Placeholder Content Image

What flight attendants aren’t allowed to do

<p><strong>The (job) rules of the sky</strong></p> <p>There are always rules and regulations to follow at various companies, and flight attendants are no exception. However, since being a flight attendant is no ordinary job and they’ve seen some of the craziest things when flying, it makes sense that they have some more interesting rules they need to abide by. From keeping piercings and tattoos to a minimum and not raising their voice, read on to find out the unusual rules flight attendants need to follow on the job.</p> <p><strong>They can’t sleep when working on a flight</strong></p> <p>It’s tempting for passengers to get some sleep when on a flight, but flight attendants don’t always have that option. “Flight attendants cannot ever sleep while working a flight unless it is a flight of a certain time duration,” says Kiki Ward, an airline flight attendant and author of <em>The Essential Guide to Becoming a Flight Attendant</em>. However, there are some exceptions, like on international or long-haul flights where flight attendants can go to a designated area to take a rest break.</p> <p><strong>They can’t have tongue piercings</strong></p> <p>Many women get their ears pierced at a young age. However, piercings can’t extend to other parts of the body, especially the tongue. According to the British Airways, its uniform standards require a simple, elegant look. A single ear piercing is allowed and only one set of round-shaped earrings must be worn. No other visible body piercings including tongue, tongue retainer, and nose studs are allowed.</p> <p><strong>They can’t have tattoos on most airlines</strong></p> <p>Most airlines require that tattoos aren’t visible on a flight attendant’s face, neck, hands or arms, and if a tattoo can be seen under the uniform, an undergarment should be worn to cover it up. <a href="https://careers.airnewzealand.co.nz/belong-here/life-at-air-new-zealand/tattoo-policy">Air New Zealand’s tattoo policy</a> however allows employees to have <a href="https://media.newzealand.com/en/story-ideas/ta-moko-significance-of-maori-tattoos/">Tā Moko</a> (traditional Māori tattooing, often on the face) and non-offensive tattoos visible when wearing the uniform or normal business attire.</p> <p><strong>They can’t talk loudly in the cabin</strong></p> <p>In a confined space like a cabin, one conversation can be heard by people rows away. “There are personal behavioural guidelines that flight attendants are asked to follow,” says Ward, such as not talking to one another loudly in the cabin, the galleys or on jump seats about personal lives, work, etc because voices carry on aeroplanes. There isn’t a lot of privacy on an plane, so everyone should be courteous to those around them.</p> <p>Although if you’re bumped from your flight, you may feel less than courteous in your interactions with airline staff. </p> <p><em>Written by Madeline Wahl. This article first appeared in </em><a href="https://www.readersdigest.com.au/flightstravel-hints-tips/10-things-flight-attendants-arent-allowed-to-do?slide=all"><em>Reader’s Digest</em></a><em>. For more of what you love from the world’s best-loved magazine, </em><em><u> </u></em><a href="http://readersdigest.innovations.co.nz/c/readersdigestemailsubscribe?utm_source=over60&amp;utm_medium=articles&amp;utm_campaign=RDSUB&amp;keycode=WRN93V"><em>here’s our best subscription offer.</em></a></p>

Travel Tips

Placeholder Content Image

What to pack for a cruise – and 6 things not to bring

<p><strong>Cruise essentials</strong></p> <p>Packing for a cruise is a lot like packing for any other holiday. You’ll want to bring comfy walking shoes for sightseeing and to leave your best jewellery at home. But there are other items – beyond seasickness medications – that expert cruisers never set sail without. Here, a few of our favourite professional cruisers tell us what you’ll find in their suitcases.</p> <p><strong>Do: Stash all your pool items in your carry-on bag</strong></p> <p>“You may not see your checked bag until late on your first day on board,” says Gene Sloan, cruise editor of USA Today. “It can take hours from the time you drop your bag off with the ship-side porters for it to arrive up in your room.” As a result, when we asked him what to pack for a cruise, he recommended stashing your swimsuit, sunglasses and suntan lotion in your day bag so you have them available immediately upon arrival.</p> <p><strong>Do: Pack clothing that can be layered</strong></p> <p> “Weather from port to port can vary significantly,” explains Colleen McDaniel, senior executive editor of CruiseCritic.com. “Packing layers can help combat temperature changes, without the need to pack multiple outfits that can take up precious room in your suitcase.” McDaniel adds that this is especially important in places where the weather is unpredictable.</p> <p><strong>Don’t: Leave home without sunscreen and aloe vera</strong> “Chances are you’ll get more sun than you’re used to,” says McDaniel. “And while a good sunscreen can keep you from getting burned, aloe vera will give you some relief if you do.” So when you’re thinking about what to pack for a cruise, remember to buy the sunscreen and after-sun lotion at home – you could end up paying a markup on many ships.</p> <p><strong>Do: Bring a portable charger or two</strong></p> <p>If you’re someone who doesn’t like to unplug during a vacation, this one is a biggie – especially if you have more than one device or spend hours on social media or email. “You won’t have easy access to outlets around the ship,” explains Fran Golden, chief contributor of Porthole magazine. “And there may be a limited number of outlets in your cabin.”</p> <p><strong>Do: Toss your portable mug in your bag</strong></p> <p>Cruise ships often have complimentary coffee, and it’s usually part of the deck buffet. But your cabin isn’t, so many people go up on deck, grab a couple mugs of coffee first thing in the morning, and burn themselves as they walk back to their cabin. Mike Jirout, founder of the Ship Mate App, has this clever suggestion in his blog: If you’re a big coffee drinker, pack a portable mug with a lid in your suitcase. Travelling with kids? You’ll want sippy cups for their morning milk or juice.</p> <p><strong>Do: Throw in some kitchen magnets</strong></p> <p>“Little-known fact for those who haven’t cruised before: Cruise cabin walls are made of steel,” says McDaniel. “Packing magnets – or magnetic hooks – can help keep track of daily programs and other loose papers, or make it easy to hang items that need to dry. We’ve also used heavy-duty magnetic hooks for stashing away cameras, lanyards and even binoculars.”</p> <p><strong>Do: Bring along a marker board</strong></p> <p>If you’re travelling with a group of friends or family, magnetic marker boards are handy to bring along, says McDaniel. “Hang one outside your cabin door so that you can leave notes for your travel companions.” Now, you’ll never miss out on meeting spots or reservation details.</p> <p><strong>Do: Pick up a pashmina</strong></p> <p>Just because you’re heading to a tropical region, doesn’t mean you won’t want to bring a cover-up to use on board. “I always pack a shawl (a tan cashmere is my go-to-these days), even in tropical climates,” explains Golden, “because sometimes the air-conditioning on ships is intense.” Also, as ships reach full speed, the wind on outdoor decks picks up, and you’ll be happy you brought along a wrap.</p> <p><strong>Do: Pack plenty of reading material</strong></p> <p> “Make sure you have a couple of books on your Kindle or iPad, because for once in your busy life, on a cruise ship you will actually have time to read,” says Golden. “Sometimes I’ll even pick novels based on the destination where I am cruising, or a sea theme. If I have a balcony cabin, the balcony becomes my favourite reading spot.”</p> <p><em>Written by Sherri Eisenberg. This article first appeared in </em><a href="https://www.readersdigest.com.au/travel/cruising/what-to-pack-for-a-cruise-and-6-things-not-to-bring"><em>Reader’s Digest.</em></a><em> For more of what you love from the world’s best-loved magazine,</em><em><u> </u></em><a href="http://readersdigest.innovations.co.nz/c/readersdigestemailsubscribe?utm_source=over60&amp;utm_medium=articles&amp;utm_campaign=RDSUB&amp;keycode=WRN93V"><em>here’s our best subscription offer.</em></a></p>

Cruising

Placeholder Content Image

I’m taking antibiotics – how do I know I’ve been prescribed the right ones?

<p>In the days before antibiotics, <a href="http://www.bbc.co.uk/newsbeat/article/34866829/life-before-antibiotics-and-maybe-life-after-an-antibiotic-apocalypse">deaths from bacterial infections</a> were common. Seemingly minor illnesses could escalate in severity, becoming deadly in a matter of hours or days.</p> <p>These days, antibiotics can be life-savers. In the community, they’re <a href="https://theconversation.com/when-should-you-take-antibiotics-42751">commonly used</a> to treat bacterial infections of the lung, urinary tract, eye, throat, skin and gut.</p> <p>But they’re not needed for <em>all</em> bacterial infections – many infections will resolve on their own without treatment.</p> <p>And of course, antibiotics <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/features/antibioticuse/index.html">don’t treat viral infections</a> such as colds and flus, or fungal infections such as tinea or thrush.</p> <p>Even when antibiotics are necessary, they’re not a one-size-fits-all treatment: not all antibiotics kill all types of bacteria.</p> <p><strong>What type of bacteria is causing the infection?</strong></p> <p>If your doctor suspects you have a serious bacterial infection, they will often take a urine or blood test, or a swab to send to the pathologist.</p> <p>At the lab, these tests aim to detect and identify the bacteria causing the infection.</p> <p>Some methods only need to detect bacterial DNA. These DNA-based approaches are called “genotypic methods” and are quick and highly sensitive.</p> <p>Other methods involve attempting to culture and isolate bacteria from the sample. This can take one to four days.</p> <p><strong>What antibiotic can fight the infection?</strong></p> <p>If antibiotic treatment is necessary, the isolated bacteria can be used in a second series of tests to help determine the right antibiotic for your infection. These are called <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6627445/">antimicrobial susceptibility tests</a>.</p> <p>Like the tests that first detected the bacterium causing your infection, they can be done using DNA-based (genotypic) methods or by culturing the bacterium in the presence of various antibiotics and assessing what happens (phenotypic methods).</p> <p>Genotypic tests tend to identify which antibiotics won’t work so they can be ruled out as treatment options; ruling out the ones that won’t work leaves the ones that <em>should</em> work.</p> <p>For phenotypic tests, the bacterium is regrown in the presence of a range of antibiotics to see which one stops its growth. A range of concentrations of each antibiotic are often used in these tests.</p> <p><strong>Why you sometimes get a script without testing</strong></p> <p>Whichever tests are done, the results may not be available for a couple of days. In the meantime, your doctor will probably get you started on an antibiotic that is <em>most likely</em> to be effective. This is called empiric therapy and is the “best guess” treatment while they wait for test results.</p> <p>Empiric antibiotic choice is based on the doctor’s prior experience with that type of infection, as well as clinical guidelines developed from evidence about that infection type, and ongoing surveillance data from the pathology lab about the types of bacteria generally causing that infection, and which antibiotics those bacteria are susceptible to.</p> <p>When available, the test results will either confirm the initial choice, or influence the doctor’s decision to prescribe a different antibiotic.</p> <p>Take urinary tract infections (UTIs), for example. Most are caused by <em>E. coli</em> and there are antibiotics that reliably treat these infections.</p> <p>Data from the thousands of pathology tests performed each year on the <em>E. coli</em>from other people’s UTIs helps inform the doctor’s choice of empiric antibiotic for you, as do the clinical guidelines.</p> <p>The doctor can therefore be reasonably confident in prescribing that antibiotic while you wait for the test results from your urine sample. You’ll either get better and need no further intervention, or you’ll come back to the doctor, by which time your test results should be available to fine-tune the choice of antibiotic.</p> <p><strong>Why it’s important to get the right antibiotic</strong></p> <p>Naturally, you want to receive an antibiotic that will effectively treat your infection. But what’s wrong with taking an antibiotic that does the job too well or, conversely, is ineffective?</p> <p>Antibiotics that are too strong will not only clear your infection but will also kill other good bacteria, <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/d42859-019-00019-x">disrupting your microbiome</a> and possibly causing other knock-on effects.</p> <p>On the other hand, an ineffective antibiotic will not only fail to treat the infection adequately, it can still cause side effects and disrupt your microbiome.</p> <p>A broader consideration for the judicious use of antibiotics is that overuse, or ineffective use, contributes unnecessarily to the development of antibiotic resistance. All antibiotic use <a href="https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Sara_Hernando-Amado/publication/335337005_Defining_and_combating_antibiotic_resistance_from_One_Health_and_Global-Health_perspectives/links/5d7123f4299bf1cb8088bd73/Defining-and-combating-antibiotic-resistance-from-One-Health-and-Global-Health-perspectives.pdf">promotes resistance</a> in other bacteria they come in contact with, so minimising and optimising their targeted use is important.</p> <p>The right antibiotic choice for your infection is a complex decision that must often be made before key additional evidence to support the decision is available.</p> <p>As test results become available, the treatment antibiotics may be refined, changed or even stopped.</p> <p><em>Written by Christine Carson. Republished with permission of </em><a href="https://theconversation.com/im-taking-antibiotics-how-do-i-know-ive-been-prescribed-the-right-ones-122868"><em>The Conversation.</em></a></p>

Caring

Placeholder Content Image

Synonyms to use that will make you a better writer

<p><strong>Put it in writing</strong></p> <p>Good writing is considerate of its audience. You want to think about your reader and consider the best way to get your message across to them. Even in the digital age, the right word elevates your writing and the wrong one drags it down. If you’re writing in a business context, you want to make a good impression and come across as professional. You want to be efficient, but not overly dry. While keeping your writing clear of grammar and spelling errors is a given, you’ll also want to use words that avoid cliché and relay your message with aplomb.</p> <p>You’ll also want to avoid these overused words that make you sound boring.</p> <p><strong>Instead of using “a lot”</strong></p> <p>A lot is a descriptor that skews ultra-casual. If you describe your background by saying, “I have a lot of experience,” or convey your aptitude with “I have a lot of ideas,” you come across as too laid-back and imprecise. Laura Hale Brockway, at Entrepreneur, offers 32 alternative synonyms for “a lot.” She offers descriptors like “a great deal” or “a copious amount” as a stand-in for the informal term. Choose a synonym that elevates your message and offers precision like “myriad” or “several.”</p> <p><strong>Instead of using “fine”</strong></p> <p> “Fine” is a rejoinder to questions about either quality or physical health. However, it’s become so common that it now means “OK” or “average.” If you’re writing in a business setting or descriptively, “fine” seems polite, but there are other options that can get specific about what you’re describing. A simple synonym is “well,” as in “I’m feeling well.” You can also use synonyms like “exceptional” or “skilful” to describe quality. If you do mean “fine” in the sense of passable, use “mediocre” or “average” instead.</p> <p><strong>Instead of using “very”</strong></p> <p>Very is a qualifier that’s often overused. How many times have you peppered emails or business communications with this word? Have you ever written “I’m very excited about the upcoming project” or “Your work is very good?” Eliminate “very” unless it adds necessary and real meaning to the idea you describe. If it’s important then use synonyms for “very” like “remarkably,” “substantially,” “emphatically,” or “profoundly.” Otherwise, using “very” adds sloppy imprecision to your writing.</p> <p><strong>Instead of using “great”</strong></p> <p>Great is a superfluous term that often shows up in place of “yes” or “good” in written writing. It’s a shorthand term that conveys enthusiasm but has become so common that it’s lost its nuance as a descriptor. Consider more precise words like “choice” or “breathtaking” to describe a state of being or an object’s quality. Here are some more options from Daily Writing Tips like “deluxe” and “favourable” that get closer to the idea you’re trying to convey. Looking for more great synonym options for words like great?</p> <p><strong>Instead of using “crazy”</strong></p> <p>Using “crazy” (or “insane”) is common, but it’s an imprecise way to express what you really mean. Katie Dupere at Mashable explains that the term is insensitive and makes light of mental health issues. The term is also far from what you mean to say. Look carefully at what you’re actually trying to convey when you write, “The midterm was crazy” or “The project was insane.” It’s best to stay away from casual idioms in formal writing. You also want to stay mindful about how such terms could affect your reader. Consider words like “busy,” “intense,” “erratic,” and “wacky” as synonyms. Let the idea of what you truly want to convey be your guide.</p> <p><em>Written by Molly Pennington, PhD. This article first appeared in </em><a href="https://www.readersdigest.com.au/culture/12-synonyms-that-will-make-you-a-better-writer?slide=all"><em>Reader’s Digest.</em></a><em> For more of what you love from the world’s best-loved magazine</em><em><u>, </u></em><a href="http://readersdigest.innovations.co.nz/c/readersdigestemailsubscribe?utm_source=over60&amp;utm_medium=articles&amp;utm_campaign=RDSUB&amp;keycode=WRN93V"><em>here’s our best subscription offer.</em></a></p>

