.”</p> <p>Andrews, who made her Broadway debut in <em>The Boy Friend </em>ahead of her 19<sup>th</sup> birthday, revealed in her new memoir that she felt “scared” and “inadequate” during her early years in the movie industry. “Was I scared? You bet. Did I feel inadequate? All the time,” she wrote.</p> <p>She told Mason that she was “sad” and disappointed that she was passed over for a part in the film version of <em>My Fair Lady </em>in favour of Audrey Hepburn.</p> <p>“I did understand the choice,” Andrews said. “The Warner Brothers Studios … they wanted big stars and big box office names.”</p> <p>However, Andrews later beat out Hepburn to win the Golden Globe for her titular role in the 1964 flick <em>Mary Poppins</em>.</p> <p>She also shared that she was initially hesitant to take up the offer to star in <em>The Sound of Music</em>. “I was very worried when I was asked to do <em>The Sound of Music</em>,” Andrews said. “That it could be very saccharine, with the mountains, with the music, with seven children.”</p>

Mind

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What is a psychopath?

<p>Millions recently flocked to the <a href="https://www.the-numbers.com/movie/Joker-(2019)#tab=summary">cinema</a> to watch Joker, the origin story of Batman’s notorious nemesis. Many have commented that the film is a portrait of <a href="https://www.theguardian.com/film/2019/sep/28/he-is-a-psychopath-has-the-2019-joker-gone-too-far">a textbook psychopath</a>. But perhaps the bigger question is how many among the audience have similar traits? Indeed, is it possible that you are a psychopath yourself?</p> <p><iframe width="440" height="260" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/t433PEQGErc?wmode=transparent&amp;start=0" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen=""></iframe></p> <p>To answer this question, we need to examine the diagnostic criteria for psychopathy presented in the <a href="https://www.researchgate.net/profile/David_Cooke2/publication/232570257_Evaluating_the_Screening_Version_of_the_Hare_Psychopathy_Checklist-Revised_PCL_SV_An_Item_Response_Theory_Analysis/links/00b4951bb1ac064411000000.pdf">PCL-R</a>, which was developed by Robert Hare in the 1970s.</p> <p>Thanks to Hare, experts can use the PCL-R to assess whether an individual is exhibiting any of the criteria for psychopathy. Estimates suggest that <a href="https://www.livescience.com/16585-psychopaths-speech-language.html">about 1% of the population qualifies</a> – although the percentage is thought to be far higher among <a href="https://www.livescience.com/16585-psychopaths-speech-language.html">the prison population (25%)</a> and company <a href="https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/on-small-business/wp/2016/09/16/gene-marks-21-percent-of-ceos-are-psychopaths-only-21-percent/">chief executives (21%)</a>.</p> <p>The absolute or prototypical psychopath would produce a maximum score of 40 from Hare’s 20-item checklist, while a score of zero would indicate someone with no psychopathic tendencies. Those with a score of 30 or over should qualify for further assessment and indications of psychopathy, while many criminals score between 22 and 30. Consequently, psychopathy is perhaps best seen as a spectrum, with all of us exhibiting some traits at some point in our lives.</p> <p>Ultimately, we cannot assume that nurture – a hard upbringing, for example – will make us psychopathic. The debate between nature versus nurture has been long discussed in relation to psychopathy and there has yet to be a clear answer. But it has been suggested recently that while a genetic predisposition is essential for a person to exhibit traits of psychopathy, some environmental factors, such trauma, abuse and rejection by loved ones, could determine the <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/1359178995000100">course of the disorder</a>.</p> <p>Nor should we assume that a person matching some PCL-R criteria is a psychopath. We must also keep in mind that not all psychopaths are criminals. Many are <a href="https://doi.org/10.1177/0963721415580297">successful professionals</a>, so a high PCL-R score does not necessarily make us dangerous or murderous. Patrick Bateman, the blood-spattered anti-hero of Brett Easton Ellis’s infamous 1991 novel <a href="https://www.theguardian.com/books/2015/jan/10/american-psycho-bret-easton-ellis-irvine-welsh">American Pycho</a>, certainly is a psychopath – but not all psychopaths are Patrick Bateman.</p> <p>Nevertheless, psychopaths are clearly relatively common – so how can we spot one? After all, if a person is a psychopath, they will rarely accept it or advertise the fact.</p> <h2>The psychopath test</h2> <p>The first characteristic of a psychopath according to the PCL-R is glib and superficial charm. Of course, this can be an apparently positive characteristic. This is not a trait motivated by a genuine interest or empathy for others, however, but allows psychopaths to charm and <a href="https://www.quora.com/What-is-an-example-of-psychopathic-charm">manipulate those around them</a>, from work colleagues to <a href="https://theconversation.com/worried-you-are-dating-a-psychopath-signs-to-look-for-according-to-science-106965">romantic partners</a>. <a href="https://www.psychologytoday.com/gb/blog/communication-success/201810/7-characterisitics-the-modern-psychopath">Gaslighting</a> – whereby others are led to question their own actions and beliefs – may be a favoured strategy.</p> <p>Another key characteristic is a grandiose sense of self-worth. Of course, this profound sense of confidence or self-belief may explain why so many psychopaths appear to thrive in the cutthroat world of business. Unfortunately for their colleagues and “friends”, however, psychopaths also tend to make themselves look better by <a href="http://parenting.exposed/dating-and-relationships-after-leaving-a-psychopath/">belittling those around them</a> and <a href="https://www.researchgate.net/profile/David_Cooke2/publication/232570257_Evaluating_the_Screening_Version_of_the_Hare_Psychopathy_Checklist-Revised_PCL_SV_An_Item_Response_Theory_Analysis/links/00b4951bb1ac064411000000.pdf">may lie pathologically</a>. Keep an eye out for <a href="https://www.psychologytoday.com/gb/blog/communication-success/201810/7-characterisitics-the-modern-psychopath">narcissists</a>.</p> <p>Other criteria on the PCL-R checklist include a lack of remorse or guilt, callousness, a parasitic lifestyle and <a href="https://www.mindbodygreen.com/articles/personality-types-most-likely-to-cheat-and-why-they-do-it">promiscuous sexual behaviour</a>. Psychopaths, in short, tend to be <a href="https://www.psychologicalscience.org/news/releases/psychopaths-cheat-and-take-risks-due-to-impaired-social-understanding.html">risk takers</a> and may be less likely to show, or feel, <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2242355/">fear</a>.</p> <p>But they’re not always cool operators. One characteristic that is both obvious and common is poor behavioural control, which is perhaps linked to psychopaths being more likely to have a history of <a href="https://www.researchgate.net/profile/David_Cooke2/publication/232570257_Evaluating_the_Screening_Version_of_the_Hare_Psychopathy_Checklist-Revised_PCL_SV_An_Item_Response_Theory_Analysis/links/00b4951bb1ac064411000000.pdf">juvenile delinquency</a>. Psychopaths tend to have a good eye for seeing and emulating how others behave, but they may also have outbursts of antisocial behaviour.</p> <p>Based on the above, my thought is that the Joker – or at least Arthur Fleck, the man behind the makeup – is only a borderline psychopath, with other mental health problems that would warrant further investigation first. There are certainly more real-life psychopaths that would score higher in Hare’s test.</p> <p>The key question is, based on the above, whether you might be one of them and how you intend to use these traits and skills.<!-- Below is The Conversation's page counter tag. Please DO NOT REMOVE. --><img style="border: none !important; box-shadow: none !important; margin: 0 !important; max-height: 1px !important; max-width: 1px !important; min-height: 1px !important; min-width: 1px !important; opacity: 0 !important; outline: none !important; padding: 0 !important; text-shadow: none !important;" src="https://counter.theconversation.com/content/125660/count.gif?distributor=republish-lightbox-basic" alt="The Conversation" width="1" height="1" /><!-- End of code. If you don't see any code above, please get new code from the Advanced tab after you click the republish button. The page counter does not collect any personal data. More info: http://theconversation.com/republishing-guidelines --></p> <p><em>Written by <span>Calli Tzani-Pepelasi, Lecturer in Investigative Psychology, University of Huddersfield</span>. Republished with permission of </em><a rel="noopener" href="https://theconversation.com/what-is-a-psychopath-125660" target="_blank"><em>The Conversation</em></a><em>.</em></p>

Mind

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Follow these 5 simple lifestyle changes for the best sleep

<p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Why is sleep so important? It promotes good health, makes us happier, ensures that cuts and wounds heal faster, makes us more alert and active during the day, lowers stress, improves memory, supports a strong immune system and reduces the chances of developing diseases and conditions. But you already know this.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">You’ve done everything to get better sleep – darkened your room, switched off your mobile phone, turned down the temperature in the thermostat and even invested in some premium organic bamboo sheets. Yet the sleep God doesn’t pay a visit.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">What are you doing wrong? Don’t worry, you’re not alone. A lot of people suffer from poor quality of sleep.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">National guidelines recommend adults have at least 7-8 hours of sleep each night but studies show a third of Australians fail to get enough on a regular basis. So what can you do to ensure an uninterrupted night of dreamless sleep?</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Although darkening the bedroom is a good habit, making certain lifestyle changes for better sleep may prove to be more beneficial. Here are five of them:</span></p> <p><strong>1. Say no to naps </strong></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Yes, napping during the day can help replenish your sleep debt, but it can also make nighttime sleep worse. Afternoon naps not only decrease the quality of sleep but also prevent you from falling asleep easily at night. If you absolutely must indulge in a siesta during the day, then ensure that it’s 30 minutes or less. To avoid nodding off in the afternoon, talk to a friend, take a short stroll, have a glass of cold water or simply wash your face.</span></p> <p><strong>2. Do light exercise before bedtime </strong></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Working out regularly not only promotes good health but also elicits better sleep. WebMD recommends exercising regularly to get some high quality shut eye at night. However, rigorous exercises should be avoided four hours before bedtime. Ideally, do some light exercises before hitting the bed such as yoga or Tai Chi.</span></p> <p><strong>3. Avoid drinking liquids close to bedtime </strong></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Guzzling down drinks and even water before bed isn’t a good idea because it leads to frequent trips to the bathroom. Once you’re awake, it’s hard to fall back to sleep. Avoid drinking liquids at least two hours before bedtime to eliminate bathroom visits at 3am.</span></p> <p><strong>4. Do something calming </strong></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Even doing 10 minutes of an activity that calms or relaxes you can make a significant difference. This is particularly useful for people who worry and think a lot catching some z’s. Read a book, have a warm bath, do deep breathing, listen to some Mozart or calming music, meditate.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Taking a warm bath can soothe tired muscles and drop your body’s temperature after an hour tricking the body into thinking it’s time to sleep. When we doze off, our body’s temperature falls so tricking your body is a good way to induce sleep. Add Epsom bath salts to your tub in order to reduce stress and relieve sore muscles.</span></p> <p><strong>5. Ditch the caffeine </strong></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Simply cutting down on coffee and tea isn’t good enough. Some kinds of chocolates, pain killers and weight loss pills also have caffeine in them. Read the list of ingredients in chocolates and ask your doctor if your pain killers and medication have caffeine in them. Even small amounts of it can inhibit a restful slumber.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Experts advise having some warm milk or sipping on chamomile tea laced with honey to encourage sleep. Sniffing some lavender or dabbing a small quantity of lavender oil on your pillow also helps. This essential oil is known to slow down heart rate, decrease blood pressure and even promote healing.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">A few lifestyle changes, such as the ones listed above, can go a long way in instigating a night of good sleep. The trick is to try different things and see what works best for you. For example, you may find that reading a book might not be as effective as taking a warm bath.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Keep trying and before you know it, that evasive eight-hour catnap you’ve been craving for so long will come to your command in no time.</span></p> <p><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Written by Phoebe Yu. Republished with permission of </span><a href="https://www.wyza.com.au/articles/health/5-simple-lifestyle-changes-for-better-sleep.aspx"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Wyza.com.au.</span></a></em></p>

Caring

Lifestyle

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Treat yourself with salmon rillettes and pear relish

<p>For when you feel like something a little bit fancy, try this delectable combination of salmon and pear relish!</p> <p><strong>Serves</strong>: 4</p> <p><strong>Ingredients</strong></p> <p><strong>Pear relish</strong></p> <ul> <li>2 packham pears, peeled and sliced</li> <li>50ml olive oil</li> <li>1 small red onion, finely chopped</li> <li>2 cloves garlic</li> <li>60ml cider vinegar</li> <li>70g sugar</li> <li>½ tsp cumin seeds, toasted and ground</li> <li>½ tsp mustard seeds, crushed</li> <li>2 bay leaves</li> </ul> <p><strong>Rillettes</strong></p> <ul> <li>400g salmon</li> <li>100g smoked salmon</li> <li>100g butter</li> <li>1 tsp fennel seeds, toasted and ground</li> <li>1 bunch of dill</li> <li>1 preserved lemon, finely chopped</li> <li>20g capers, finely chopped</li> <li>¼ tsp cayenne pepper</li> <li>50ml crème fraiche</li> <li>Salt and pepper</li> </ul> <p><strong>Salad</strong></p> <ul> <li>3 endives</li> <li>Olive oil</li> <li>1 lemon, juiced</li> <li>12 nasturtium leaves, to serve</li> </ul> <p><strong>Directions</strong></p> <p><strong>For the pear relish</strong></p> <p>1. In a heavy based pot, sauté the red onion until slightly caramelised, then add spices, sugar, vinegar and bay leaves.</p> <p>2. Cook until the excess liquid has reduced away, add pear and cook for further 10 minutes. Cool and set aside.</p> <p><strong>For the rillettes</strong></p> <p>3. Steam the salmon for about six minutes or until just cooked. Place in a bowl with the smoked salmon and gently flake together.</p> <p>4. Add chopped dill, preserved lemon, capers, spices, butter and crème fraiche and gently mix together to combine. Season with salt and pepper and place in the fridge to set.</p> <p><strong>For the endive salad</strong></p> <p>5. Cut endives in half lengthways and gently colour them in a hot pan or a chargrill until cooked through.</p> <p>6. Season with salt, olive oil and lemon juice and set aside.</p> <p><strong>To serve</strong><br />7. On a serving plate, place a large quenelle of salmon mix on the plate followed by a spoonful of pear relish, charred endive and garnish with nasturtium leaves. Serve immediately.</p> <p><em><strong>Recipe thanks to <span><a rel="noopener" href="http://rediscoverthepear.com.au/" target="_blank">Australian Pears</a></span>.</strong></em></p> <p><em>Written by Wyza. Republished with permission of </em><a href="https://www.wyza.com.au/recipes/salmon-rillettes-and-pear-relish.aspx"><em>Wyza.com.au</em></a><em>.</em></p>

Food & Wine

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12 simple ways to reduce bushfire risk to older homes