Art

Placeholder Content Image

Beautiful people don’t always win in the workplace

<p>Research has shown people deemed attractive <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joep.2015.04.002">get paid more</a>, <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-8116(99)00014-2">receive better job evaluations</a> and are generally <a href="https://www.doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.2014.1927">more employable</a>. It’s even been shown that <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2357756">good-looking CEOs bring better stock returns</a> for their companies.</p> <p>In part, this may be because companies believe consumers are more likely to buy things from beautiful employees, which is perhaps why <a href="https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/morning-mix/wp/2015/06/02/the-rise-and-fall-of-abercrombies-look-policy/">retailers like Abercrombie &amp; Fitch</a> have used looks as criteria in their hiring process. Abercrombie says it <a href="https://www.cnbc.com/2015/04/24/abercrombie-ditches-shirtless-models-with-new-policies.html">stopped doing that</a> in 2015.</p> <p>There’s some evidence, however, that this worker “beauty premium” may be wearing off – at least when it comes to employees who interact with consumers. In television commercials, for example, <a href="https://www.vox.com/the-goods/2018/10/18/17995804/bumble-spotify-dove-real-people-in-advertisements">retailers and other companies are increasingly using real people</a> – with all their physical flaws – rather than photoshopped models to give their brands an “authentic” feel.</p> <p>Research several colleagues and <a href="https://udayton.edu/directory/business/management_and_marketing/zhang-chun.php">I conducted</a> recently suggests that companies may be wise to take this approach with customers. <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jretconser.2019.04.016">Our studies</a> show occasions where the beauty premium doesn’t hold – and can even backfire.</p> <p><strong>Beauty can create distance</strong></p> <p>In our first study, we wanted to better understand how consumers respond to attractive service employees.</p> <p>We invited 309 college students to read the same description of being served dinner at a restaurant and then look at an image of a person we described as their waiter.</p> <p>Participants randomly viewed either a male or female server whose facial features were edited to depict high or low levels of attractiveness, based on <a href="https://doi.org/10.1086/676967">prior research defining beauty</a>. Separately, we used similar objective measures of attractiveness to rate participants on the same scale.</p> <p>We then asked participants to rate the attractiveness of the server and how “psychologically close” they felt to him or her. Participants also graded customer satisfaction, the service quality and the likability of the waiter on a scale from low to high.</p> <p>We found that how close a consumer felt toward the waiter correlated with how they rated the quality of service they received. That is, if they felt distance from the waiter, they were more likely to give him or her poor marks. Furthermore, we found that people who thought the server was attractive but were themselves not good-looking – using our objective beauty assessment – were more likely to feel distance.</p> <p>We wanted to know whether this distance was actually more about how they perceived themselves than any objective measure. So we conducted a second similar study for which we recruited 237 people who were waiting to board a flight at China’s third-largest airport, located in Guangzhou. We asked them to read a scenario about receiving meal or other service from a flight attendant while aboard the plane and view a picture of the employee. Just as in the first study, participants randomly viewed either “attractive” or “unattractive” flight attendants.</p> <p>They then rated the attractiveness of the attendant as well as themselves and indicated whether they believe there’s a connection between beauty and skill. They also rated the service received.</p> <p>We found that participants who saw themselves as less good-looking felt more distance from an attractive flight attendant and were also more likely to perceive the service as lower quality. In addition, participants who said there isn’t a connection between beauty and skill also tended to assess attractive employees’ service as low quality.</p> <p>A third and final study, in which we surveyed consumers at a shopping mall who had just had a face-to-face encounter with a service employee, further confirmed the results of the first two. In each study, we found a clear connection between beautiful workers and unpleasant customer experiences for people who are less attractive.</p> <p>So in a world that admires and hires beautiful people, our research suggests there’s a potential downside, at least in the service sector.</p> <p><em>Written by Chun Zhang. Republished with permission of </em><a href="https://theconversation.com/beautiful-people-dont-always-win-in-the-workplace-123235"><em>The Conversation.</em></a></p>

Beauty & Style

Placeholder Content Image

4 ways to make gossip less toxic

<p>Gossip gets a bad rap. There’s no doubt that the act of gossiping about someone can sometimes be damaging and negative. But there is such a thing as “good gossip” and the very act of gossiping can actually help the way we interact with each other. If we follow some simple steps we can take part in gossip without it ending in tears.</p> <p>Gossip is defined as talking about and evaluating someone when they aren’t there. But we can use gossip to learn about the rules of behaviour in social groups and get closer to each other. It helps us do this by letting us learn important information without the need to actually talk to every group member. So <a href="http://www.rotarybalilovina.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/02/Dunbar%20gossip.pdf">gossiping is efficient</a> and those who gossip can use this social currency to gain <a href="http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/1994-98161-013">positions of power</a>.</p> <p>But being a gossip also has a dark side. Gossips are generally viewed as <a href="https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Sally_Farley/publication/230486595_Is_gossip_power_The_inverse_relationships_between_gossip_power_and_likability/links/00b495310c2dc52ecf000000.pdf">unlikeable, untrustworthy and weak</a>. Even <a href="https://muse.jhu.edu/article/23570/summary">children as young as nine</a> regard those who spread information about other people as less likeable and less deserving of rewards. There is also evidence that gossiping may <a href="https://e-space.mmu.ac.uk/559453/1/ACCEPTED%20VERSION_Short%20term%20effects%20of%20gossip%20behavior%20on%20self-esteem.pdf">make us feel bad about ourselves</a>, regardless of whether what we have said is nasty or nice. And, of course, there are the consequences for the person you have gossiped about, who may suffer psychologically if they find out they were the target of gossip.</p> <p>Although the research on the group benefits of gossip suggests we need to keep gossiping, we need to do so with the potential negative effects in mind. So how do we keep gossiping without creating a toxic social atmosphere?</p> <p><strong>Keep it secret</strong></p> <p>There are clear negative consequences if you learn that you have been the target of gossip. Those who know they have been gossiped about at work, for example, <a href="http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13594329608414854">experience less physical and psychological well-being</a>. When we learn about social rules through gossip, we are learning about what rules we should follow, but also about what actions we should avoid if we want to be a valued member of our group. The advantage of learning about group transgressions in this way is that we do not have to have an awkward confrontation with the person who has transgressed. If we want gossip to oil the wheels of social interaction, but not cause conflict and upset, we need to be discrete.</p> <p><strong>Make it useful</strong></p> <p>Although there is plenty of evidence that we dislike those who gossip frequently, this depends on the perceived motive of the gossiper. If the listener feels that you are attempting to help the group when you share the gossip, they can be much more forgiving. For example, <a href="http://evolution.binghamton.edu/dswilson/wp-content/uploads/2010/01/DSW18.pdf">in a study where a gossiper shared information about a cheating student</a>, they were only disliked where they were sharing this information for selfish reasons. Where they expressed the gossip in a way which focused on fairness for the whole student group, it was the cheater who was disliked, not the gossiper.</p> <p>Ensuring that gossip is useful can also help to alleviate the negative feelings gossipers have when they share gossip. In a study where <a href="https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/f2bc/7a1779ea7bdaf3fc9b0544e79771b1dd7fc9.pdf">a participant saw another person cheating</a>, it made the participant uncomfortable knowing about the cheat. But they felt better when they were able to warn the other participants about the cheat’s bad behaviour.</p> <p><strong>Do not tell lies</strong></p> <p>Gossip which is not true does not offer the same social learning benefits as that which is true. False gossip risks conflict and upset to the target of gossip but this action is not justified by benefits to the group, so the gossiper may feel worse about spreading information they know to be false that they usually would when communicating gossip. The gossiper also risks being “found out” by their listeners. People <a href="http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.948.434&amp;rep=rep1&amp;type=pdf">can employ sophisticated strategies</a> – including comparing the information they gain to existing knowledge – to protect themselves from being influenced by malicious gossip.</p> <p><strong>Connect with your listener</strong></p> <p>Effective gossip is not just about what you say, or about whom. It is also about how you say it. Of course, you can make the benefits of the gossip clear to your listener by clearly explaining why you have shared the information. But sharing particularly emotional reactions to the information may help you to connect with your listener and avoid negative reactions. When we share emotional reactions to others with someone, <a href="https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kim_Peters/publication/5863992_From_Social_Talk_to_Social_Action_Shaping_the_Social_Triad_With_Emotion_Sharing/links/58404f1208ae2d21755f3079.pdf">they feel closer to us</a>, especially when they agree with the reaction we share. Sharing how you feel may encourage the listener to react more favourably to your gossiping behaviour.</p> <p>So the next time you need to share some gossip stop and ask yourself whether the information will stay secret from the person you’re talking about and whether it is useful. And do not be afraid to share your emotions with your listener. This way you can hopefully engage in “good gossip” and reap the social rewards which come with it.<!-- Below is The Conversation's page counter tag. Please DO NOT REMOVE. --><img style="border: none !important; box-shadow: none !important; margin: 0 !important; max-height: 1px !important; max-width: 1px !important; min-height: 1px !important; min-width: 1px !important; opacity: 0 !important; outline: none !important; padding: 0 !important; text-shadow: none !important;" src="https://counter.theconversation.com/content/75318/count.gif?distributor=republish-lightbox-basic" alt="The Conversation" width="1" height="1" /><!-- End of code. If you don't see any code above, please get new code from the Advanced tab after you click the republish button. The page counter does not collect any personal data. More info: http://theconversation.com/republishing-guidelines --></p> <p><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/jenny-cole-351173">Jenny Cole</a>, Senior Lecturer in Social Psychology, <a href="http://theconversation.com/institutions/manchester-metropolitan-university-860">Manchester Metropolitan University</a></em></p> <p><em>This article is republished from <a href="http://theconversation.com">The Conversation</a> under a Creative Commons license. Read the <a href="https://theconversation.com/the-science-of-gossip-four-ways-to-make-it-less-toxic-75318">original article</a>.</em></p>

Relationships

Placeholder Content Image

Duchess Kate opens up about the “isolation” she felt after the birth of Prince George

<p>The Duchess of Cambridge has revealed about how she felt as a new mum with her first son, Prince George.</p> <p>The 38-year-old royal member spoke during an engagement in Cardiff where she spoke to workers at a children and parents centre about how “nice to be back in Wales” it was.</p> <p>Duchess Kate lives with Prince William in Wales when he was working for the Royal Air Force.</p> <blockquote style="background: #FFF; border: 0; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: 0 0 1px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.5),0 1px 10px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.15); margin: 1px; max-width: 540px; min-width: 326px; padding: 0; width: calc(100% - 2px);" class="instagram-media" data-instgrm-permalink="https://www.instagram.com/p/B7oZ6CLH8n1/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" data-instgrm-version="12"> <div style="padding: 16px;"> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: row; align-items: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; flex-grow: 0; height: 40px; margin-right: 14px; width: 40px;"></div> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: column; flex-grow: 1; justify-content: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; margin-bottom: 6px; width: 100px;"></div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; width: 60px;"></div> </div> </div> <div style="padding: 19% 0;"></div> <div style="display: block; height: 50px; margin: 0 auto 12px; width: 50px;"></div> <div style="padding-top: 8px;"> <div style="color: #3897f0; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: 550; line-height: 18px;">View this post on Instagram</div> </div> <p style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; line-height: 17px; margin-bottom: 0; margin-top: 8px; overflow: hidden; padding: 8px 0 7px; text-align: center; text-overflow: ellipsis; white-space: nowrap;"><a style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: 17px; text-decoration: none;" rel="noopener" href="https://www.instagram.com/p/B7oZ6CLH8n1/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" target="_blank">A post shared by Kate Middleton Brasil (@katemiddletonbrasil)</a> on Jan 22, 2020 at 10:04am PST</p> </div> </blockquote> <p>“I was chatting to some of the mums. It was the first year and I’d just had George – William was still working with search and rescue – and we came up here and I had a tiny, tiny baby in the middle of Anglesey,” the royal admitted candidly.</p> <p>“It was so isolated, so cut off. I didn’t have any family around, and he was doing night shifts.</p> <p>“So … if only I had had a centre like this.”</p> <blockquote style="background: #FFF; border: 0; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: 0 0 1px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.5),0 1px 10px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.15); margin: 1px; max-width: 540px; min-width: 326px; padding: 0; width: calc(100% - 2px);" class="instagram-media" data-instgrm-permalink="https://www.instagram.com/p/B7pDzc7Jpb0/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" data-instgrm-version="12"> <div style="padding: 16px;"> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: row; align-items: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; flex-grow: 0; height: 40px; margin-right: 14px; width: 40px;"></div> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: column; flex-grow: 1; justify-content: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; margin-bottom: 6px; width: 100px;"></div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; width: 60px;"></div> </div> </div> <div style="padding: 19% 0;"></div> <div style="display: block; height: 50px; margin: 0 auto 12px; width: 50px;"></div> <div style="padding-top: 8px;"> <div style="color: #3897f0; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: 550; line-height: 18px;">View this post on Instagram</div> </div> <p style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; line-height: 17px; margin-bottom: 0; margin-top: 8px; overflow: hidden; padding: 8px 0 7px; text-align: center; text-overflow: ellipsis; white-space: nowrap;"><a style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: 17px; text-decoration: none;" rel="noopener" href="https://www.instagram.com/p/B7pDzc7Jpb0/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" target="_blank">A post shared by @adicted_to_the_royals</a> on Jan 22, 2020 at 4:10pm PST</p> </div> </blockquote> <p>The mum-of-three met with parents and their babies at the Ely and Caerau Children’s Centre as she revealed the new focus on promoting a project that encourages a focus on early childhood.</p> <p>Shortly after Prince George was born in 2013, the couple moved to the grand 18th century Anmer Hall in Norfolk.</p> <blockquote style="background: #FFF; border: 0; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: 0 0 1px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.5),0 1px 10px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.15); margin: 1px; max-width: 540px; min-width: 326px; padding: 0; width: calc(100% - 2px);" class="instagram-media" data-instgrm-permalink="https://www.instagram.com/p/B7oK0QzJ2LZ/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" data-instgrm-version="12"> <div style="padding: 16px;"> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: row; align-items: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; flex-grow: 0; height: 40px; margin-right: 14px; width: 40px;"></div> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: column; flex-grow: 1; justify-content: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; margin-bottom: 6px; width: 100px;"></div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; width: 60px;"></div> </div> </div> <div style="padding: 19% 0;"></div> <div style="display: block; height: 50px; margin: 0 auto 12px; width: 50px;"></div> <div style="padding-top: 8px;"> <div style="color: #3897f0; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: 550; line-height: 18px;">View this post on Instagram</div> </div> <p style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; line-height: 17px; margin-bottom: 0; margin-top: 8px; overflow: hidden; padding: 8px 0 7px; text-align: center; text-overflow: ellipsis; white-space: nowrap;"><a style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: 17px; text-decoration: none;" rel="noopener" href="https://www.instagram.com/p/B7oK0QzJ2LZ/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" target="_blank">A post shared by @adicted_to_the_royals</a> on Jan 22, 2020 at 7:52am PST</p> </div> </blockquote> <p>This location was near to William’s job as a pilot with the East Anglian Ambulance Service.</p> <p>After Princess Charlotte joined the family, Prince William and Duchess Kate made the decision to move to Kensington Palace in London during September 2017 so the couple could become full-time working royals and prepare for Prince George starting school.</p> <p>The couple share three children together starting with Prince George, 6, Princess Charlotte, 4, and their youngest, Prince Louis, 1.</p>