<p>Seventy-five years of Australian research into how houses respond to bushfire has identified 21 main weak points in houses and the area immediately surrounding them.</p> <p>In recent decades this knowledge has been used to inform <a href="http://www.as3959.com.au/">new building construction</a>. But older houses are generally not built to the same standard, unless they have been significantly renovated.</p> <p>Older homes make up the majority of buildings in bushfire prone-areas. There are some simple things that can improve the performance of an older house in a bushfire. Here are 12 suggestions: six simple projects that could be done over a weekend or two, and six low-cost things you could do in a single afternoon.</p> <p><strong>Six weekend projects:</strong></p> <p><strong>1. Remove some garden beds next to the house</strong></p> <p>This is particularly true for garden beds near timber-framed windows and doors. For timber and fibro homes, garden beds adjacent to the house should be avoided entirely. At the very least prune dense bushes close to timber-framed windows back hard.</p> <p><strong>2. Sand and repaint weathered timber door and window frames</strong></p> <p>Over time, paint peels and cracks appear in the exposed and weathered timber. During a bushfire, embers can lodge in these cracks and ignite.</p> <p><strong>3. Enclose the subfloor with a metal mesh</strong></p> <p>Flammable items are often stored underneath the house. If this area is not enclosed these items will catch, often due to ember attack, and pose a threat to every room in the house. The exposed underside of timber floors can be protected with a lightweight, non-combustible layer.</p> <p><strong>4. Repair or replace weathered timber decking</strong></p> <p>Just as embers can land in cracks in door and window frames, the same can also happen to weathered timber decking. Most decks are right next to the house and if they go up fire easily spreads to the home.</p> <p><strong>5. Have a 1-2 metre non-flammable area immediately around your house</strong></p> <p>Think of it as an additional protective defence area. You could use gravel, paving tiles, bricks, concrete, or ground rock such as scoria.</p> <p><strong>6. Get a professional roof inspection</strong></p> <p>Roofs gradually weaken and require maintenance. A professional roof repairer can check that tiles are in place, repair damaged ridge tiles, and ensure that skylights, air vents, evaporative coolers, and solar panels are in good order and are free from gaps where embers could enter.</p> <p>The product specifications for timber door and window frames, metal mesh, and decking materials can be found in the relevant <a href="https://www.google.com/search?q=AS+3959+(2018)&amp;oq=AS+3959+(2018)&amp;aqs=chrome..69i57&amp;sourceid=chrome&amp;ie=UTF-8">Australian Standard</a> and <a href="https://www.nash.asn.au/nash/publications/nash-standards">steel construction standard</a>. Actual requirements for houses vary according to the <a href="https://www.bushfireprone.com.au/what-is-a-bal/">bushfire attack level</a> associated with a specific block of land.</p> <p><strong>Six easy afternoon projects</strong></p> <p><strong>1. Replace natural coil doormats with synthetic</strong></p> <p>While they appear harmless, natural organic doormats can cause a fire to grow if they ignite. Due to their density they burn for a long time, and can spread flames to timber door frames. A synthetic mat will only flare up for a short time.</p> <p><strong>2. Remove organic mulch from garden beds next to the house</strong></p> <p>Burning embers can easily ignite dried-out organic mulch, setting fire to surrounding plants. If garden beds are near the house, particularly timber door and window frames, the danger is increased. Either remove mulch in garden beds next to the house or – if the mulch is suitable – dig it in deeply.</p> <p><strong>3. Store firewood in an enclosed metal container</strong></p> <p>It is best to store wood well away from the house, but no one wants to walk metres in cold winters to get that wood. So some firewood is often stored close to the house on a burnable deck, and often it’s left there over summer. Putting it into a large metal container can remove that fire risk.</p> <p><strong>4. Remove flammable material from the front porch, roof cavity, decking and underfloor area</strong></p> <p>When embers enter the roof cavity and underneath the house, flames can rapidly spread to every room. It is vital to keep these areas clear of flammable materials.</p> <p><strong>5. Replace timber benches on timber decks with synthetic ones</strong></p> <p>A timber bench on a timber deck next to a timber house is an unnecessary risk, similar to having a wood pile on a timber deck.</p> <p><strong>6. Turn pressure relief valves on outside gas bottles away from the house</strong></p> <p>Both the <a href="https://knowledge.aidr.org.au/resources/bushfire-canberra-2003/">2003 Canberra</a> and the <a href="https://knowledge.aidr.org.au/resources/bushfire-wye-river/">2016 Wye River</a> bushfires showed the danger of having gas bottle valves facing the house. In both fires, houses were destroyed when either the gas plume flamed or gas bottles exploded.</p> <p>While these projects will improve the bushfire protection of your home, they can’t guarantee your home will survive a bushfire, especially during catastrophic bushfire conditions. It is also crucial to upgrade your home insurance so you can meet the higher costs of <a href="http://www.as3959.com.au/">new building standards</a>, in the event you have to rebuild. And in all cases, act on warnings given by your state or territory fire authority.</p> <hr /> <p><em>The advice given in this article is general and may not suit every circumstance.</em><!-- Below is The Conversation's page counter tag. Please DO NOT REMOVE. --><img style="border: none !important; box-shadow: none !important; margin: 0 !important; max-height: 1px !important; max-width: 1px !important; min-height: 1px !important; min-width: 1px !important; opacity: 0 !important; outline: none !important; padding: 0 !important; text-shadow: none !important;" src="https://counter.theconversation.com/content/122712/count.gif?distributor=republish-lightbox-basic" alt="The Conversation" width="1" height="1" /><!-- End of code. If you don't see any code above, please get new code from the Advanced tab after you click the republish button. The page counter does not collect any personal data. More info: http://theconversation.com/republishing-guidelines --></p> <p><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/douglas-brown-106914">Douglas Brown</a>, Casual Academic, <a href="http://theconversation.com/institutions/western-sydney-university-1092">Western Sydney University</a></em></p> <p><em>This article is republished from <a href="http://theconversation.com">The Conversation</a> under a Creative Commons license. Read the <a href="https://theconversation.com/12-simple-ways-you-can-reduce-bushfire-risk-to-older-homes-122712">original article</a>.</em></p>

Home & Garden

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Prince William and Duchess Kate’s date full of love: Body language expert dishes verdict on couple’s night out

<p><span style="font-weight: 400;">After eight years and three children together, the royal couple looked just as loved up as they would have been on their first date night, a body language expert has revealed. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Judi James says both Prince William and Duchess Kate, who are not a couple to publicly display acts of affection, exhibited “subtly flirt” behaviour that royal fans got to see at the beginning of their relationship. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">While their displays of love and appreciation may be a little more downplayed than the Duke and Duchess of Sussex, James told</span><em><a href="https://www.dailymail.co.uk/home/index.html"><span style="font-weight: 400;"> FEMAIL</span></a></em><span style="font-weight: 400;">, they still signal they have a solid foundation rooted in mutual affection. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The body language expert noted a photograph showing Prince William’s hand on the small of his wife’s back appeared “gentlemanly.”</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">“William and Kate aren’t known for their overt PDAs and they can keep their touch rituals to a minimum in public but this back-touch from William looks unusually tactile and affectionate,” she said. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">“His smile looks almost shy here and the splayed hand appears gentle and gentlemanly, although that raised thumb suggests intense happiness.”</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">It was not the only snap that showed the royal’s looking starry eyed and in love that got James’ attention though. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">An image shared by Kensington Palace’s official Instagram page displayed the Duke and Duchess in their seats at the London Palladium during the show. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">“The couple’s mirroring is always tight, showing like-minded thinking and a subliminal desire to present as an double act based on two empathetic equals,” James said.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">“Here though they add some strong eye-engage signals, leaning their heads together at matching angles to do so. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">“The eye contact has produced facial expressions that suggest the classic "look of love", with a softening of the features plus a dimpled smile from Kate.’</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Once more, a picture of the couple laughing in their box during the show signalled to the body language expert that they were both having fun. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">“Royal Variety performances can prompt some smiles from the royal box but here William and Kate are literally rocking with laughter,” Judi explained.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">“Again it is mutual though, with mirrored movements, suggesting a shared sense of fun.”</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">However, what stood out to her was a snap of the couple leaving the event and heading back to their car after a long night in public. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">“When any smiling public displays have been an act it’s the moment a couple take their seats in the car that you’ll often see masks begin to slip,” Judi said. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">“But if anything Kate’s expression of delight appears to intensify here. Her excited, widened eye expression, her rounded cheeks and her symmetric smile all make her look like someone on a first date.”</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Scroll through the gallery above to see the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge looking loved up on date night. </span></p>

Relationships

Finance

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Why Sweden's central bank dumped Australian bonds

<p><strong>What’s happening?</strong></p> <p>Suddenly, at the level of central banks, Australia is regarded as an investment risk.</p> <p>On Wednesday Martin Flodén, the deputy governor of Sweden’s central bank, announced that because Australia and Canada were “<a href="https://www.riksbank.se/globalassets/media/tal/engelska/floden/2019/monetary-policy-in-a-changing-world.pdf">not known for good climate work</a>”.</p> <p>As a result the bank had sold its holdings of bonds issued by the Canadian province of Alberta and by the Australian states of Queensland and Western Australia.</p> <p><a href="https://images.theconversation.com/files/301897/original/file-20191115-47128-1s2eoc3.jpg?ixlib=rb-1.1.0&amp;q=45&amp;auto=format&amp;w=1000&amp;fit=clip"><img src="https://images.theconversation.com/files/301897/original/file-20191115-47128-1s2eoc3.jpg?ixlib=rb-1.1.0&amp;q=45&amp;auto=format&amp;w=754&amp;fit=clip" alt="" /></a> <span class="caption"></span> <span class="attribution"><a href="https://www.riksbank.se/globalassets/media/tal/engelska/floden/2019/monetary-policy-in-a-changing-world.pdf" class="source">Martin Flodén, deputy governor Sveriges Riksbank Central Bank of Sweden</a></span></p> <p>Central banks normally make the news when they change their “cash rate” and households pay less (or more) on their mortgages.</p> <p>But central banks such as Australia’s Reserve Bank and the European Central Bank, the People’s Bank of China and the US Federal Reserve have broader responsibilities.</p> <p>They can see climate change affecting their ability to <a href="https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/-/media/boe/files/working-paper/2018/climate-change-and-the-macro-economy-a-critical-review.pdf">manage their economies</a> and deliver <a href="https://www.rba.gov.au/publications/fsr/2019/oct/box-c-financial-stability-risks-from-climate-change.html">financial stability</a>.</p> <p><strong>There’s more to central banks than rates</strong></p> <p>As an example, the new managing director of the International Monetary Fund Kristalina Georgieva warned last month that the necessary transition away from fossil fuels would lead to significant amounts of “<a href="https://www.afr.com/policy/economy/central-banks-tune-in-to-climate-change-20191020-p532ev">stranded assets</a>”.</p> <p>Those assets will be coal mines and oil fields that become worthless, endangering the banks that have lent to develop them. More frequent floods, storms and fires will pose risks for insurance companies. Climate change will make these and other shocks more frequent and more severe.</p> <p>In a speech in March the deputy governor of Australia’s Reserve Bank <a href="https://www.rba.gov.au/speeches/2019/sp-dg-2019-03-12.html">Guy Debelle</a> said we needed to stop thinking of extreme events as cyclical.</p> <blockquote> <p><em>We need to think in terms of trend rather than cycles in the weather. Droughts have generally been regarded (at least economically) as cyclical events that recur every so often. In contrast, climate change is a trend change. The impact of a trend is ongoing, whereas a cycle is temporary.</em></p> </blockquote> <p>And he said the changes that will be imposed on us and the changes we will need might be abrupt.</p> <blockquote> <p><em>The transition path to a less carbon-intensive world is clearly quite different depending on whether it is managed as a gradual process or is abrupt. The trend changes aren’t likely to be smooth. There is likely to be volatility around the trend, with the potential for damaging outcomes from spikes above the trend.</em></p> </blockquote> <p>Australia’s central bank and others are going further then just responding to the impacts of climate change. They are doing their part to moderate it.</p> <p><strong>No more watching from the sidelines</strong></p> <p>Over thirty central banks (including Australia’s), and a number of financial supervisory agencies, have created a <a href="https://www.ngfs.net/en">Network for Greening the Financial System</a>.</p> <p>Its purpose is to enhance the role of the financial system in mobilising finance to support the transitions that will be needed. The US Federal Reserve has not joined yet but is <a href="https://www.bis.org/review/r191111a.pdf">considering how to participate</a>.</p> <p>One of its credos is that central banks should <a href="https://www.bis.org/review/r191111a.pdf">lead by example</a> in their own investments.</p> <p>They hold and manage over A$17 trillion. That makes them enormously large investors and a huge influence on global markets.</p> <p>As part of their traditional focus on the liquidity, safety and returns from assets, they are taking into account climate change in deciding how to invest.</p> <p>The are increasingly putting their money into “<a href="https://www.bis.org/publ/qtrpdf/r_qt1909f.pdf">green bonds</a>”, which are securities whose proceeds are used to finance projects that combat climate change or the depletion of biodiversity and natural resources.</p> <p>Over A$300 billion worth of green bonds were issued in 2018, with the total stock now over A$1 trillion.</p> <p><strong>Central banks are investing, and setting standards</strong></p> <p>While large, that is still less than 1% of the stock of conventional securities. It means green bonds are less liquid and have higher buying and selling costs.</p> <p>It also means smaller central banks lack the skills to deal with them.</p> <p>These problems have been addressed by the <a href="https://www.bis.org/">Bank for International Settlements</a>, a bank owned by 60 of the central banks.</p> <p>In September it launched a <a href="https://www.bis.org/press/p190926.htm">green bond fund</a> that will pool investments from 140 (mostly central bank) clients.</p> <p>Its products will initially be denominated in US dollars but will later also be available in euros. It will be supported by an advisory committee of the world’s top central bankers.</p> <p>It is alert to the risk of “<a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greenwashing">greenwashing</a>” and will only buy bonds that comply with the International Capital Market Association’s <a href="https://www.icmagroup.org/green-social-and-sustainability-bonds/green-bond-principles-gbp/">Green Bond Principles</a> or the Climate Bond Initiative’s <a href="https://www.climatebonds.net/standard">Climate Bond Standard</a>.</p> <p>Launching the fund in Basel, Switzerland, the bank’s head of banking Peter Zöllner said he was</p> <blockquote> <p><em>confident that, by aggregating the investment power of central banks, we can influence the behaviour of market participants and have some impact on how green investment standards develop</em></p> </blockquote> <p>It’s an important role. Traditionally focused on keeping the financial system safe, our central banks are increasingly turning to using their stewardship of the financial system to keep us, and our environment, safe.<!-- Below is The Conversation's page counter tag. Please DO NOT REMOVE. --><img style="border: none !important; box-shadow: none !important; margin: 0 !important; max-height: 1px !important; max-width: 1px !important; min-height: 1px !important; min-width: 1px !important; opacity: 0 !important; outline: none !important; padding: 0 !important; text-shadow: none !important;" src="https://counter.theconversation.com/content/126766/count.gif?distributor=republish-lightbox-basic" alt="The Conversation" width="1" height="1" /><!-- End of code. If you don't see any code above, please get new code from the Advanced tab after you click the republish button. The page counter does not collect any personal data. More info: http://theconversation.com/republishing-guidelines --></p> <p><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/john-hawkins-746285">John Hawkins</a>, Assistant professor, <a href="http://theconversation.com/institutions/university-of-canberra-865">University of Canberra</a></em></p> <p><em>This article is republished from <a href="http://theconversation.com">The Conversation</a> under a Creative Commons license. Read the <a href="https://theconversation.com/climate-change-why-swedens-central-bank-dumped-australian-bonds-126766">original article</a>.</em></p>