Beauty & Style

News

Placeholder Content Image

Here’s what will happen the moment Prince Charles is crowned king

<p>Unlike his mother, who unexpectedly became queen at just 25 years old when her father, King George VI, died suddenly, 71-year-old Prince Charles has spent his entire life in preparation to wear the crown. He’s the longest waiting heir apparent and will be the oldest British monarch to ever take the throne – and it’s still uncertain when that will happen. Although Queen Elizabeth II is 93 years old and the <a rel="noopener" href="https://www.royal.uk/her-majesty-the-queen" target="_blank">longest-reigning</a> British monarch ever, longevity runs in her family: her father may have died young, but her mother lived to the age of 101. But with recent <a rel="noopener" href="https://www.nytimes.com/2019/12/01/world/europe/prince-charles-andrew-queen.html" target="_blank">reports</a> asserting Prince Charles is now taking charge of the monarchy more than ever, could he become king sooner than expected? We explore the different scenarios that may play out when the beloved Queen dies – or maybe even before.</p> <div class="at-below-post addthis_tool" data-url="https://www.readersdigest.com.au/culture/13-things-that-will-happen-when-prince-charles-becomes-king"><strong>1. The Queen may still be alive when Prince Charles becomes King</strong></div> <div class="at-below-post addthis_tool" data-url="https://www.readersdigest.com.au/culture/13-things-that-will-happen-when-prince-charles-becomes-king"> <div id="page2" class="slide-show"> <div id="test" class="slide"> <div class="slide-description"> <p>Rumours have been swirling in the <a rel="noopener" href="https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-4785166/Is-Queen-preparing-abdicate.html" target="_blank">British press</a> that as the Queen becomes older, she may pass the crown to her son, who’s fully prepared to take on all the responsibilities of the monarchy while she is still alive. This would be called a ‘regency’. But, there are many reasons<span> </span><a rel="noopener" href="https://www.readersdigest.com.au/culture/13-reasons-queen-elizabeth-ii-will-never-give-up-the-throne" target="_blank">Queen Elizabeth will never give up the throne</a>.</p> <p>“I think it is unlikely that the Queen will officially retire, or that the Prince of Wales will formally assume the title of regent,” says Carolyn Harris, PhD, historian and author of <em>Raising Royalty: 1000 Years of Royal Parenting</em>. “In a radio broadcast on her 21st birthday, she vowed to devote her whole life, whether it was long or short, to the service of her people.”</p> <p>Although <a rel="noopener" href="https://www.ucl.ac.uk/constitution-unit/research/monarchy-church-and-state/accession-and-coronation/planning-next-accession-and-coronation#Q11" target="_blank">comparison</a> has been made to other older European monarchs who have abdicated in recent years, Harris points out they were sworn into office through secular installation ceremonies rather than the Queen’s religious coronation ceremony in 1953, which contained sacred oaths. Even practically speaking, “the Queen is sovereign of 16 Commonwealth realms, and not all of them have a formal provision for a regency,” Harris says. “A regency might complicate the appointment of new Governors General in some of the Commonwealth realms.”</p> <div class="at-below-post addthis_tool" data-url="https://www.readersdigest.com.au/culture/13-things-that-will-happen-when-prince-charles-becomes-king"><strong>2. If the Queen is incapacitated, Prince Charles will become regent</strong></div> <div class="at-below-post addthis_tool" data-url="https://www.readersdigest.com.au/culture/13-things-that-will-happen-when-prince-charles-becomes-king"> <div id="page3" class="slide-show"> <div id="test" class="slide"> <div class="slide-description"> <p>But in the event that the Queen cannot actually act as queen, such as in the case of severe illness of mind or body, a regency with Prince Charles as Regent would be formed. According to the <a rel="noopener" href="https://www.ucl.ac.uk/constitution-unit/research/monarchy-church-and-state/accession-and-coronation/planning-next-accession-and-coronation#Q11" target="_blank">Constitution Unit</a> of the University of London’s (UCL) School of Public Policy, medical evidence is required, and three people out of the following have to agree to declare the sovereign is incapacitated: the Queen’s consort (her husband, Prince Philip), the Lord Chancellor, the Speaker of the House of Commons, the Lord Chief Justice, and the Master of the Rolls.</p> <p>But, this isn’t the most probable scenario. Instead, what will likely happen as the Queen ages is, “The Queen will retain her title and certain royal duties, while her son the Prince of Wales assumes a greater number of her public engagements and increased decision-making power behind the scenes,” Harris says. “The Prince of Wales already undertakes overseas travel to the Commonwealth on the Queen’s behalf, and in the coming years, he will assume more of the Queen’s duties in the United Kingdom.”</p> <div class="at-below-post addthis_tool" data-url="https://www.readersdigest.com.au/culture/13-things-that-will-happen-when-prince-charles-becomes-king"><strong>3. Upon Queen Elizabeth's death, Prince Charles will immediately become King</strong></div> <div class="at-below-post addthis_tool" data-url="https://www.readersdigest.com.au/culture/13-things-that-will-happen-when-prince-charles-becomes-king"> <p>So, in all probability, the Queen will retain the crown until she passes. Here’s<span> </span><a rel="noopener" href="https://www.readersdigest.com.au/true-stories-lifestyle/drama/16-things-will-happen-once-queen-elizabeth-ii-dies" target="_blank">what will happen when Queen Elizabeth dies</a>: At the moment of her death, Prince Charles will become king. An ‘<a rel="noopener" href="https://www.royal.uk/accession" target="_blank">Accession Council</a>’, consisting of the group of advisors to the sovereign known as the Privy Council, will convene at St James’s Palace, London, to formally recognise the transition and to proclaim Charles as the monarch. The King will then take an <a rel="noopener" href="https://privycouncil.independent.gov.uk/privy-council/the-accession-council/" target="_blank">oath</a> to, interestingly enough, preserve the <a rel="noopener" href="https://www.royal.uk/queens-relationship-churches-england-and-scotland-and-other-faiths" target="_blank">Church of Scotland</a> (this is because the sovereign is only the head of the Church of England, not the Presbyterian Church of Scotland). Parliament will then be recalled for its members to take oaths of allegiance.</p> <p><strong>4. Prince Charles might not be King Charles</strong></p> <div id="page5" class="slide-show"> <div id="test" class="slide"> <div class="slide-description"> <p>‘Charles’ was an interesting choice for Queen Elizabeth to name her future heir, because the first two King Charles are associated with the 17th-century English Civil War, when the monarchy was ousted for the first and only time in <a rel="noopener" href="https://www.royal.uk/kings-and-queens-1066" target="_blank">British history</a>. Charles I was beheaded, although Charles II was eventually restored to the throne and well-liked. But Elizabeth, who kept her given name as Queen, was actually unusual in doing so: most other British monarchs changed their names upon taking the throne. For example, Queen Victoria’s first name was Alexandrina. That said, “the Prince of Wales has been known by the public as Prince Charles for his whole life, so it is certainly possible that he will retain Charles as his regnal name as King,” Harris says, making him King Charles III. “Charles also has the option of choosing one of his middle names. If he were to choose George, he would be George VII, with his grandson Prince George of Cambridge likely to eventually become George VIII.”</p> <div class="at-below-post addthis_tool" data-url="https://www.readersdigest.com.au/culture/13-things-that-will-happen-when-prince-charles-becomes-king"><strong>5. Charles may change one of his titles</strong></div> <div class="at-below-post addthis_tool" data-url="https://www.readersdigest.com.au/culture/13-things-that-will-happen-when-prince-charles-becomes-king"> <div id="page6" class="slide-show"> <div id="test" class="slide"> <div class="slide-description"> <p>His first name may not be the only part of his title Prince Charles changes when he becomes King. The full title of the current sovereign is “Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and of Her other Realms and Territories Queen, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith.” That’s a mouthful, but there’s one part of it – one little word, actually – Charles has an issue with. “Prince Charles has taken a strong interest in interfaith dialogue, and there has been speculation that he would prefer the title of Defender of Faiths [or Faith] rather than Defender of the Faith,” Harris says.</p> <p>Charles has since rolled back his initial statements on the wording, though. “I said I would rather be seen as Defender of Faith all those years ago because…I mind about the inclusion of other people’s faiths and their freedom to worship in this country,” he told the <a rel="noopener" href="https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2015/feb/08/prince-charles-expresses-alarm-about-radicalisation-in-britain" target="_blank">BBC</a>. “And it always seems to me that while at the same time being defender of the faith you can also be protector of faiths.” Charles does have a say in the <a rel="noopener" href="https://www.ucl.ac.uk/constitution-unit/research/monarchy-church-and-state/accession-and-coronation/planning-next-accession-and-coronation#Q11" target="_blank">wording</a>, UCL says, so we’ll have to wait until his coronation to see what he finally settles on.</p> <div class="at-below-post addthis_tool" data-url="https://www.readersdigest.com.au/culture/13-things-that-will-happen-when-prince-charles-becomes-king"><strong>6. The coronation may be different</strong></div> <div class="at-below-post addthis_tool" data-url="https://www.readersdigest.com.au/culture/13-things-that-will-happen-when-prince-charles-becomes-king"> <div id="page7" class="slide-show"> <div id="test" class="slide"> <div class="slide-description"> <p>Speaking of the coronation, which as Harris says is a religious ceremony, Prince Charles may adapt this ritual as well. This ceremony is traditionally presided over by the Archbishop of Canterbury at Westminster Abbey and takes place several months after the last monarch’s death to allow for a period of mourning. At the ceremony, the new sovereign takes the coronation oath, which includes a promise to maintain the Church of England, and is ‘anointed, blessed and consecrated’ by the Archbishop,” the royal family’s <a rel="noopener" href="https://www.royal.uk/coronation" target="_blank">official website</a> states.</p> <p>But what about Charles? “The coronation will continue to be an Anglican service, but finding a place for other Christian denominations and other religions, as happened at the recent royal wedding,” UCL’s <a rel="noopener" href="https://www.ucl.ac.uk/constitution-unit/research/monarchy-church-and-state/accession-and-coronation/planning-next-accession-and-coronation#Q11" target="_blank">Constitution Unit</a> says. “Such people may be invited to give readings; and religious leaders other than Anglicans are likely to be seated prominently, as happened at the Queen’s Diamond Jubilee service at St Paul’s in 2012.”</p> <div class="at-below-post addthis_tool" data-url="https://www.readersdigest.com.au/culture/13-things-that-will-happen-when-prince-charles-becomes-king"><strong>7. Camilla may be queen</strong></div> <div class="at-below-post addthis_tool" data-url="https://www.readersdigest.com.au/culture/13-things-that-will-happen-when-prince-charles-becomes-king"> <p>Although it didn’t always seem likely, right now the feeling among royal watchers is that Camilla will be named Queen Consort. “The longer the couple are married before Charles’s accession to the throne, and the greater Camilla’s public profile, the more likely she is to be formally styled Queen when Charles becomes King,” Harris says. Why wasn’t it thought previously that she’d be Queen? It had to do with her choice of current title. “Camilla is entitled to be Princess of Wales, as the wife of the Prince of Wales, but she instead uses another one of her titles, Duchess of Cornwall, as the title of Princess of Wales was closely associated with Prince Charles’s first wife, Diana, Princess of Wales,” Harris says.</p> <p>“Camilla’s use of a secondary title prompted speculation at the time of her marriage to Charles that she might be styled Princess Consort instead of Queen when Charles becomes King.” But as her popularity is increasing, this seems less likely now.</p> <p><strong>8. All eyes will be on Prince William</strong></p> <p>When Charles becomes King, Prince William will take on new titles, including the traditional styling given to the king-in-waiting. “William becomes Duke of Cornwall when Charles becomes King, and will be invested [formally named] as Prince of Wales,” Harris says. But that’s not the only way William’s role will change: because his father is already at an advanced age, it might not be long before Prince William takes the throne himself. “As the Prince of Wales will be in his 70s when he succeeds to the throne, there will be a lot of public interest in William and Catherine, the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge, and how William will be preparing to eventually assume the throne,” Harris says.</p> <p><strong>9. Charles will likely be a more outspoken monarch</strong></p> <p>The sovereign is supposed to be above politics, but Prince Charles is actually somewhat of a rebel in his <a rel="noopener" href="https://www.express.co.uk/news/royal/1206933/prince-charles-news-royal-family-queen-elizabeth-ii-monarchy-collapse-spt" target="_blank">tendency</a> to express his views on social and environmental issues. “In contrast to the Queen, who is careful to avoid expressing strong opinions in public – and instead encourages the people she meets at garden parties, receptions and walkabouts to speak about their own experiences – Charles is known to hold firm opinions on a variety of subjects including organic farming, architecture and sustainable development,” Harris says. “Climate change and environmental conservation are key political issues in the 21st century, and Charles will certainly not be seen as an impartial figure on these subjects, as his views are well-known.”</p> <div id="page10" class="slide-show"> <div id="test" class="slide"> <div class="slide-description"> <div class="at-below-post addthis_tool" data-url="https://www.readersdigest.com.au/culture/13-things-that-will-happen-when-prince-charles-becomes-king"><strong>10. But, he may temper his opinions</strong></div> <div class="at-below-post addthis_tool" data-url="https://www.readersdigest.com.au/culture/13-things-that-will-happen-when-prince-charles-becomes-king"> <div id="page11" class="slide-show"> <div id="test" class="slide"> <div class="slide-description"> <p>Prince Charles noted in a recent <a rel="noopener" href="https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-46133114" target="_blank">BBC</a> interview, though, that his vocal manner will be toned down when he becomes king. “The idea somehow that I’m going to go on in exactly the same way, if I have to succeed, is complete nonsense,” he said. “I do realise that it is a separate exercise being sovereign.” But, he also expressed that the line between charitable works and “meddling” in politics isn’t always clear; for example, when he created the Prince’s Trust in 1976 to help underprivileged youth. “I’ve always been intrigued, if it’s meddling to worry about the inner cities as I did 40 years ago,” he said. “If that’s meddling, I’m very proud of it.”</p> <p>Plus, the Prince’s candidness may only be unusual when compared to the current monarch. “Queen Elizabeth II has reigned for such a long time, that her approach to her duties has become synonymous with constitutional monarchy in the popular imagination – her predecessors sometimes expressed open political opinions, but the Queen has been careful to remain above politics in the United Kingdom,” Harris says. Even so, “Charles will likely moderate his own approach to public duties to follow the Queen’s example, as the public expects the monarch to remain above politics.”</p> <div class="at-below-post addthis_tool" data-url="https://www.readersdigest.com.au/culture/13-things-that-will-happen-when-prince-charles-becomes-king"><strong>11. The monarchy may shrink</strong></div> <div class="at-below-post addthis_tool" data-url="https://www.readersdigest.com.au/culture/13-things-that-will-happen-when-prince-charles-becomes-king"> <p>Another change that the Prince of Wales reportedly will institute has had royal watchers buzzing: he may trim down the monarchy in terms of the number of royals actively carrying out official responsibilities. “Prince Charles favours a more streamlined royal family with fewer people undertaking public duties,” Harris says. “In the Queen’s reign, her cousins the Duke of Kent, the Duke of Gloucester and Princess Alexandra undertake public duties, and the entire extended family gathers for pre-Christmas lunch and at Trooping the Colour in June. In Charles’s reign, there will be a strong focus on the monarch’s immediate family – his sons, daughters-in-law and grandchildren – and less of a public role for the extended royal family.” However, given Harry and Meghan’s recent defection, it remains to be seen how this will affect Charles position.</p> <p><strong>12. The Prince's brother may get the axe as well</strong></p> <div id="page13" class="slide-show"> <div id="test" class="slide"> <div class="slide-description"> <p>The notion of trimming down the monarchy gained steam recently after the Queen’s second son and Prince Charles’s brother, Prince Andrew, gave a disastrous interview about his friendship with convicted sex offender Jeffrey Epstein. The brothers had <a rel="noopener" href="https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2180012/Princes-war-How-Charles-plans-slimmed-monarchy-driven-dagger-Andrews-heart--sparked-Palace-power-struggle.html" target="_blank">reportedly</a> already been on the outs over the idea of a streamlined monarchy since 2012 when only Prince Charles’ family stood on the Buckingham Palace balcony following the Queen’s Diamond Jubilee. In the wake of this public scandal, Andrew made an <a rel="noopener" href="https://thedukeofyork.org/other/a-statement-by-his-royal-highness-the-duke-of-york-kg/" target="_blank">announcement</a> that he would “step back from public duties for the foreseeable future”. Prince Charles – and Prince William –<span> </span><a rel="noopener" href="https://www.vanityfair.com/style/2019/11/prince-charles-prince-andrew-showdown" target="_blank">reportedly</a> were in damage control and advised the Queen that Andrew had to be removed. With a smaller monarchy expected once Prince Charles becomes King, it may be <a rel="noopener" href="https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-7699443/RICHARD-KAY-asks-time-Prince-Charles-plan-streamlined-monarchy.html" target="_blank">unlikely</a> Andrew will return.</p> <div class="at-below-post addthis_tool" data-url="https://www.readersdigest.com.au/culture/13-things-that-will-happen-when-prince-charles-becomes-king"><strong>13. The sounds and sights of Britain will be different</strong></div> <div class="at-below-post addthis_tool" data-url="https://www.readersdigest.com.au/culture/13-things-that-will-happen-when-prince-charles-becomes-king"> <p>In accordance with the normal changes that occur when a new British monarch takes the throne, certain differences will be apparent in the United Kingdom – including the wording of the national anthem. Instead of ‘God Save the Queen’, the wording of the national anthem will be ‘God Save the King’. The royal family’s <a rel="noopener" href="https://www.royal.uk/national-anthem" target="_blank">official website</a> states that although there’s no authorised version of the national anthem, “words are a matter of tradition…substituting ‘Queen’ for ‘King’ where appropriate.” In addition, the royal cypher (basically a fancy monogram), which appears on England’s iconic red postal boxes, will change from ‘ER’ for ‘Elizabeth II Regina’ to the new King’s cypher. <a rel="noopener" href="https://www.postalmuseum.org/blog/royal-cypher-appearances/" target="_blank">The Postal Museum</a> notes that this will only happen when new postal boxes are added; old ones won’t change. In addition, new stamps and banknotes will bear the <a rel="noopener" href="https://www.express.co.uk/news/royal/830010/banknotes-when-queen-elizabeth-dies-prince-charles-new-10-ten-note" target="_blank">King’s likeness</a>.</p> <div id="page14" class="slide-show"> <div id="test" class="slide"> <div class="slide-description"> <p><em>Source: <a rel="noopener" href="https://www.rd.com/culture/what-happens-prince-charles-becomes-king/" target="_blank">RD.com</a></em></p> <p><em>Written by Tina Donvito. This article first appeared in </em><a href="https://www.readersdigest.com.au/culture/13-things-that-will-happen-when-prince-charles-becomes-king" title="https://www.readersdigest.com.au/culture/13-things-that-will-happen-when-prince-charles-becomes-king"><em>Reader’s Digest</em></a><em>. For more of what you love from the world’s best-loved magazine, </em><a href="http://readersdigest.innovations.co.nz/c/readersdigestemailsubscribe?utm_source=over60&amp;utm_medium=articles&amp;utm_campaign=RDSUB&amp;keycode=WRN93V"><em>here’s our best subscription offer.</em></a></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div>

News

Placeholder Content Image

Prince Harry vows to “stop” The Crown series

<p>Prince Harry reportedly made a vow to a reporter to “stop” the popular Netflix series,<em> The Crown,</em> which focusses on the lives of his family.</p> <p>The Duke of Sussex made the startling statement to Royal Biographer Angela Levin during her appearance on breakfast TV, when she met him.</p> <p>"I'm going to make sure I stop it before they get to me," Levin claims Prince Harry had said.</p> <blockquote style="background: #FFF; border: 0; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: 0 0 1px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.5),0 1px 10px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.15); margin: 1px; max-width: 540px; min-width: 326px; padding: 0; width: calc(100% - 2px);" class="instagram-media" data-instgrm-permalink="https://www.instagram.com/p/B7lqR75nqNi/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" data-instgrm-version="12"> <div style="padding: 16px;"> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: row; align-items: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; flex-grow: 0; height: 40px; margin-right: 14px; width: 40px;"></div> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: column; flex-grow: 1; justify-content: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; margin-bottom: 6px; width: 100px;"></div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; width: 60px;"></div> </div> </div> <div style="padding: 19% 0;"></div> <div style="display: block; height: 50px; margin: 0 auto 12px; width: 50px;"></div> <div style="padding-top: 8px;"> <div style="color: #3897f0; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: 550; line-height: 18px;">View this post on Instagram</div> </div> <p style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; line-height: 17px; margin-bottom: 0; margin-top: 8px; overflow: hidden; padding: 8px 0 7px; text-align: center; text-overflow: ellipsis; white-space: nowrap;"><a style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: 17px; text-decoration: none;" rel="noopener" href="https://www.instagram.com/p/B7lqR75nqNi/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" target="_blank">A post shared by FAN PAGE (@mxghanmarkle)</a> on Jan 21, 2020 at 8:29am PST</p> </div> </blockquote> <p>While standing beside<span> </span><em>The Crown'</em>s historical consultant Robert Lacey while appearing on <em>BBC Breakfast</em>, Levin chimed in about Harry's views on the series after Lacey was asked if the drama was likely to cover the recent Sussex crisis.</p> <p>"When I went to interview Harry at the palace, the first thing he said to me when he shook my hand was 'Are you watching <em>The Crown?'</em>," the author revealed.</p> <p>"And I had been at the time and I felt very embarrassed," she also said.</p> <p>Skipping forward to the very end of their interview, Levin said: "I got up and he said 'I'm going to make sure I stop it before they get to me'".</p> <blockquote class="twitter-tweet"> <p dir="ltr">Time tests us all. Queen Elizabeth II, played by Olivia Colman. <a href="https://t.co/U93SDwh3rk">pic.twitter.com/U93SDwh3rk</a></p> — The Crown (@TheCrownNetflix) <a href="https://twitter.com/TheCrownNetflix/status/1187746324885704704?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">October 25, 2019</a></blockquote> <p>The admission follows after both Prince Harry and his wife Meghan announced they would be taking a step back from their senior royal duties in order to see a self-funded lifestyle.</p> <p>Memes and trolling images popped up on social media just days after, which showed Duchess Meghan –who starred on the Netflix series<span> </span>Suits<span> </span>– appearing on<span> </span><em>The Crown</em><span> </span>as herself.</p> <p>However, the executive producer of the award-winning show, says it is highly unlikely to ever happen.</p> <p>"To be honest, whatever the life of <em>The Crown</em> is after where we are now, I doubt we'll ever go as far into the present day," Suzanne Mackie told<span> </span>PA.</p> <p>Season Three of the series, which is the latest season and currently streaming, is covering the royal events between 1964 and 1977.</p> <blockquote style="background: #FFF; border: 0; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: 0 0 1px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.5),0 1px 10px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.15); margin: 1px; max-width: 540px; min-width: 326px; padding: 0; width: calc(100% - 2px);" class="instagram-media" data-instgrm-permalink="https://www.instagram.com/p/B7lqZDBgNzB/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" data-instgrm-version="12"> <div style="padding: 16px;"> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: row; align-items: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; flex-grow: 0; height: 40px; margin-right: 14px; width: 40px;"></div> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: column; flex-grow: 1; justify-content: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; margin-bottom: 6px; width: 100px;"></div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; width: 60px;"></div> </div> </div> <div style="padding: 19% 0;"></div> <div style="display: block; height: 50px; margin: 0 auto 12px; width: 50px;"></div> <div style="padding-top: 8px;"> <div style="color: #3897f0; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: 550; line-height: 18px;">View this post on Instagram</div> </div> <p style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; line-height: 17px; margin-bottom: 0; margin-top: 8px; overflow: hidden; padding: 8px 0 7px; text-align: center; text-overflow: ellipsis; white-space: nowrap;"><a style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: 17px; text-decoration: none;" rel="noopener" href="https://www.instagram.com/p/B7lqZDBgNzB/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" target="_blank">A post shared by Alquilistas (@alquilistas)</a> on Jan 21, 2020 at 8:30am PST</p> </div> </blockquote> <p>Olivia Coleman stars as Queen Elizabeth II, Tobias Menzies is Prince Philip and Josh O'Connor plays as a young Prince Charles.</p>

News

Placeholder Content Image

A most peaceful passing: Folk-rock legend quietly passes away onstage

<p>Singer and songwriter David Olney has passed away at age 71, after falling silent and dropping his head while in the midst of a performance at the 30A Songwriters Festival in Florida on January 18.</p> <p>The performer had taken a pause on his stool, leading audience members and musicians playing alongside him to think he was simply taking a moments break, before realisation dawned and they lowered him to the stage.</p> <p>Olney was giving his second performance of the day at the festival as part of an “in the round” song-swap show with Amy Rigby – who was sitting next to him and described his last moments.</p> <p>Rigby wrote on Facebook. “He was very still, sitting upright with his guitar on, wearing the coolest hat and a beautiful rust suede jacket we laughed about because it was raining like hell outside the boathouse where we were playing — I just want the picture to be as graceful and dignified as it was, because it at first looked like he was just taking a moment.</p> <p>“Scott Miller had the presence of mind to say we needed to revive him. Doctors in the audience and 30A folks were all working so hard to get him to come to … We all lost someone important last night.”</p> <p>Miller himself said the situation was as “gentle” as he was.</p> <p>“David was playing a song when he paused, said ‘I’m sorry’ and put his chin to his chest. He never dropped his guitar or fell of his stool. It was as easy and gentle as he was. </p> <p>“We got him down and tried our best to revive him until the EMTs arrived. … The world lost a good one last night. But we still have his work. And it still inspires. And always will. RIP.”</p> <p><img style="width: 500px; height: 281.25px;" src="https://oversixtydev.blob.core.windows.net/media/7834086/sg-2.jpg" alt="" data-udi="umb://media/96a14a6178c54dfca52d157aa3f83f73" /></p> <p style="text-align: center;"><em>David Olney performing during the Dave Alvin's ' West of the West ' train tour at the Soiled Dove in Denver, Colorado on April 23, 2015.</em></p> <p>Olney was considered a remarkable figure in his own right, for his contribution to the folk-rock genre and along with producing over 20 albums, many artists including Emmylou Harris, Linda Ronstadt, Del McCoury and his former roommate Steve Earle went on to cover his music.</p> <p>The late Townes Van Zandt famously said of Olney: “Any time anyone asks me who my favorite music writers are… I say Mozart, Lightnin Hopkins, Bob Dylan and Dave Olney. Dave Olney is one of the best songwriters I’ve ever heard — and that’s true. I mean that from my heart.” </p> <p>Emmylou Harris brought attention to Olney’s song writing skills with her covers of “Jerusalem Tomorrow” in 1993 and “Deeper Well” on her essential 1995 album “Wrecking Ball.”</p> <p>Olney first came to attention as a member of the band<span> </span>X-Rays<span> </span>which was signed to the Rounder label in the 1980s and notably opened up for Elvis Costello.</p> <p>The singer had only just finished recording a new album for fans.</p> <p>Brett Ryan Stewart wrote on his Facebook page: “Yesterday, myself, Anana and Irakli had spent the day making final revisions to the album we made with David Olney.</p> <p>“In the very same moment that we hit the save button, collectively yelling ‘We did it!’ we got the news that David, who was in Florida performing, had passed away, on stage. </p> <p>“It’s all very surreal. … I am so grateful for our time together. I recognized a kindred spirit in him from day one. His stories, his encouragement, his wisdom.</p> <p>“Hands down was of the funniest, gentlest, most thoughtful and charming curmudgeons to have graced the earth. Was really looking forward to more.” </p> <p>Olney was completing his third performance of the fest when he sadly passed away, having performed the previous night in-the-round with Amelia White and Mary Bragg before his solo show Saturday afternoon.</p> <p>Olney was scheduled to appear this week at the Folk Alliance gathering in New Orleans.</p> <p>Emmylou Harris said Olney had a way of telling “marvellous stories, with characters who cling to the hope of enduring love, all the while crossing the deep divide into that long, dark night of the soul.”</p> <p>Olney is survived by his wife, Regine, daughter, Lillian, and son, Redding. Services have not yet been set.</p>

News

Placeholder Content Image

Duchess Camilla speaks out on Prince Harry and Duchess Meghan’s departure

<p>Duchess Camilla has spoken out on Prince Harry and Duchess Meghan’s departure from their senior royal roles.</p> <p>The Duchess of Cornwall was visiting Prospect Hospice in Swindon on Monday when <em>ITV News </em>royal editor Chris Ship asked about her stepson and daughter-in-law.</p> <p>“Will you miss Harry and Meghan?” the reporter asked.</p> <p>Duchess Camilla paused before responding, “Hmm. Course.”</p> <blockquote class="twitter-tweet" data-lang="en"> <p dir="ltr">Watch Camilla’s face closely as she answers the question: “Will you miss Harry &amp; Meghan?”<br />The Duchess of Cornwall smiles, pauses, then says “Hmmm. Course!” 😳😳<a href="https://t.co/CbPbb92bAL">pic.twitter.com/CbPbb92bAL</a></p> — Chris Ship (@chrisshipitv) <a href="https://twitter.com/chrisshipitv/status/1219319844631384065?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">January 20, 2020</a></blockquote> <p>Despite being involved in the Privy Council of the United Kingdom, Duchess Camilla was not part of the Sandringham Summit that the Queen held last week to discuss the Sussexes’ future.</p> <p>Duchess Camilla’s husband Prince Charles will “still continue to offer private financial support” to Prince Harry and Duchess Meghan, according to royal reporter Omid Scobie.</p> <blockquote class="twitter-tweet" data-lang="en"> <p dir="ltr">— Prince Charles will still continue to offer private financial support. <br />— They’ll still happily attend engagements for the Queen (such as Trooping the Colour).<br />— Details, including security and using the name “Sussex Royal” will be shared in due course.</p> — Omid Scobie (@scobie) <a href="https://twitter.com/scobie/status/1218609287246831619?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">January 18, 2020</a></blockquote> <p>The majority of Prince Charles’ income comes from the <a href="https://duchyofcornwall.org/frequently-asked-questions.html#question_10">Duchy of Cornwall</a>, a private estate exempt from corporation tax.</p>