Money & Banking

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450,000 cars recalled for brake fluid leak that could make them catch fire

<p>Nissan is recalling over 450,000 vehicles worldwide due to a brake fluid leak that could cause them to catch fire.</p> <p>Due to the fire risk, Nissan is urging owners to park the vehicles outdoors and away from structures if the antilock brake light comes on for more than ten seconds.</p> <p>The recall covers the Nissan Murano SUV from 2015 through 2018 and Maxima sedans from 2016 to 2018. There are other cars included, which are Infiniti QX60 and Nissan Pathfinder SUVs from 2017 to 2019.</p> <p>Most cars are in the US and Canada.</p> <p>Nissan says that the antilock brake actuator pump can leak fluid onto a circuit board causing electrical shorts and fires.</p> <p>It’s Nissan’s third recall for the same problem, and the company keeps expanding the number of affected models.</p> <p>About 120,000 US vehicles were recalled in 2016 and Nissan further recalled 215,000 in 2018, according to<span> </span><em><a rel="noopener" href="https://thenewdaily.com.au/money/consumer/2019/11/16/nissan-recalls-450000-vehicles-worldwide/" target="_blank">The New Daily</a></em>.</p> <p>Nissan dealers will now replace the pumps on all of the vehicles. Notices telling owners of the safety risk will be sent December 2.</p> <p>Owners will get a second notice next summer when additional parts are available.</p> <p>In a statement on Friday, Nissan said a seal in the pump can leak brake fluid onto an electronic control circuit board. In rare cases, the leaks could cause an electrical short.</p> <p>“Nissan Group is committed to the safety, security and satisfaction of our customers and their passengers,” the statement said.</p>

Legal

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How to shop smarter and save big

<p><span style="font-weight: 400;">I truly believe that all of us can shop smarter. Just take a bit of time before shopping to plan what you need, during shopping to ensure you get everything (and prevent another trip, which incurs costs on fuel) and after shopping to make sure your goods are stored correctly so they will last until you cook and eat them.</span></p> <p><strong>Here are some tips:</strong></p> <ul> <li><span style="font-weight: 400;">Keep your shopping list somewhere where you will see it all the time and then remember to take it with you when you shop. I keep mine on a spreadsheet open on my computer (because I’m on the computer all day) – but I used to keep it on my fridge door. (I attached some old magnets to the back so it would stay there.) You can also keep it in your phone if you prefer; that way you will be less likely to leave it at home!</span></li> <li><span style="font-weight: 400;">Pay attention to unit prices. Since 2009 it’s been compulsory for every supermarket in Australia to provide a unit price for every item so that shoppers can quickly compare costs. Unit pricing breaks the cost of a product into a unit of weight, volume or number. For example, chocolate will have a unit price per 100 g, milk a unit price per litre and a bulk pack of breakfast bars or drinks might list an ‘each’ price.</span></li> <li><span style="font-weight: 400;">In most cases, the larger the size or amount, the smaller the unit price. For example, the unit price of a 1-litre carton of milk might be $1.20 per litre, yet for a 2-litre carton it might be $0.90 per litre.</span></li> <li><span style="font-weight: 400;">Don’t always assume that you are getting a good deal when buying in bulk. Sometimes it is actually cheaper to buy multiples of the smaller packs. So always check the unit price before you purchase.</span></li> <li><span style="font-weight: 400;">Pay cash instead of using a card. (Use the internet to work out how much your items will cost before you go.) It forces you to keep to your budget.</span></li> <li><span style="font-weight: 400;">Take a calculator (or use your phone) and add up what you are spending as you go.</span></li> <li><span style="font-weight: 400;">Never shop when you are hungry (I know you’ve heard it before, but it makes a huge difference.)</span></li> <li><span style="font-weight: 400;">Try not to shop with young children – it’s distracting for you and stressful for everyone (especially if they’re hassling you nonstop to buy toys or sweets and you’re not giving in!). If shopping with preschoolers is unavoidable, give them a special ‘job’ to do (putting stuff in the trolley), or put them in the trolley with a colouring book.</span></li> <li><span style="font-weight: 400;">Bring your own bottle of water and sip it to get you past the chocolate, soft drink and snack aisles. Better yet, don’t even go down them!</span></li> <li><span style="font-weight: 400;">Avoid shopping at peak times (Saturday mornings and 3–5 p.m. weekdays).</span></li> <li><span style="font-weight: 400;">Never shop at eye level – that’s where the supermarket promotes the product with the highest profit share. Brands pay a premium to have their products at eye-level for people who don’t care too much about what they’re buying and just want to grab it and go. Check out the bottom shelf, then the top.</span></li> <li><span style="font-weight: 400;">But the truly best place of all to find the cheapest items is at the ends of the aisles. This is where the supermarket places bulk items that they want to get rid of quickly – and they will sell them at close to cost price. Take advantage of this – especially with staple items.Check out the clearance section. It’s often a messy, uncoordinated pile, which discourages most shoppers – but don’t let it discourage you. If you are patient enough to weed through this section you may just find an item or two on your list.</span></li> <li><span style="font-weight: 400;">The only time to stray from your budget is when you encounter an unexpected sale on staple items that you just can’t go past.</span></li> <li><span style="font-weight: 400;">If you keep to your budget, give yourself a small, inexpensive treat as a reward (or just put a couple of dollars in a piggy bank to save up for something just for you).</span></li> <li><span style="font-weight: 400;">And the biggest hint of them all: check your receipt. Supermarkets make mistakes all the time. If you find an error, they will often refund you the cost of the entire item, not just the error, so by checking for mistakes, you could get a few items for free!</span></li> </ul> <p><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">This is an edited extract from The $50 Weekly Shop Weekday Dinners by Jody Allen, published by Penguin Random House and available now, RRP $24.99</span></em></p> <p><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Written by Jody Allen. Republished with permission of </span><a href="https://www.wyza.com.au/articles/lifestyle/wyza-life/how-to-shop-smarter-and-save.aspx"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Wyza.com.au.</span></a></em></p>

Legal

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5 ways you can save money by using credit cards

<p>Credit cards sometimes get a bad rap, and that’s mostly because they can lead you to temptation to spend beyond your means.</p> <p>Used responsibly, however, these little pieces of plastic can actually save you money as banks are constantly running promotions that offer discounts for spending.</p> <p>The key is to pay your bills in full every month so you don’t incur the astronomical interest rate, which, in Singapore, is about 25 per cent per annum.</p> <p>Check out these 5 ways that using credit cards can help save you money.</p> <p><strong>1. Dining deals</strong></p> <p>Credit cards that offer dining deals are a foodie’s best friend and the good news is, there are plenty of such cards in Singapore, Malaysia, Australia and New Zealand.</p> <p>Be sure to subscribe to receive promotional emails and mailers from your banks to find out about current dining deals such as 1-for-1 offers, cashback or complimentary treats at selected eateries.</p> <p><strong>2. Discounts on hotels and flights</strong></p> <p>Keep an eye out for special flight or hotel deals from your credit card of choice.</p> <p>You can also get discounts when you book through hotel booking sites such as Agoda or Expedia.</p> <p>Some cards are specially designed for frequent travellers as you get complimentary use of airport lounges a number of times a year, and free travel insurance if you purchase your ticket using the card.</p> <p>Be aware, though, that some airlines charge a fee when you pay for your tickets online using a credit card, so do some calculations to see if it still works out cheaper.</p> <p><strong>3. Take advantage of interest-free instalment plans</strong></p> <p>If you need to buy expensive electronic or electrical goods, such as a new TV or laptop, the 0 per cent interest instalment offered by most major credit cards at most major electronic stores can come in very handy.</p> <p>It helps spread the payments out over your chosen six or 12 months without the high interest rates you would otherwise incur if you were to pay for it upfront using your credit card.</p> <p>This allows you to better manage your monthly expenses and avoid overspending.</p> <p>Credit card companies make profits on a simple fact of human nature: we buy today and worry about how to pay for it tomorrow.</p> <p><strong>4. Discounts on everyday items</strong></p> <p>Credit cards aren’t just useful for big ticket or luxury goods, they can help you save on everyday items too, such as groceries and petrol.</p> <p>In Singapore, cards from POSB, Citibank, HSBC and others can knock off up to 20 percent from your petrol spending each time you fill up the tank.</p> <p>There are many similar campaigns available in Australia and New Zealand.</p> <p>And with the high cost of car ownership, every single dollar counts.</p> <p><strong>5. Collect rebates and cashback</strong></p> <p>If you’re not after dining deals and you don’t like going for holidays, you may want to keep it simple and just collect good ’ol rebates or cashback from your spending.</p> <p>In Singapore, most cashback cards require you to have a minimum spend per month, such as $500, in order to qualify for rebates.</p> <p><em>Written by Siti Rohani. This article first appeared in </em><span><a href="https://www.readersdigest.com.au/money/5-ways-you-can-save-money-using-credit-cards"><em>Reader’s Digest</em></a><em>. For more of what you love from the world’s best-loved magazine, </em><a href="http://readersdigest.innovations.co.nz/c/readersdigestemailsubscribe?utm_source=over60&amp;utm_medium=articles&amp;utm_campaign=RDSUB&amp;keycode=WRN93V"><em>here’s our best subscription offer.</em></a></span></p> <p> </p>

Money & Banking

Entertainment

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Céline Dion originally didn't want to record hit song My Heart Will Go On

<p>It apparently took a little coaxing to get Céline Dion to get on board with the soundtrack to the 1997 film <em>Titanic</em>.</p> <p>On a chat with Andy Cohen on <em><a href="https://youtu.be/conBmLdtUEw">Watch What Happens Live</a></em>, Dion admitted that she wasn’t initially a fan of <em>My Heart Will Go On</em>.</p> <p>“It is true,” she confirmed to Cohen, 51, and his audience members, after being asked about her original thoughts on the song, adding that she’s “glad they didn’t listen to me” and recorded the song anyway.</p> <p>“It didn’t appeal to me. I was probably very tired that day — <em>very</em> tired,” Dion continued. “My husband [the late René Angélil] said, ‘Let’s hold on.’ He talked to the writer and he said, ‘Let’s try to make it, like, a little demo.'”</p> <p>“I sang the song once and they built the orchestra around it. I never re-sang it for the recording. So the demo is the actual recording,” she recalled, joking, “But after that, I’ve sang it about three gazillion times.”</p> <p>The song debuted at Number 1 on the <em>Billboard</em> Hot 100 chart on February 28<sup>th</sup>, 1998 and propelled the soundtrack of the film to a 16-week run at the top spot. The album sold more than 15 million copies worldwide and won Best Original Song at the 1998 Academy Awards and won a Grammy Award for Record of The Year.</p> <p>However, Dion has since come around to the song and says that it now “means a lot to me”.</p> <p>“This song means a lot to me, and it has played such a huge role in my career,” <a href="https://people.com/music/billboard-music-awards-2017-celine-dion-performs-my-heart-will-go-on/">she said in a statement prior</a> to the ceremony that year. “I’m so grateful to the late James Horner, and to Will Jennings, for writing it and creating the opportunity for me to be part of <em>Titanic — </em>an amazing film whose legacy will continue for generations to come.”</p>

Music

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Social media and technology mean that dead celebrities can't rest in peace