News

Travel

Placeholder Content Image

Shakespeare fans can stay in Juliet’s House this Valentine’s Day

<p>Looking for a unique Valentine’s Day gift? This year, you have the opportunity to give the love of your life a special one: an overnight stay at Juliet’s House in the Italian city of Verona.</p> <p>Airbnb is giving one couple access to the 13<sup>th</sup> century Casa di Giulietta, where it was believed that William Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet first declared their love to each other.</p> <p>The winning couple will be the first to stay in Juliet’s bedroom since 1930, Airbnb said. They will also be able to enjoy a candlelit feast cooked by two-Michelin-star chef Giancarlo Perbellini and go on a private tour of Verona with a professional photographer.</p> <p>Couples who wish to be in the running for the prize are encouraged to submit a letter to Juliet with their “poignant love story” and explanation as to why they should win the romantic getaway.</p> <p>“This stay will give one couple the unique chance to celebrate their love in what is possibly the most romantic home in the history of literature,” said Giacomo Trovato, Airbnb’s general manager for Italy.</p> <p>“Juliet’s House is the most important museum in the city of Verona, attracting millions of visitors every year,” said Federico Sboarina, mayor of Verona Municipality.</p> <p>“Partnering with Airbnb brings the widely known Shakespearian myth of Romeo and Juliet to life in a way never before offered. We are excited to promote our cultural heritage, share traditions that were previously safeguarded, and bring international visibility to the city of Verona.”</p> <p>Entries can be submitted at <span><a href="https://www.airbnb.co.uk/d/juliet">Airbnb’s website</a></span> until Feb 2, 11.59pm ET.</p>

International Travel

Placeholder Content Image

Why celebrity concern about bushfires could do more harm than good

<p>From Australian superstars such as Cate Blanchett, Russell Crowe, Chris Hemsworth and Nicole Kidman to Hollywood heavyweights including Ellen DeGeneres and Bette Midler, a lengthening list of celebrities are helping to shine a spotlight on Australia’s bushfires.</p> <p>Some have donated <a href="https://www.businessinsider.com.au/aussie-celebrities-and-sports-stars-are-pledging-big-donations-to-bushfire-relief-efforts-2020-1">large sums of money </a>and used social media to publicise their donations, encouraging fans to follow suit. Some have used their profile and platforms such as the Golden Globes awards to draw attention to the fires. Others are donating items for auction or appearing in charity events.</p> <p>For attracting attention and money to a cause, celebrity-driven attention is hard to beat. But there’s also a downside. If that interest is superficial and fleeting, it may actually hinder recovery efforts in disaster-ravaged regions.</p> <p>Our research into <a href="https://espace.library.uq.edu.au/view/UQ:263209">disaster recovery efforts for Victoria’s Gippsland region</a> after the deadly “Black Saturday” fires in 2009 suggests celebrities’ best contribution needs to be in the weeks and months to come – and requires them putting “boots on the ground”.</p> <p><strong>Negative implications</strong></p> <p>Studies confirm the influence of messages from celebrities, be it <a href="https://espace.library.uq.edu.au/view/UQ:227015">brand choice</a>, <a href="https://www.researchgate.net/publication/235261651_If_Kate_voted_Conservative_would_you_The_role_of_celebrity_endorsements_in_political_party_advertising">political opinion</a> or <a href="https://news.rutgers.edu/news-release/celebrity-endorsements-lead-increases-charitable-donations-public/20130926#.Xh5oEFczaUk">charitable giving</a>.</p> <p>It’s great that celebrities want to use their influence for good causes. Not all celebrity advocacy, though, should be applauded uncritically. One study has suggested it is <a href="https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1367877914528532">less effective than sometimes supposed</a> for development causes, and can simplify a complex issue to a single outcome – usually giving money. This fails to address how people can make an ongoing difference in other ways.</p> <p>In terms of natural disasters, a very practical way to help communities recover is the resumption of tourism. Perceptions play a big part in this, and celebrities can play a big part in <a href="https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1300/J073v02n02_12">forming images</a>. It’s why they have long featured in tourism campaigns, from Paul Hogan in the 1980s to Kylie Minogue and others in the humorously idealised imagery presented by Tourism Australia to Britons a few weeks ago.</p> <div class="embed-responsive embed-responsive-16by9"><iframe class="embed-responsive-item" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/QMAq8F8N2Fg"></iframe></div> <p>Now these images are being replaced by the message globally that Australia is “<a href="https://www.nbcnews.com/science/environment/australia-fire-literally-so-are-its-climate-politics-n1104351">on fire, literally</a>”, and that much of the country is an “<a href="https://www.greenqueen.com.hk/australia-is-literally-on-fire-because-of-climate-change-so-why-wont-more-governments-act/">apocalyptic nightmare</a>”.</p> <p><strong>Tourism effects</strong></p> <p>Even if celebrities have the best of intentions, their emotional appeals and shared of images of red skies and smoke-filled cities along with heartbreaking images of devastation and loss can contribute to fans cancelling holidays plans, even while they’re donating to bushfire appeals.</p> <p><a href="https://www.sbs.com.au/news/tourism-industry-suffers-as-bushfire-images-scare-off-international-travellers">There are already reports</a>, for example, of tourists aborting plans for visits months away. The <a href="https://qualitytourismaustralia.com/">Australian Tourism Industry Council</a> says cancelled bookings in towns unaffected by the bushfires <a href="https://www.smh.com.au/politics/federal/tourism-industry-takes-1b-hit-as-australians-cancel-their-holidays-20200115-p53rr1.html">are up to 60%</a>. The <a href="https://www.atec.net.au/">Australian Tourism Export Council</a> estimates the loss of international bookings will cost the nation <a href="https://www.afr.com/companies/tourism/tourism-loses-4-5b-to-bushfires-as-overseas-visitors-cancel-20200116-p53s0s">at least A$4.5 billion</a> in 2020, hurting regional areas the most.</p> <p>It doesn’t help when <a href="https://www.abc.net.au/news/2020-01-08/misleading-fire-maps-go-viral-during-australian-bushfire-crisis/11850948">misleading information</a> is spread, as the American singer Rihanna inadvertently did when she <a href="https://www.abc.net.au/news/2020-01-08/misleading-fire-maps-go-viral-during-australian-bushfire-crisis/11850948">shared an image on Twitter</a> that exaggerated the size of the bushfires. This image suggested huge swathes of Australia were no-go zones.</p> <p>Ellen Degeneres did something similar in telling her audience “<a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gSWveTGTMBA">nearly a third of their habitat has been destroyed</a>”. This was an exaggerated misstatement of Australia’s environment minister saying <a href="https://www.abc.net.au/radio/programs/am/govt-is-working-to-address-threats-to-native-species:-ley/11828480">a third of koala habitat in New South Wales</a> had been destroyed.</p> <p><a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1447677016300626">Our research confirms</a> the further someone is from a destination in crisis, the more likely they are to be confused about the location and think a greater area is affected.</p> <p>Fires in the Blue Mountains area of New South Wales, for example, were called “the "Sydney fires” elsewhere in Australia. Overseas they were referred to as the “Australian bushfires”, confusing domestic and international tourists.</p> <p><strong>Where celebrities can really help</strong></p> <p>So while celebrities might have the very best of motivations, their contribution in generating donations in the short term might be offset by the longer-term effect of amplifying the misconception that Australia is not safe for tourists.</p> <p>This is demonstrated by past experience. After Victoria’s 2009 Black Saturday fires, the Gippsland region experienced a major tourism downturn, despite just 5% of the region being directly affected.</p> <p>But celebrites can also use their mass-pull to aid tourism recovery.</p> <p><a href="https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10548408.2012.638565">Our research</a> suggests their star power is unmatched as a means to encourage tourists back to regions recovering from disaster.</p> <p>In the case of Gippsland, <a href="https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10548408.2012.638565">we surveyed 691 people</a> with nine different advertising messages. Themes included solidarity, community readiness and even short-term discounts. We found celebrity endorsement made the greatest impression, with test subjects indicating it made them more likely to visit the region.</p> <p>In the months after the Black Saturday bushfires, former Miss Universe Jennifer Hawkins and legendary cricketer Shane Warne <a href="https://thenewdaily.com.au/news/national/2019/02/07/black-saturday-media-moments/">visited affected towns</a>. These highly publicised events sent the message these towns were ready to welcome visitors again.</p> <p>So celebrities can definitely help in the coming weeks and months.</p> <p>They can share positive stories about local communities’ resilience, and maybe even visit.</p> <p>This is likely to do more for recovery efforts in the long term than helping to spruik for donations.<!-- Below is The Conversation's page counter tag. Please DO NOT REMOVE. --><img style="border: none !important; box-shadow: none !important; margin: 0 !important; max-height: 1px !important; max-width: 1px !important; min-height: 1px !important; min-width: 1px !important; opacity: 0 !important; outline: none !important; padding: 0 !important; text-shadow: none !important;" src="https://counter.theconversation.com/content/129627/count.gif?distributor=republish-lightbox-basic" alt="The Conversation" width="1" height="1" /><!-- End of code. If you don't see any code above, please get new code from the Advanced tab after you click the republish button. The page counter does not collect any personal data. More info: http://theconversation.com/republishing-guidelines --></p> <p><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/gabrielle-walters-159430">Gabrielle Walters</a>, Associate Professor, School of Business, <a href="http://theconversation.com/institutions/the-university-of-queensland-805">The University of Queensland</a>; <a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/judith-mair-11132">Judith Mair</a>, Associate Professor, <a href="http://theconversation.com/institutions/the-university-of-queensland-805">The University of Queensland</a>, and <a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/monica-chien-933029">Monica Chien</a>, Senior lecturer, <a href="http://theconversation.com/institutions/the-university-of-queensland-805">The University of Queensland</a></em></p> <p><em>This article is republished from <a href="http://theconversation.com">The Conversation</a> under a Creative Commons license. Read the <a href="https://theconversation.com/celebrity-concern-about-bushfires-could-do-more-harm-than-good-to-help-they-need-to-put-boots-on-the-ground-129627">original article</a>.</em></p>

Travel Trouble

Placeholder Content Image

Post or it didn’t happen: Live tourist snaps have turned solo adventures into social occasions

<p>In the years since <a href="https://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-32336808">selfie sticks</a> went global, it has become clear that the mobile phone has changed the way we travel. The ubiquity of social media means tourists can now produce content on the move for their networked audiences to view in close to real time.</p> <p>Where once we shared slideshows post trip and saved prints and postcards as keepsakes, we now share <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0160738315000419">holiday images</a> and <a href="https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/1369118X.2016.1220969">selfies</a> from the road, sea or air — expanding the “<a href="https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/026327692009003001">tourist gaze</a>” from the <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0160738315300335">traveller</a> to include remote audiences back home.</p> <p><strong>Instagram-worthy</strong></p> <p>Travelling has gone from a solitary quest to a “<a href="https://www.taylorfrancis.com/books/e/9780203861301/chapters/10.4324/9780203861301-21">social occasion</a>”. As such, gazing is becoming inseparably linked with photography. Taking photos has become habitual, rendering the camera as a way of seeing and experiencing new places.</p> <p>Travellers take selfies that present both locations and people in aesthetically pleasing and positive <a href="https://www.taylorfrancis.com/books/e/9780203861301/chapters/10.4324/9780203861301-21">ways</a>.</p> <p>Indeed, the <a href="https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2018/jan/17/instagrammers-travel-sri-lanka-tourists-peachy-backsides-social-media-obsessed">“instagrammability”</a> of a destination is a key motivation for younger people to travel there - even if filters and <a href="https://twitter.com/polina_marinova/status/1146620000679022593?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw%7Ctwcamp%5Etweetembed%7Ctwterm%5E1146620000679022593&amp;ref_url=https%3A%2F%2Ftravel.nine.com.au%2Flatest%2Fbali-gates-of-heaven-attraction-fake-twitter-response%2F9014aa28-f31e-4ad7-912f-6749efc18b26">mirrors</a> have been used to create a less than realistic image.</p> <p>This transforms the relationship between travellers and their social networks in three important <a href="http://sk.sagepub.com/books/the-tourist-gaze-3-0-3e">ways</a>: between tourists and destination hosts; between fellow tourists; and lastly, between tourists and those that stay home.</p> <p>The urge to share travel imagery is not without risk. An Australian couple were <a href="https://www.abc.net.au/news/2019-10-05/australians-released-from-iran/11576776">released</a> from detention in Iran in October, following their arrest for ostensibly flying a drone without a permit.</p> <p>Other tourists earned derision for scrambling to post selfies at <a href="https://www.news.com.au/travel/australian-holidays/northern-territory/influencers-reason-for-deciding-to-climb-uluru-before-the-ban/news-story/b53928ee54800a6070bc0670b1679356">Uluru</a> before it was closed to climbers.</p> <p>Meanwhile, there is a sad story behind the newly popular travelgram destination Rainbow Mountain in the Peruvian Andes. It has <a href="https://www.nytimes.com/2018/05/03/world/americas/peru-rainbow-mountain.html">reportedly</a> only recently emerged due to climate change melting its once snowy peaks.</p> <p><strong>Testing the effects</strong></p> <p>To understand the way social media photography impacts travelling, we undertook an exploratory <a href="https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40558-019-00151-4">study</a> of overnight visitors at zoological accommodation in lavish surrounds.</p> <p>We divided 12 participants into two groups. One group was directed to abstain from posting on social media but were still able to take photos. The second group had no restrictions on sharing photos. Though the numbers were small, we gathered qualitative information about engagement and attitudes.</p> <p>Participants were invited to book at <a href="http://www.jamalawildlifelodge.com.au/">Jamala Wildlife Lodge</a> in Canberra. The visit was funded by the researchers — Jamala Wildlife Lodge did not sponsor the research and the interviewees’ stay at the Lodge was a standard visit. We then conducted interviews immediately after their departure from the zoo, critically exploring the full experience of their stay.</p> <p>The study confirmed that the desire to share travel pictures in close to real time is strongly scripted into the role of the tourist; altering the way travellers engage with sites they are visiting, but also their sense of urgency to communicate this with remote audiences.</p> <p><strong>Pics or it didn’t happen</strong></p> <p>Participants Mandy and Amy were among those instructed to refrain from posting pictures to social media while at the zoo. They described having to refrain from social media use as a disappointment, even though it seemed to further their engagement.</p> <p><em>Interviewer: Did you look at your social media throughout your stay or did you refrain?</em></p> <p><em>Mandy: A bit yeah. But even then, probably not reading it as much as I often would. I don’t think I commented on anything yeah.</em></p> <p><em>Amy: Even today when we put something up [after staying at the Zoo] about the things we’d done today and only a few people had liked it, there was that little bit of disappointment that ‘Oh more people haven’t liked my post.’ Where we didn’t have that for the previous 24 hours [because of the experiment] … because nobody knew about it.</em></p> <p>The desire for social media recognition resumed after leaving the zoo. For Michelle, posting after the experience presented new concerns:</p> <p><em>Interviewer: How did you feel about not being able to post?</em></p> <p><em>Michelle: Spanner in the works! For me personally not being able to post was a negative experience because I wanted to show people what we’re doing, when we’re doing it.</em></p> <p><em>And I also feel, like a couple of people knew we were going to the zoo, right, and knew that we couldn’t use social media. So, when I eventually post it, they’re going to go, ‘She’s been hanging on to those and now she’s posting them and that’s just a bit weird.’ Like, to post it after the event. Everyone normally posts it in real time.</em></p> <p>Later, Michelle commented that withholding content from posting to social media also diminished a part of the experience itself:</p> <p><em>I sort of feel like if we don’t share the photos it’s like a tree fell down in the forest and no one heard it, like, we’ve had this amazing experience and if I don’t share them, then no one’s going to know that we had this experience, you know, apart from us.</em></p> <p>Tips garnered from travelgrammers fill lots of online video tutorials.</p> <p><strong>Centre Stage</strong></p> <p>Digital photography and social media transform the relationship between the travelling self and its audience, as individuals have an expanded — and potentially diversified — audience.</p> <p><a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0160738315300335">Selfies in tourist contexts</a> reflect the tourist gaze back at the tourist, rather than outward.</p> <p>The perfect digital postcard now incorporates the self centrestage. As one participant suggested:</p> <p><em>Shannon: It almost feels like it’s kind of an expected behaviour when you are doing something touristy … We’ve actually had tour guides before … kind of a bit disappointed if you don’t take a photograph.</em></p> <p>The purpose of photography has <a href="https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1470357207084865">shifted</a> from a memory aid to a way of sharing experience in the moment. There is tension now between the need to capture tourist experiences for digital sharing and individual engagement in the tourist activity. Decrying the desire to use photography as a way of communicating experience will not constructively address this tension.</p> <p>To ensure tourism sustainability, and engagement with their target market, tourism providers need to explore better ways to manage travellers’ face-to-face and digital engagement.</p> <p>Digital engagements have become a defining part of travel, and organisations should be encouraged to promote online sharing of experiences — phone charging stations and photo competitions were two suggestions offered by our interviewees.</p> <p>In contrast, device-free days or activities could be another way to encourage face-to-face engagement and prompt tourists to be more considered with their online sharing.</p> <p><em>Written by Michael James Walsh, Naomi F Dale and Raechel Johns. Republished with permission of </em><a href="https://theconversation.com/travelgram-live-tourist-snaps-have-turned-solo-adventures-into-social-occasions-124583"><em>The Conversation.</em></a></p>

Travel Tips

Placeholder Content Image

Prince Charles meets Greta Thunberg before addressing World Economic Forum

<p>Donald Trump might not have wanted to meet Greta Thunberg but the future King of England was thrilled to meet <em>Time Magazine’s</em><span> </span>Person of the Year.</p> <p>Prince Charles, an environmental campaigner himself, looked overjoyed to meet the teen activist at the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland.</p> <p>Clarence House shared two photos on their social media page, showing the pair shaking hands and beaming at the cameras.</p> <p>As the media gathered around them, Thunberg said to the Prince of Wales: “I guess you’re very used to this.”</p> <p>“Very true, it’s taken me years to get used to this,” said Charles, to which Thunberg replied: “I am still not used to this.”</p> <blockquote style="background: #FFF; border: 0; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: 0 0 1px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.5),0 1px 10px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.15); margin: 1px; max-width: 540px; min-width: 326px; padding: 0; width: calc(100% - 2px);" class="instagram-media" data-instgrm-captioned="" data-instgrm-permalink="https://www.instagram.com/p/B7oByWLAgYf/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" data-instgrm-version="12"> <div style="padding: 16px;"> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: row; align-items: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; flex-grow: 0; height: 40px; margin-right: 14px; width: 40px;"></div> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: column; flex-grow: 1; justify-content: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; margin-bottom: 6px; width: 100px;"></div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; width: 60px;"></div> </div> </div> <div style="padding: 19% 0;"></div> <div style="display: block; height: 50px; margin: 0 auto 12px; width: 50px;"></div> <div style="padding-top: 8px;"> <div style="color: #3897f0; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: 550; line-height: 18px;">View this post on Instagram</div> </div> <p style="margin: 8px 0 0 0; padding: 0 4px;"><a style="color: #000; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: 17px; text-decoration: none; word-wrap: break-word;" rel="noopener" href="https://www.instagram.com/p/B7oByWLAgYf/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" target="_blank">The Prince of Wales meets environmental activist @GretaThunberg at @worldeconomicforum 2020. #wef</a></p> <p style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; line-height: 17px; margin-bottom: 0; margin-top: 8px; overflow: hidden; padding: 8px 0 7px; text-align: center; text-overflow: ellipsis; white-space: nowrap;">A post shared by <a style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: 17px;" rel="noopener" href="https://www.instagram.com/clarencehouse/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" target="_blank"> Clarence House</a> (@clarencehouse) on Jan 22, 2020 at 6:33am PST</p> </div> </blockquote> <p>The photos seem to have been taken backstage before the Prince of Wales spoke to a room full of political leaders from around the world, including Trump.</p> <p>Prince Charles gave the keynote speech at the 50th Anniversary of the World Economic Forum and officially launched his Sustainable Markets Council.</p> <p>The project aims “to work towards a more inclusive, equitable and green market for all.”</p> <p>In his speech, the royal said: “We are in the midst of a crisis that is now, I hope, well understood. Global warming, climate change, and the devastating loss of biodiversity are the greatest threats humanity has ever faced – and one largely of our own creation.</p> <p>“I have dedicated much of my life to the restoration of harmony between humanity, nature and the environment, and to the encouragement of corporate social and environmental responsibility.</p> <p>“Quite frankly, it has been a bit of an uphill struggle. But, now, it is time to take it to the next level.”</p>

International Travel

Health

Placeholder Content Image

Michael Schumacher is “very altered, deteriorated and not how we remember him”

<p>Michael Schumacher is “very altered” six years on from the horror ski accident which left him with a shocking brain injury, according to a leading neurosurgeon.</p> <p>The Formula One champion was close to death when a skiing accident saw him fall and hit his head on a rock in the French Alps in December 2013.</p> <p>Despite the iconic racer coming out of his long-term coma, surgeon Nicola Acciari claims he won't be the man his millions of adoring fans remember.</p> <p>“We must imagine a person very different from the one we remember on the track, with a very altered and deteriorated organic, muscular and skeletal structure,” Dr Acciari told Italian newspaper Contro Copertina.</p> <p>“All as a result of the brain trauma he suffered.”</p> <p>Dr Acciari has not treated the sporting star herself.</p> <p>Schumacher’s former boss at Ferrari revealed last year that the 51-year-old is making progress in his recovery and enjoys watching F1 races on TV.</p> <p>Jean Todt, one of Schumacher’s closest friends, gave a rare insight during an interview with Radio Monte-Carlo (RMC).</p> <p>Speaking to the station, Todt said he had been making good progress, with the pair watching the races on TV together.</p> <p>He added: “I’m always been careful with such statements, but it’s true. I saw the race together with Michael Schumacher at his home in Switzerland.”</p> <p>While declining to provide too much detail on Schumacher’s health, out of respect for his family, Todt said: “Michael is in the best hands and is well looked after in his house.</p> <p>“He does not give up and keeps fighting.”</p>

Caring

Placeholder Content Image

​Royal Proposal: Prince William's romantic reflection with Duchess Kate

<p>The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge hosted a special reception on behalf of the Queen at Buckingham Palace on Monday evening to mark the UK-Africa summit.</p> <p>The couple were joined by Prince Edward and his wife, the Countess of Wessex along with Princess Anne.</p> <p>During the event, Prince William spoke candidly about his own love for the African continent, and included a sweet anecdote about his proposal to Duchess Catherine that took place almost a decade ago.</p> <p>"The African continent holds a very special place in my heart,” the Duke began.</p> <p>"It was the place my father took my brother and me shortly after my mother died.</p> <p>"And when deciding where best to propose to Catherine, I could think of no more fitting place than Kenya to get down on one knee," he said with a smile.</p> <p>At the time he proposed to his then-girlfriend with his late mother’s famous blue Ceylon sapphire and diamond ring.</p> <p>He continued, "Throughout my life, I have been lucky enough to spend time in many other parts of Africa.</p> <p>"I'm also honoured to be the Patron of the Royal African Society and as Catherine and I have said to several of you here tonight we hope to have a chance to visit man more countries in the future and share our mutual love of your continent with our children."</p> <p>Duchess Catherine was a picture of ruby red perfection in a sheer and sequinned gown by Needle &amp; Thread, which she paired with matching suede pumps and elegant waves.</p> <p>Countess Sophie, who was also in the midst of celebrating her 55th birthday, also opted for stunning red Alaia dress with capped sleeves.</p> <p>Just like his younger brother Prince Harry, the Duke of Cambridge holds Africa incredibly close to his heart.</p> <p>The Duke of Sussex said visiting Africa allowed him to heal after the tragic loss of his mother, calling the place his “second home”.</p> <p>It has also been recently revealed, that years before meeting Duchess Meghan, he reportedly confessed to royal reporter Rebecca English about wishing he could walk away from royal life, move to Africa and become a tour guide.</p> <p>Scroll through the gallery to see the Duchess of Cambridge in her stunning red ball gown.</p>

Caring

Placeholder Content Image

Tributes flow in upon the passing of Monty Python's Terry Jones

<p>Monty Python stars Michael Palin and John Cleese have led the tributes to Terry Jones, who has died at the age of 77.</p> <p>The actor and writer died at his North London home on Tuesday evening, four years after he was diagnosed with frontotemporal dementia.</p> <p>“His work with Monty Python, his books, films, television programs, poems and other work will live on forever, a fitting legacy to a true polymath,” Jones’ family said in a statement.</p> <p>“We, his wife Anna, children Bill, Sally, Siri and extended family would like to thank Terry’s wonderful medical professionals and carers for making the past few years not only bearable but often joyful. We hope that this disease will one day be eradicated entirely.”</p> <p>Tributes have flowed for the late Python, with fellow <em>Flying Circus </em>stars leading the remembrance.</p> <p>“It feels strange that a man of so many talents and such endless enthusiasm, should have faded so gently away,” John Cleese wrote.</p> <p>“Of his many achievements, for me the greatest gift he gave us all was his direction of <em>Life of Brian</em>. Perfection.”</p> <blockquote class="twitter-tweet"> <p dir="ltr">Just heard about Terry J<br /><br />It feels strange that a man of so many talents and such endless enthusiasm, should have faded so gently away...<br /><br />Of his many achievements, for me the greatest gift he gave us all was his direction of 'Life of Brian'. Perfection<br /><br />Two down, four to go</p> — John Cleese (@JohnCleese) <a href="https://twitter.com/JohnCleese/status/1219979583719690241?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">January 22, 2020</a></blockquote> <p>“It’s too sad if you knew him, but if you didn’t you will always smile at the many wonderfully funny moments he gave us,” said Eric Idle.</p> <p>Co-writer Sir Michael Palin told PA news agency: “He was kind, generous, supportive and passionate about living life to the full.</p> <p>“He was far more than one of the funniest writer-performers of his generation, he was the complete Renaissance comedian – writer, director, presenter, historian, brilliant children’s author, and the warmest, most wonderful company you could wish to have.”</p> <p>Other celebrities and comedy figures also honoured Jones on social media.</p> <blockquote class="twitter-tweet"> <p dir="ltr">Farewell, Terry Jones. The great foot has come down to stamp on you. My god what pleasure you gave, what untrammelled joy and delight. What a wonderful talent, heart and mind</p> — Stephen Fry (@stephenfry) <a href="https://twitter.com/stephenfry/status/1219968120686813184?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">January 22, 2020</a></blockquote> <blockquote class="twitter-tweet"> <p dir="ltr">May the dear, great Terry Jones find eternal peace in the loving embrace of Jesus Christ. Or more likely of Brian.</p> — Russell Brand (@rustyrockets) <a href="https://twitter.com/rustyrockets/status/1220026467070832640?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">January 22, 2020</a></blockquote> <blockquote class="twitter-tweet"> <p dir="ltr">May the dear, great Terry Jones find eternal peace in the loving embrace of Jesus Christ. Or more likely of Brian.</p> — Russell Brand (@rustyrockets) <a href="https://twitter.com/rustyrockets/status/1220026467070832640?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">January 22, 2020</a></blockquote> <blockquote class="twitter-tweet"> <p dir="ltr">💔 <a href="https://t.co/GRiFTZXztV">pic.twitter.com/GRiFTZXztV</a></p> — Pegg News (@simonpegg) <a href="https://twitter.com/simonpegg/status/1219971220801753089?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">January 22, 2020</a></blockquote> <p>Jones’ comedy series <em>Monty Python’s Flying Circus </em>first aired in October 1969. The show propelled the Monty Python group’s popularity and was followed by a number of films, including <em>Monty Python and the Holy Grail</em> (1975), <em>Life of Brian</em> (1979) and <em>The Meaning of Life</em> (1983).</p>

Caring

Placeholder Content Image

Heath Ledger: A life in pictures

<p>Iconic Australian film star Heath Ledger passed away today at the age of 28 due to an accidental mixture of prescription drugs.</p> <p>Ledger’s career first started in the early 90s with smaller roles, but he quickly shot to fame after appearing in the hit 1999 American romantic comedy<span> </span><em>10 Things I Hate About You</em>. This role, where he broke hearts as bad boy Patrick Verona, earned him several awards and brought him directly into the public eye.</p> <p>Ledger went on to star in 2001’s<span> </span><em>A Knight’s Tale</em>, which developed a cult following in later years despite not being popular at the time.</p> <p>It was only once he appeared in 2005’s controversial film<span> </span><em>Brokeback Mountain</em>, which saw Ledger fall in love with another shepherd, played by Jake Gyllenhaal, that he received critical acclaim for his role as the film showed his diverse acting range.</p> <p>It was also while filming<span> </span><em>Brokeback Mountain </em>where Ledger met his partner Michelle Williams and their love resulted in a daughter called Matilda.</p> <p>Long-time friend Matt Amato told<span> </span><em><a rel="noopener noreferrer" href="https://people.com/celebrity/heath-ledger-documentary-natural-dad-to-matilda/" target="_blank">People</a></em><span> </span>that Ledger was a “natural dad”.</p> <p>“I met Matilda three days after she was born and they were just a beautiful painting together,” he said.</p> <p>“He just held her and would wrap her in her blanket.</p> <p>He wasn’t treating her in any precious way, he was just natural and just trusted the whole thing, and I was really struck by that. And that’s kind of how it always was.”</p> <p>In 2008, Ledger appeared in his iconic role as the Joker in<span> </span><em>The Dark Knight</em>, which was a role he received widespread acclaim for.</p> <p>After his passing, Ledger was posthumously awarded the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor and the Golden Globe for Best Performance by an Actor in a Supporting Role. He also won a Screen Actors Guild award for Male Actor in a Supporting Role in<span> </span><em>The Dark Knight</em>.</p> <p>Scroll through the gallery to see Ledger throughout the years.</p>

Caring

Lifestyle

Placeholder Content Image

What makes wine dry?