<p>“To be dead,” wrote the 20th century French philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre, “is to be a prey for the living.” Even Sartre, though, would have struggled to imagine casting James Dean in a movie 64 years after the actor’s death.</p> <p>The <a href="https://www.hollywoodreporter.com/news/afm-james-dean-reborn-cgi-vietnam-war-action-drama-1252703">curious announcement</a> that Dean, who died in a car crash in 1955 having made just three films, will star in a movie adaptation of Gareth Crocker’s Vietnam War novel Finding Jack, has been met with <a href="https://www.yahoo.com/entertainment/james-dean-finding-jack-digital-actor-backlash-controversy-172502291.html">outrage</a>.</p> <p>It would be a remarkable CGI achievement for any studio to resurrect an actor who has been dead since the Eisenhower administration.</p> <p>True, the Star Wars movie Rogue One featured the late Peter Cushing “reprising” his role as Grand Moff Tarkin. But the new role given to Dean would reportedly be far larger and more complex. Cushing, at least, had already played Tarkin while he was alive.</p> <p>In Finding Jack, “James Dean” will supposedly be starring in a film based on a novel written 80 years after he was born, set near the end of a war that started after he died. He will reportedly be reanimated via “full body” CGI using actual footage and photos; another actor will voice him.</p> <p>The reaction to this goes beyond mere scepticism, however. Nor is it simply the now-familiar post-truth anxiety about no longer being able to tell what’s real and what isn’t. The rise of “<a href="https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&amp;rct=j&amp;q=&amp;esrc=s&amp;source=web&amp;cd=12&amp;cad=rja&amp;uact=8&amp;ved=2ahUKEwi_392QhdjlAhVLdCsKHQ_zC5gQFjALegQIAhAB&amp;url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.nytimes.com%2F2019%2F06%2F10%2Fopinion%2Fdeepfake-pelosi-video.html&amp;usg=AOvVaw2qK3CZZjtPtJJcix9JXZ4X">deepfakes</a>” presents a much greater threat on that front than bringing dead actors back to life.</p> <p>What’s at work here is another pervasive challenge of the online era: how we should live with the digital dead.</p> <p>People die online every day. Social media is increasingly full of <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13347-011-0050-7">electric corpses</a>; at some point <a href="http://www.ox.ac.uk/news/2019-04-29-digital-graveyards-are-dead-taking-over-facebook">the dead will outnumber the living</a> on platforms like Facebook. This already poses a range of <a href="https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10676-015-9379-4">ethical and practical problems</a>. Some of these are the subject of a <a href="https://www.lawreform.justice.nsw.gov.au/Pages/lrc/lrc_current_projects/Digital%20assets/Project-update.aspx">NSW Law Reform Commission inquiry</a> into how we should deal with the digital assets of the dead and incapacitated.</p> <p><strong>Reanimation</strong></p> <p>These issues only get thornier once you add in the prospect of reanimation.</p> <p>For most of this decade, digital immortality was confined to press releases and fiction. A string of start-ups promised breathlessly to let you cheat death via AI-driven avatars, only to disappear when it became clear their taglines were better than their products. (The <a href="https://www.theguardian.com/media/shortcuts/2013/feb/18/death-social-media-liveson-deadsocial">Twitter app LivesOn’s</a> “When your heart stops beating, you’ll keep tweeting” was undeniably clever).</p> <p>“Be Right Back,” a 2013 episode of the TV series Black Mirror, imagined a young woman who signs up for a service that brings her dead partner back to life using his social media footprint: first as a chat bot, then as a phone-based voice simulator, and finally as a lifelike automaton. It was brilliant, bleak television, but thankfully, it wasn’t real.</p> <p>Then in late 2015, 34-year-old Roman Mazurenko died in an accident in Moscow. As a tribute, his best friend, fellow tech entrepreneur Eugenia Kuyda, <a href="https://www.theverge.com/a/luka-artificial-intelligence-memorial-roman-mazurenko-bot">built the texts</a> Mazurenko had sent her into a chat bot.</p> <p>You can download Roman Mazurenko right now, wherever you get your apps, and talk to a dead man. Internet immortality might not be here yet, not quite, but it’s unsettlingly close.</p> <p><strong>Between remembrance and exploitation</strong></p> <p>Sadly, it’s not an immortality we could look forward to. When we fear death, one thing we particularly dread is the end of first-person experience.</p> <p>Think of the experience you’re having reading this article. Someone else could be reading exactly the same words at the same time. But their experience will lack whatever it is that makes this your experience. That’s what scares us: if you die, that quality, what it’s like to be you, won’t exist anymore. And there is, to mangle <a href="https://ethics.org.au/ethics-explainer-what-is-it-like-to-be-a-bat/">a famous line from Thomas Nagel</a>, nothing it is like to be a bot.</p> <p>But what about living on for other people? The Mazurenko bot is clearly a work of mourning, and a work of love. Remembering the dead, <a href="http://sorenkierkegaard.org/works-of-love.html">wrote Kierkegaard</a>, is the freest and most unselfish work of love, for the dead can neither force us to remember them nor reward us for doing so. But memory is fragile and attention is fickle.</p> <p>It seems reasonable that we might use our new toys to help the dead linger in the lifeworld, to escape oblivion a little longer. The danger, as the philosopher <a href="https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/05568641.2015.1014538">Adam Buben has put it</a>, is that memorialisation could slip into replacement.</p> <p>An interactive avatar of the dead might simply become a stopgap, something you use to fill part of the hole the dead leave in our lives. That risks turning the dead into yet another resource for the living. The line between remembrance and exploitation is surprisingly porous.</p> <p>That is what’s ultimately troubling about resurrecting James Dean. To watch a James Dean movie is to encounter, in some palpable way, the concrete person. Something of the face-to-face encounter survives the mediation of lens, celluloid and screen.</p> <p>To make a new James Dean movie is something else. It’s to use the visual remains of Dean as a workable resource instead of letting him be who he is. Worse, it suggests that James Dean can be replaced, just as algorithm-driven avatars might come to replace, rather than simply commemorate, the dead.</p> <p>We’ll know in time whether Finding Jack can live up to its likely premature hype. Even if it doesn’t, the need to think about how we protect the dead from our digital predations isn’t going away.<!-- Below is The Conversation's page counter tag. Please DO NOT REMOVE. --><img style="border: none !important; box-shadow: none !important; margin: 0 !important; max-height: 1px !important; max-width: 1px !important; min-height: 1px !important; min-width: 1px !important; opacity: 0 !important; outline: none !important; padding: 0 !important; text-shadow: none !important;" src="https://counter.theconversation.com/content/127211/count.gif?distributor=republish-lightbox-basic" alt="The Conversation" width="1" height="1" /><!-- End of code. If you don't see any code above, please get new code from the Advanced tab after you click the republish button. The page counter does not collect any personal data. More info: http://theconversation.com/republishing-guidelines --></p> <p><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/patrick-stokes-10346">Patrick Stokes</a>, Associate Professor of Philosophy, <a href="http://theconversation.com/institutions/deakin-university-757">Deakin University</a></em></p> <p><em>This article is republished from <a href="http://theconversation.com">The Conversation</a> under a Creative Commons license. Read the <a href="https://theconversation.com/chat-bots-james-dean-can-the-digital-dead-rest-in-peace-127211">original article</a>.</em></p>

Technology

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The “biggest regret” of Queen Elizabeth’s reign

<p>While the third season of <em>The Crown</em> only dropped recently, there is one particular event that has appeared to have haunted Queen Elizabeth all the years later, that has dominated conversation among viewers. </p> <p>The Netflix royal drama has touched on the Aberfan disaster of 1966, which tragically saw the death of 116 children and 28 adults in a South Wales mining village. </p> <p>After weeks of intense, heavy rain, a mountain of mining waste (a colliery spoil tip) liquified and collapsed on the morning of October 21. </p> <p>The horrifying black sludge slid downhill into the village, where it engulfed the junior school and a number of houses. </p> <p>The impact was devastating and resulted in people being buried beneath the rubble. </p> <p>Only 28 students at Pantglas Junior school that morning survived the landslide. </p> <p>The Crown not only touched on the impact of the 1966 tragedy on the United Kingdom, but also the Queen’s actions in the aftermath. </p> <p>When the royal was informed of the Aberfan disaster, she issued a message of support and sympathy to the victims instantly.</p> <p>However, there was one decision that she made which came under a lot of scrutiny by the media, and it was sending Prince Philip to visit the town in her place. </p> <p>In fact, she did not visit the Welsh village until eight days after tragedy struck, a delay which is believed to be Her Majesty’s greatest regret of her reign. </p> <p>The show suggested the Queen, portrayed by Olivia Coleman, was hesitant to visit straight away as she believed her presence would have been an unwelcome distraction during the recovery process. </p> <p>No matter the reason, the royal’s decision to delay her visit was criticised heavily by the press. </p> <p>When she did visit Aberfan, the Queen surveyed the horrific damage and met with the victim’s grieving families. </p> <p>"Aberfan affected the Queen very deeply, I think, when she went there," former royal press officer staffer Sir William Heseltine said in the documentary <em>Elizabeth: Our Queen</em>.</p> <p>“It was one of the few occasions in which she shed tears in public. I think she felt in hindsight that she might have gone there a little earlier.</p> <p>"It was a sort of lesson for us that you need to show sympathy and to be there on the spot, which I think people craved from her."  </p> <p>The Queen has returned to the Welsh village in the years since three times. </p> <p>On the 50th anniversary of the tragedy in 2016, she honoured the victims and shared recollections of that first "heartbreaking" visit to the village.</p> <p>"We will all be thinking about the 144 people who died – most of them children between the ages of seven and ten – and the hundreds more who have lived with the shock and grief of that day," her emotional statement read.  </p> <p>"I well remember my own visit with Prince Philip after the disaster, and the posy I was given by a young girl, which bore the heart-breaking inscription, 'From the remaining children of Aberfan.'  </p> <p>"Since then, we have returned on several occasions and have always been deeply impressed by the remarkable fortitude, dignity and indomitable spirit that characterises the people of this village and the surrounding valleys."</p> <p>Scroll through the gallery to see the Queen at Aberfan.</p>