<p>When you take a sip of wine at a family meal or celebration, what do you notice?</p> <p>First, you probably note the visual characteristics: the color is generally red, rosé or white. Next, you smell the aromatic compounds wafting up from your glass.</p> <p>And then there’s the sensation in your mouth when you taste it. White wine and rosé are usually described as refreshing, because they have brisk acidity and little to moderate sweetness. Those <a href="https://www.winemag.com/2017/09/21/why-calling-a-wine-dry-or-sweet-can-be-simply-confusing/">low levels of sugar</a> may lead you to perceive these wines as “dry.”</p> <p>People also describe wines as dry when alcohol levels are high, usually over about 13%, mostly because the ethanol leads to hot or burning sensations that <a href="https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.6b03767">cover up other sensations</a>, especially sweetness. People also perceive red wines as dry or astringent because they contain a class of molecules called polyphenols.</p> <p><a href="https://www.scopus.com/authid/detail.uri?authorId=55360215200">As an enologist</a> – a wine scientist – I’m interested in how all the chemistry in a glass of wine adds up to this perception of dryness. People are good at evaluating a wine’s dryness with their senses. Can we eventually come up with a way to automatically assess this dryness or astringency without relying on human tasters?</p> <p><strong>The chemistry at the vineyard</strong></p> <p>Everything starts with the grapes. If you taste a mature grape skin or seed at harvest, it will seem dry or astringent to you, thanks to a number of chemical compounds it contains.</p> <p>Large molecules called condensed <a href="https://www.wineaustralia.com/getmedia/df422991-82ed-4125-b0f7-8395a63d438f/201005-tannin-management-in-the-vineyard.pdf">tannins</a> are mostly responsible for the astringency perception. These compounds are made up of varying types and numbers of <a href="https://doi.org/10.1021/bk-2002-0825.ch015">smaller chemical units called flavanols</a>. Tannins are in the same family of molecules, the polyphenols, that give grapes their red or black color. They tend to be larger in grape skins than in grape seeds, and consequently the skins tend to be more astringent, while the seeds are more bitter.</p> <p><a href="https://doi.org/10.1021/bk-2002-0825.ch015">Grape varieties differ in how much</a> of each of these compounds they contain. In <em>Vitis vinifera</em> cultivars, like Pinot noir and Cabernet sauvignon, the tannin concentration varies from a relatively high 1 to 1.5 mg/berry. In cold-hardy hybrid grapes found in the Midwestern United States, <a href="https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation3030047">like Frontenac and Marquette</a>, the concentrations are much lower, ranging from 0.3 to 0.7 mg/berry.</p> <p><a href="https://www.wineaustralia.com/getmedia/df422991-82ed-4125-b0f7-8395a63d438f/201005-tannin-management-in-the-vineyard.pdf">Factors in the vineyard</a> – including site, soil qualities and amount of sun – affect the final concentration of tannins in the fruit.</p> <p><strong>The chemistry in your mouth</strong></p> <p>Basically, the more tannin there is in a wine, the more astringent it will be.</p> <p>When you take a sip, the large tannin molecules <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2014.08.001">interact with proteins from your saliva</a>. They combine and form complexes, reducing the number of salivary proteins available to help lubricate your mouth. It leaves your mouth with a dry sensation – like if a snail were to lose its mucus layer, it would dry out.</p> <p>Because everyone has a different composition and concentration of saliva proteins, and because the flow rate of saliva as you bring wine into your mouth varies, your perceptions of an astringent or dry wine won’t be the same as those of your friends or family. The alcohol level, pH and <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2011.12.042">aroma of the wine</a> also influence how intensely and for how long you perceive a red wine’s dryness.</p> <p>Since wine dryness is a perception, the most appropriate tool to appraise it is sensory evaluation. It requires panelists trained on the wine aroma, taste and mouthfeel based on prepared standards and other wines.</p> <p>But winemakers would love to have a quick, simple way to objectively measure astringency without relying on human tasters. That way, they could easily compare this year’s wine to last year’s, or to another wine that is not available to be tested.</p> <p><strong>Can we scientifically evaluate dryness?</strong></p> <p>The challenge for me and my colleagues was to <a href="https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.9b01480">see if we could match up</a> the quantified chemical <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2018.09.043">and physical properties</a> in a wine to the trained panelists’ perceptions.</p> <p>First, we used analytical methods to figure out the different sizes of tannins present in particular wines, and their concentrations. We investigated how these tannins interacted and formed complexes with standard salivary proteins.</p> <p>My collaborators and I also used a physical approach, relying on a piece of equipment with two surfaces that are able to mimic and measure the forces of friction that occur in a drinker’s mouth between the tongue and the palate as wine and saliva interact. The friction forces increase between drier surfaces and decrease between more lubricated surfaces.</p> <p>Then, we trained human panelists to evaluate the intensity of dryness in the same wines and in a wine containing no tannins.</p> <p>People perceived the wine containing the higher concentration of larger tannins as drier for a longer time than the wine without tannins. That made sense based on what we already knew about these compounds and how people sense them.</p> <p>We were surprised, though, by our physical measurements in the lab, because they provided the opposite result as our human tasters’ perception. In the presence of too large or too many tannins in the wine, we recorded lower friction forces than in wines low in tannins. Based on the mechanical surfaces test, it seemed like there would be less dry mouthfeel than we’d expect in high-tannin wines.</p> <p>My colleagues and I are planning to investigate this unexpected result in future research to improve our understanding of the dryness perception.</p> <p>All its chemical and physical variables are part of what makes drinking wine a richly personal and ever-changing experience. Considering the impact of astringency on how individuals perceive a particular wine, a quick measure could be very helpful to winemakers as they do their work. So far, we haven’t been able to create a simple scale that will tell a winemaker that tannins at one certain level match up with a very particular dryness perception. But we enologists are still trying.<!-- End of code. If you don't see any code above, please get new code from the Advanced tab after you click the republish button. The page counter does not collect any personal data. More info: http://theconversation.com/republishing-guidelines --></p> <p><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/aude-watrelot-831853">Aude Watrelot</a>, Assistant Professor of Enology, <a href="http://theconversation.com/institutions/iowa-state-university-1322">Iowa State University</a></em></p> <p><em>This article is republished from <a href="http://theconversation.com">The Conversation</a> under a Creative Commons license. Read the <a href="https://theconversation.com/what-makes-wine-dry-its-easy-to-taste-but-much-harder-to-measure-123506">original article</a>.</em></p>

Food & Wine

Placeholder Content Image

Shaved, shaped and slit - eyebrows through the ages

<p>Eyebrows can turn a smile into a leer, a grumpy pout into a come hither beckoning, and sad, downturned lips into a comedic grimace.</p> <p>So, it’s little wonder these communicative markers of facial punctuation have been such a feature of beauty and fashion since the earliest days of recorded civilisation.</p> <p>From completely shaved mounds to thick, furry lines, eyebrows are a part of the face we <a href="https://www.smh.com.au/lifestyle/beauty/what-you-get-for-40-120-or-1000-worth-of-eyebrow-care-20191113-p53acj.html">continue</a> to experiment with. We seek to hide, exacerbate and embellish them. And today, every shopping strip and mall has professionals ready to assist us with wax, thread and ink.</p> <p><strong>Minimising distraction</strong></p> <p>In the court of Elizabeth I, to draw attention to the perceived focal point of a woman’s body – her breasts – the monarch would pluck her eyebrows into thin lines or remove them completely, as well as shaving off hair at the top of her forehead.</p> <p>This was an attempt to make her face plain and blank, thereby directing the viewer’s gaze lower to her substantial <a href="https://books.google.com.au/books?id=mNLZkzxmiEIC&amp;pg=PA107&amp;dq=eyebrows+breasts+elizabethan&amp;hl=en&amp;sa=X&amp;ved=0ahUKEwjrq9p1t_lAhUTXisKHffJCSYQ6AEIKDAA#v=onepage&amp;q=eyebrows%20breasts%20elizabethan&amp;f=false">décolletage</a>.</p> <p>Although the intentions were different, nonexistent or needle-thin brows had also been common in ancient China and other Asian cultures, where women plucked their eyebrows to resemble specific shapes with designated names such as “distant mountain” (likely referring to a central and distinctive point in the brow), “drooping pearl” and “willow branch”.</p> <p>In ancient China, as well as in India and the Middle East, the technique of threading - the removal of hairs by twisting strands of cotton <a href="https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1046/j.1365-4362.1997.00189.x">thread</a> - was popular for its accuracy. The technique, referred to as “khite” in Arabic and “fatlah” in Egyptian, is enjoying renewed <a href="https://journals.lww.com/dermatologicsurgery/Abstract/2011/06280/Eyebrow_Epilation_by_Threading__An_Increasingly.26.aspx">popularity</a> today.</p> <p>In Japan between 794 and 1185, both men and women plucked their eyebrows out almost entirely and replaced them with new pencilled lines higher up on the <a href="https://books.google.com.au/books?id=9Z6vCGbf66YC&amp;pg=PA120&amp;dq=eyebrows+robyn+cosio&amp;hl=en&amp;sa=X&amp;ved=0ahUKEwiJ1uCXx-TkAhU0IbcAHSc3D_IQ6AEIPjAD#v=onepage&amp;q&amp;f=false">forehead</a>.</p> <p>Eyebrows of Ancient Greece and Rome, on the other hand, are frozen in contemplation.</p> <p>They are often represented in sculptures through expressive mounds devoid of individual or even vaguely suggested hairs: in men they are strong and masterful furrows above a purposeful gaze; in women, soft and emotive.</p> <p>This lack of detail demonstrates a fondness, in some corners of ancient Greek and Roman society, for joined or “continuous” brows.</p> <p>Poet of tenderness, Theocritus, openly admired eyebrows “<a href="https://books.google.com.au/books?id=37MDAAAAQAAJ&amp;pg=PP9&amp;dq=The+British+Poets,+including+Translations+in+One+Hundred+Volumes:+Theocritus&amp;hl=en&amp;sa=X&amp;ved=0ahUKEwjw-fiWjoLlAhXBXisKHfPBC50Q6AEIMjAB#v=onepage&amp;q=The%20British%20Poets%2C%20including%20Translations%20in%20One%20Hundred%20Volumes%3A%20Theocritus&amp;f=false">joined over the nose</a>” like his own, as did Byzantine Isaac Porphyrogenitus.</p> <p><strong>Brows as barometers</strong></p> <p>For much of the 19th century, cosmetics for women were viewed with suspicion, principally as the province of actresses and prostitutes. This meant facial enhancement was subtle and eyebrows, though gently shaped, were kept relatively natural.</p> <p>Despite this restraint, a certain amount of effort still went into cultivation. A newspaper <a href="https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/189261094?searchTerm=%22If%20a%20child%27s%20eyebrows%20threaten%22&amp;searchLimits=">article</a> from 1871 suggested intervention during childhood to thicken them:</p> <p><em>If a child’s eyebrows threaten to be thin, brush them softly every night with a little coconut oil, and they will gradually become strong and full; and, in order to give them a curve, press them gently between the thumb and forefinger after every ablution of the face or hands.</em></p> <p>As fashions became freer after the first world war, attention was once again focused more overtly on the eyes and eyebrows.</p> <p>This was partly to do with the development of beauty salons during the 1920s, many of which offered classes in makeup application so women could create new, bold looks at home.</p> <p>The fashion for very thin eyebrows was popularised by silent film stars such as Buster Keaton and Louise Brooks, for whom thick kohl was a professional necessity and allowed a clearer vision of the eyebrows – so crucial, after all, for nonverbal expression on screen.</p> <p>The amount of attention paid to eyebrows continued to change according to specific global events.</p> <p>In the 1940s, women began to favour thicker, natural brows after several decades of rigorous plucking to achieve pencil-thin lines. Considering the outbreak of the second world war had forced many out of a wholly domestic existence and into the workforce, it stands to reason they had less time to spend in front of the mirror, wielding a pair of tweezers and eyebrow pencil.</p> <p>The post-war 1950s saw wide, yet more firmly defined brows and from the 1960s onwards various shapes, sizes and thicknesses were experimented with, accompanied by a firm emphasis on individuality and personal preference.</p> <p><strong>More than mono</strong></p> <p>When Dwight Edwards Marvin’s <a href="https://www.bartleby.com/346/14.html">collection</a> of adages and maxims, Curiosities in Proverbs, was published in 1916 it included the old English advice:</p> <p><em>If your eyebrows meet across your nose, you’ll never live to wear your wedding clothes.</em></p> <p>The “mono-” or “uni-brow” had become suggestive of a lack of self care, particularly in women.</p> <p>Research undertaken in 2004 reported American women felt judged and evaluated as “dirty”, “gross” or even “repulsive” if they did not shave their underarm or leg hair, or pluck and shape their <a href="https://books.google.com.au/books?id=y5Enl3JamIgC&amp;printsec=frontcover&amp;dq=Embodied+Resistance:+Challenging+the+Norms,+Breaking+the+Rules,&amp;hl=en&amp;sa=X&amp;ved=0ahUKEwi54bWkjoLlAhVs7nMBHSOJCe8Q6AEIKDAA#v=onepage&amp;q=Embodied%20Resistance%3A%20Challenging%20the%20Norms%2C%20Breaking%20the%20Rules%2C&amp;f=false">eyebrows</a>. As the most visible of these areas, untamed eyebrows perhaps point to the bravest exhibition of natural hair.</p> <p>Today, model Sophia Hadjipanteli sports a pair of impressively large, dark joined eyebrows, and has assertively fought back against the legion of online trolls who have abused her for this point of difference.</p> <p>A reference back to the distinctive brows of Frida Kahlo, Hadjipanteli’s look is linked to an ongoing debate surrounding women’s body hair.</p> <p><strong>Giving a pluck</strong></p> <p>For many, excessive plucking and shaping has become emblematic of the myriad requirements women are expected to comply with to satisfy restrictive societal beauty norms.</p> <p>Still, plenty of people with eyebrows are dedicating time and money to their upkeep. In Australia, the personal waxing and nail salon industry has grown steadily over five years to be worth an estimated <a href="https://www.ibisworld.com.au/industry-trends/specialised-market-research-reports/consumer-goods-services/personal-waxing-nail-salons.html">A$1.3 billion</a> and employ more than 20,000 people.</p> <p>Over this time, social media has offered a diverse and changing menu of brow choices and displays.</p> <p>One choice: the “eyebrow slit” – thin vertical cuts in eyebrow hair – has re-emerged online and in suburban high schools. It’s important to emphasise <em>re-emerged</em> because, with beauty as with clothing, what goes around comes around.</p> <p>The eyebrow slit was especially popular amongst hip hop artists in the 1990s, and draws appeal due to its flexibility: there are no firm rules as to the number or width of the slits, which originally were meant to suggest scarring from a recent fight or gangsta adventure. More recent converts have been accused of <a href="https://www.teenvogue.com/story/eyebrow-cuts-cultural-appropriation">cultural appropriation</a>.</p> <p>Some have experimented by replacing plain slits with other shapes, such as hearts or stars, though plucking or shaving brows into unusual shapes is – as we have seen – by no means new either.</p> <p><strong>Facing the day</strong></p> <p>If the popularity of recent trends is anything to go by, eyebrow fashion will remain on the lush side for some time.</p> <p>The “<a href="http://fashion.telegraph.co.uk/news-features/TMG8997240/Scouse-Brow-a-beginners-guide.html">Scouse</a>” brow (very thick, wide and angular eyebrows emphasised with highly defined dark pencil shapes: named after natives of Liverpool in the United Kingdom) is still trending.</p> <p>The “Instagram eyebrow” (thick brows plucked and painted to create a gradient, going from light to very dark as the brow ends) is inescapable on the platform and beyond. Makeup for brows is therefore also likely to continue, providing a clear linear connection through nearly all the eyebrow ideals since ancient times.</p> <p>The latest offering to those seeking a groomed look is “<a href="https://www.elle.com.au/beauty/eyebrow-lamination-22517">eyebrow lamination</a>”, a chemical treatment that uses keratin to straighten individual hairs - a kind of anti-perm for your brow.</p> <p>Those still searching for their eyebrow aesthetic may benefit from some wisdom shared by crime and society reporter Viola Rodgers in an 1898 edition of the San Francisco Call newspaper.</p> <p>Eyebrow slits? We can only imagine what Viola would think.</p> <p><em>Written by Lydia Edwards. Republished with permission of <a href="https://theconversation.com/friday-essay-shaved-shaped-and-slit-eyebrows-through-the-ages-123872">The Conversation.</a></em></p>