TV

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Those at risk during bushfires might lose signal when they need it

<p>Yesterday, New South Wales and Queensland issued fire warnings classified as either “catastrophic”, “severe” or “extreme” - and these conditions will <a href="https://www.ruralfire.qld.gov.au/Pages/FDR.aspx">remain</a> in the coming days.</p> <p>Areas under threat include the greater Sydney area, northern New South Wales, the Northern Goldfields, and the Central Highlands. The declared state of emergency means human life is <a href="https://www.abc.net.au/news/2019-11-12/nsw-bushfires-burn-amid-catastrophic-conditions-as-it-happened/11694646">at great risk</a>.</p> <p>Those at risk should evacuate ahead of <a href="https://www.rfs.nsw.gov.au/news-and-media/general-news/dangerous-fire-conditions">time</a>, as mobile phone services may not be <a href="https://www.optus.com.au/about/media-centre/media-releases/2019/11/optus-update-tuesday-12-november-bushfires-network-update-plus-disaster-assistance-support-activated-mid-north-coast1">reliable</a> when needed the most.</p> <p><strong>Service outages</strong></p> <p>People in dangerous bushfire situations often have the added burden of service outages. This can happen following fire damage to infrastructure (such as signal towers) that connects base stations that relay communications within the <a href="https://www.worldcat.org/title/understanding-telecommunications-networks/oclc/1004191902">network</a>. A break in this connection means no signal, or weak signal, for those on the ground.</p> <p>Generally, radio waves used for mobile communication behave differently as <a href="https://www.eetimes.com/document.asp?doc_id=1276321">they travel</a>, based on various factors that affect signal strength. One factor is land geography, such as the height of hills. The signal may not be able to penetrate sand hills. Gum trees may also reflect, obstruct and absorb radio signals.</p> <p>The scenarios described above can be made worse by fire environments, based on the <a href="https://www.rfs.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0003/8967/5.1.3-Communication-Systems.pdf">frequencies</a> used. Flames can produce “plasma”, which reacts with the surrounding magnetic field, and this degrades signal strength.</p> <p>Rural fire service operations may use frequencies in the 400-450MHz range to communicate, but these signals are weakened during fire, in which case they may use frequencies in the 100-180MHz range. At this wavelength, signal strength doesn’t degrade as badly and can sustain better <a href="https://digital.library.adelaide.edu.au/dspace/bitstream/2440/58684/8/02whole.pdf">communication</a>.</p> <p>Being <a href="https://mobilenetworkguide.com.au/pdf/Mobile-Network-Guide-Improving-Mobile-Signal.pdf">far away from a mobile phone tower</a>, often in rural areas, also results in degraded communication. Rural areas don’t receive as much coverage because installing cell towers in these areas is not particularly profitable, and towers are built based on revenue estimates. There is little incentive to build networks with additional capacity in rural areas.</p> <p><strong>Get out while you can</strong></p> <p>In bushfire situations, it’s crucial to leave affected areas early to avoid becoming stuck in <a href="https://www.communications.gov.au/what-we-do/phone/mobile-services-and-coverage/mobile-black-spot-program">mobile black spots</a>. These are regional and remote areas that have been identified as not having mobile phone <a href="https://www.communications.gov.au/what-we-do/phone/mobile-services-and-coverage/mobile-black-spot-program">coverage</a>.</p> <p>Some mobile black spots where fire danger warnings have been issued include Mount Seaview and Yarras, not far from the Oxley Highway in NSW. The status of the fires there was reported “out of control” <a href="https://www.rfs.nsw.gov.au/fire-information/fires-near-me">on Tuesday morning</a>.</p> <p>Optus is planning to <a href="https://www.optus.com.au/shop/mobile/network/mobile-black-spot-program">roll out macrocells</a> at these locations to expand coverage between the end of this year and the middle of next year. These are base stations that cover a wide area and are typically deployed in rural regions or along highways.</p> <p>Until the macrocells are deployed, people living in mobile black spots, or who may be forced to pass through these areas due to fire, continue to be at risk. When passing through a fire-affected black spot, you are virtually <a href="https://www.communications.gov.au/what-we-do/phone/mobile-services-and-coverage/mobile-phone-towers">unreachable</a>.</p> <p>Also, although the mobile black spot program will help to increase 4G coverage in rural areas, most rural areas, including many at high risk of bushfires, rely largely on 3G. When people need extra data capacity during emergencies, the network is incapable of handling the increased traffic load, as every device is trying to connect and download data at the minimum 3G capacity of 550Kbps.</p> <p><strong>Network overload</strong></p> <p>The network gets congested at times of catastrophe due to the high volume of mobile phone traffic experienced, which exceeds the available network capacity. The mobile network in Billy’s Creek in NSW, and the areas connected to it, experienced an outage <a href="https://www.optus.com.au/about/media-centre/media-releases/2019/11/optus-update-tuesday-12-november-bushfires-network-update-plus-disaster-assistance-support-activated-mid-north-coast1">yesterday</a>.</p> <p>Telstra’s services have also been <a href="https://exchange.telstra.com.au/providing-bushfire-relief-to-our-customers-affected-in-new-south-wales/">affected</a>. As of Monday, people in Billy’s Creek, Yarras and Nimbin (among other locations) were unable to send or receive messages, make calls or access the internet, and may not have been up to date with the latest fire information, unless through radio or television.</p> <p>During bushfires last year, for every three calls attempted under Telstra’s network, one was eventually <a href="https://www.abc.net.au/news/2018-03-20/mobile-phone-blackspots-put-lives-at-risk-during-fires/9566338">answered</a>. Everyone trying to call at once is referred to as a “mass call event”. This creates “congestive collapse” in parts of the internet-based network, blocking new connections from being made.</p> <p>During congestion, the performance of the network decreases because the internet packets that carry the calls or messages are dropped, or <a href="https://doi.org/10.1177/1550147719829960">delayed</a>, before they reach their destination. One solution is for operators to have signal boosters installed for the affected part of the network.</p> <p><strong>There’s an app for that, if you have good connection</strong></p> <p>In the same way, the “Fires Near Me Australia” <a href="https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=au.gov.nsw.rfs.firesnearme.national&amp;hl=en">web application</a> is likely to suffer from internet packet deliveries being delayed.</p> <p>The app may be overwhelmed if too many people try to access it at once, and may crash. In such scenarios, people should reboot their phones and keep trying to connect.</p> <p>Some people have made complaints of not being able to download the app, and others of the app crashing, because their phone’s model was not new enough to support it.</p> <p>If the fires spread to densely populated areas, available 4G capacities may be exhausted by the sheer volume of the traffic. And congestion is made worse by more incoming traffic from across the country, from concerned family and friends.</p> <p>Preventative measures may no longer be an option for many. But in the future, people in fire-prone areas may benefit from buying a personal 4G or 3G mobile signal booster ahead of time.</p> <p><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/stanley-shanapinda-610761">Stanley Shanapinda</a>, Research Fellow, <a href="http://theconversation.com/institutions/la-trobe-university-842">La Trobe University</a></em></p> <p><em>This article is republished from <a href="http://theconversation.com">The Conversation</a> under a Creative Commons license. Read the <a href="https://theconversation.com/as-flames-encroach-those-at-risk-may-lose-phone-signal-when-they-need-it-most-126827">original article</a>.</em></p>

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