Beauty & Style

Placeholder Content Image

Why Prince Harry and Meghan’s new titles are even confusing Buckingham Palace

<p>When Prince Harry and Duchess Meghan announced they would be stepping down as senior members of the royal family, a spanner was thrown into the works of a meticulously run Palace – one that is still having trouble smoothing out all the kinks.</p> <p>Buckingham Palace announced the Duke and Duchess of Sussex would be giving up not only their royal duties but the role of representing the Queen in a formal capacity and their HRH titles.</p> <blockquote style="background: #FFF; border: 0; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: 0 0 1px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.5),0 1px 10px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.15); margin: 1px; max-width: 540px; min-width: 326px; padding: 0; width: calc(100% - 2px);" class="instagram-media" data-instgrm-permalink="https://www.instagram.com/p/B7ld5OWnQ4N/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" data-instgrm-version="12"> <div style="padding: 16px;"> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: row; align-items: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; flex-grow: 0; height: 40px; margin-right: 14px; width: 40px;"></div> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: column; flex-grow: 1; justify-content: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; margin-bottom: 6px; width: 100px;"></div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; width: 60px;"></div> </div> </div> <div style="padding: 19% 0;"></div> <div style="display: block; height: 50px; margin: 0 auto 12px; width: 50px;"></div> <div style="padding-top: 8px;"> <div style="color: #3897f0; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: 550; line-height: 18px;">View this post on Instagram</div> </div> <p style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; line-height: 17px; margin-bottom: 0; margin-top: 8px; overflow: hidden; padding: 8px 0 7px; text-align: center; text-overflow: ellipsis; white-space: nowrap;"><a style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: 17px; text-decoration: none;" rel="noopener" href="https://www.instagram.com/p/B7ld5OWnQ4N/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" target="_blank">A post shared by Duchess of Sussex (@sussex.meghan)</a> on Jan 21, 2020 at 6:41am PST</p> </div> </blockquote> <p>When the statement was released, royals from the palace also verified that the pair would now be dubbed Harry, Duke of Sussex, and Meghan, Duchess of Sussex.</p> <p>However, as it would turn out, it is not as straightforward as it seems and according to a new report from<span> </span><em><a rel="noopener noreferrer" href="https://people.com/royals/meghan-markle-and-prince-harrys-titles-post-exit-have-sparked-confusion-even-among-royal-aides/" target="_blank">PEOPLE</a>,<span> </span></em>Palace experts are reviewing the new titles of Prince Harry and Meghan.</p> <p>According to latest sources, the new title involves both Princess Diana and Sarah Ferguson who divorced from their royal spouses – Prince Charles and Prince Andrew – and as a result, were touted as Diana, Princess of Wales, and Sarah, Duchess of York.</p> <p>The issue is – there has not been any divorce between Prince Harry and Meghan so questions arise as to whether their new titles are in fact correct.</p> <p>While there's no sure answer yet as to what the Duke and Duchess of Sussex’s official titles will be moving forward, we can still refer to them as their Royal Highnesses until their transition period deadline of Spring 2020 is over.</p> <p>Prince Harry’s position in line to the throne has not changed and he remains sixth-in-line while his son, eight-month-old Archie is just behind his dad as seventh-in-line.</p> <blockquote style="background: #FFF; border: 0; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: 0 0 1px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.5),0 1px 10px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.15); margin: 1px; max-width: 540px; min-width: 326px; padding: 0; width: calc(100% - 2px);" class="instagram-media" data-instgrm-permalink="https://www.instagram.com/p/B7krFoaioIY/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" data-instgrm-version="12"> <div style="padding: 16px;"> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: row; align-items: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; flex-grow: 0; height: 40px; margin-right: 14px; width: 40px;"></div> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: column; flex-grow: 1; justify-content: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; margin-bottom: 6px; width: 100px;"></div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; width: 60px;"></div> </div> </div> <div style="padding: 19% 0;"></div> <div style="display: block; height: 50px; margin: 0 auto 12px; width: 50px;"></div> <div style="padding-top: 8px;"> <div style="color: #3897f0; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: 550; line-height: 18px;">View this post on Instagram</div> </div> <p style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; line-height: 17px; margin-bottom: 0; margin-top: 8px; overflow: hidden; padding: 8px 0 7px; text-align: center; text-overflow: ellipsis; white-space: nowrap;"><a style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: 17px; text-decoration: none;" rel="noopener" href="https://www.instagram.com/p/B7krFoaioIY/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" target="_blank">A post shared by Meghan and Harry❤ (@meghan_and_harry)</a> on Jan 20, 2020 at 11:17pm PST</p> </div> </blockquote> <p>Last Monday, Prince Harry attended the Sandringham Summit to discuss his and Duchess Meghan’s future with the Queen, Prince Charles and Prince William.</p> <p>Following Kensington Palace announcing the new plans set in place for the Duke and Duchess of Sussex, Harry attended a private dinner for charity Sentebale and delivered a hearty and emotional speech.</p> <p>"It brings me great sadness that it has come to this," he told the room.</p> <p>"The decision I have made for my wife and I to step back is not one I made lightly... Our hope was to continue serving the Queen, the Commonwealth and my military associations, but without public funding. Unfortunately, that wasn't possible."</p> <p>He continued: "I've accepted this, knowing that it doesn't change who I am or how committed I am.</p> <p>"But I hope that helps you understand what it had to come to, that I would step my family back from all I have ever known, to take a step forward into what I hope can be a more peaceful life."</p> <p>Prince Harry is believed to be back in Canada with Meghan and Archie, where they plan to forge ahead with their new life away from the prying eyes of the British tabloids.</p>

Relationships

Placeholder Content Image

A sweet treat: apple pie from Milan

<p>Serves 8</p> <p>Is there anything better than a delicious home cooked apple pie? Get ready for rave reviews to roll in!</p> <p>“I have such beautiful memories of my early days in Lombardy. The lessons I learned about family, food and tradition, and how intertwined they are, are at the heart of everything I do today,” says chef Alessandro Pavoni. “This dish reminds me of British apple pie. Russet apples have the perfect texture for it, plus they don’t release too much liquid. If they’re unavailable, use another similar apple that’s not too juicy, such as gala.”</p> <p><strong>Ingredients</strong></p> <ul> <li>1 kg russet apples</li> <li>1/3 cup (80 ml) dry white wine finely grated zest of 1 lemon 180 g caster sugar</li> <li>1 pinch of fine salt</li> <li>¼ cup (40 g) sultanas 60 g mixed peel</li> <li>60 g unsalted butter 18 slices white sandwich bread, crusts removed</li> <li>1½ tablespoons dark rum Mascarpone Cream (to serve)</li> </ul> <p><strong>Directions</strong></p> <p>Preheat the oven to 180°C.</p> <p>1. Peel and core the apples and cut each one into 16 thin wedges. Place in a heavy-based saucepan over high heat with the wine, lemon zest and 90 g of the caster sugar. Bring to the boil, then reduce the heat to medium and cook, covered, for 10 minutes. Uncover, add the salt and cook for another 15 minutes or until the liquid has evaporated.</p> <p>2 Remove from the heat, stir in the sultanas and mixed peel, then cover and set aside.</p> <p>3. Beat the butter and remaining sugar with a wooden spoon until well combined. Use three-quarters of this mixture to butter the base and side of a 23 cm round springform cake tin. Completely line the base and side of the tin with the bread, cutting the slices to fit as necessary and reserving some for the top, pressing gently to secure them in place.</p> <p>4. Fill with the apple mixture, then top with the remaining bread and spread the remaining butter mixture over the top.</p> <p>5. Bake for 40 minutes or until the bread is lightly golden. Remove from the oven, immediately pour the rum over the top and set aside for 30 minutes.</p> <p>6. Serve warm with a bowl of mascarpone cream on the side.</p> <p>Recipes from the book, <a href="https://www.penguin.com.au/products/9781921383380/lombardian-cookbook"><em>A Lombardian Cookbook</em></a> by Alessandro Pavoni and Roberta Muir, with photography by Chris Chen, published by Lantern, RRP $59.99.</p> <p><em>Republished with permission of <a href="https://www.wyza.com.au/recipes/apple-pie-from-milan.aspx">Wyza.com.au.</a></em></p>

Food & Wine

Finance

Placeholder Content Image

Fame and fortune isn't the key to happiness

<p>If you’ve ever dreamt of fame and fortune, Prince Harry and his wife Meghan Markle turning their backs on the royal lifestyle might seem churlish. So too their desire to be “financially independent”.</p> <p>As a senior royal, Harry is at the height of his popularity – a popularity that marrying Markle has only amplified.</p> <p>On top of the millions he has inherited from his mother and great grandmother, he gets millions more annually, both from his cut of the “sovereign grant” paid by the British government and the allowance from his father (from the revenues of Duchy of Cornwall estate).</p> <p>Harry and Meghan aren’t exiting the family firm penniless, but if they stayed they would be looked after in luxury for the rest of their lives.</p> <p>Madness? No. Research suggests Harry and Meghan would be well and truly in their right minds to be sick of royal fame and fortune.</p> <p>Psychologists, economists and philosophers have confirmed three things. First, money can’t buy happiness. Second, we want to feel we have earned our success and popularity. Third, being looked after from the cradle to the grave has its downsides.</p> <p>In short, having everything handed to you on a platter just isn’t satisfying.</p> <p><strong>Money doesn’t buy happiness</strong></p> <p>Even though this statement is arguably a cliché, there is good <a href="https://www.payscale.com/career-news/2013/05/study-proves-money-cant-buy-happiness">evidence</a> it’s true. While money buys happiness up to a point, the positive effects of money on happiness <a href="https://psychology.unl.edu/can-money-buy-happiness">level off</a> once individuals have obtained enough wealth to live a comfortable life.</p> <p>This relationship has been observed at the country level, with multiple studies showing that, once a nation reaches a certain level of wealth, national happiness does not increase in parallel with extra wealth. This is known as the <a href="https://esrc.ukri.org/about-us/50-years-of-esrc/50-achievements/the-easterlin-paradox/">Easterlin paradox</a>. According to economist John Helliwell, a co-editor of the <a href="https://worldhappiness.report/ed/2019/changing-world-happiness/">World Happiness Report</a>, the <a href="https://www.researchgate.net/publication/8364900_The_Social_Context_of_Well-Being">social context</a> – marriage and family, ties to friends and neighbours, workplace ties, civic engagement, trustworthiness and trust – is more important than wealth.</p> <div class="embed-responsive embed-responsive-16by9"><iframe class="embed-responsive-item" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/JjLh0guxERQ"></iframe></div> <p>One reason given for why wealth doesn’t buy individuals any more happiness after a certain point is that money becomes both a reason and means to distance ourselves from others. To paraphrase Christopher Ryan, author of <a href="https://www.simonandschuster.com/books/Civilized-to-Death/Christopher-Ryan/9781451659108">Civilized to Death: The Price of Progress</a>, what people tend to do with extra money is buy separation, whereas researchers “<a href="https://www.wired.com/story/why-are-rich-people-so-mean/">have concluded again and again</a> that the single most reliable predictor of happiness is feeling embedded in a community”.</p> <p>Extraordinary wealth, then, sets us against what we are programmed to do by evolution: seek out the company of others and band together in a community. Research has repeatedly shown this has a huge mental health cost.</p> <div class="embed-responsive embed-responsive-16by9"><iframe class="embed-responsive-item" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/MB5IX-np5fE"></iframe></div> <p>Importantly, too, how we earn our money affects how much we enjoy it. <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29320930">Research</a> among more than 4,000 millionaires in the US, for example, showed those who were “self-made” were moderately happier than those who inherited their wealth.</p> <p>Taken together, these factors help explain why Harry and Meghan’s wealth might, psychologically speaking, be more curse than blessing.</p> <p><strong>The popularity paradox</strong></p> <p>Most of us, particularly teenagers, <a href="https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/cracking-the-popularity-code/">crave popularity</a>. According to <a href="https://yougov.co.uk/ratings/politics/popularity/royalty/all">a YouGov poll</a>, Harry is the second-most-popular member of the British royal family – pipped only by Queen Elizabeth. Some are convinced <a href="https://theconversation.com/prince-harry-and-meghan-markle-why-half-in-half-out-just-isnt-an-option-for-royals-129726">he won’t keep this popularity</a> without his royal status.</p> <p>Why would someone want to give up being liked and loved by stepping out of the limelight?</p> <p>Because <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Attribution_(psychology)">psychological research</a> shows people feel less pride in their achievements if they attribute it to external reasons. In this case, that would being born as a royal for Harry, and being pretty and marrying into a royal family for Meghan. For their popularity and success to mean something, they would need some “internal attribution” – that it has something to do with their own abilities, effort and skill.</p> <p>In a world that values meritocracy, as Alain de Botton argues, we need to “own our success” — the very thing Harry and Meghan cannot do as royals.</p> <div class="embed-responsive embed-responsive-16by9"><iframe class="embed-responsive-item" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/MtSE4rglxbY"></iframe></div> <p><strong>Trapped by certainty</strong></p> <p>Most of us aspire to being financially secure for the rest of our lives. Many of us would give a lot to know what lies ahead.</p> <p>But while there is comfort in some sense of security and predictability, knowing exactly what the future holds might be a curse. This is because humans thrive also on feeling a sense of freedom and choice.</p> <p>So just as having no certainty can take its mental toll, so does feeling one’s future is totally predetermined and that you have no real control over the way your life will unfold.</p> <p>Psychologists call the motivation to regain a freedom after it has been lost <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4675534/">reactance</a> – and this might be something strong within someone, for example, who has lost freedom due to marrying into a high-profile family.</p> <p><strong>Seizing control</strong></p> <p>Do the reasons above explain why Harry and Meghan have left the royal fold? We can’t say that. Only they know their motivations.</p> <p>But what we do know is that all the research points to fortune, fame and security not necessarily leading to a good, happy life. These things can in fact be burdens, <a href="https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0139156">bringing out</a> our worst, not our best.</p> <p>That happiness comes more from community connection, merit, effort and making our own decisions is good news for the rest of us. Let’s hope it works out for Harry and Meghan too.<!-- Below is The Conversation's page counter tag. Please DO NOT REMOVE. --><img style="border: none !important; box-shadow: none !important; margin: 0 !important; max-height: 1px !important; max-width: 1px !important; min-height: 1px !important; min-width: 1px !important; opacity: 0 !important; outline: none !important; padding: 0 !important; text-shadow: none !important;" src="https://counter.theconversation.com/content/130132/count.gif?distributor=republish-lightbox-basic" alt="The Conversation" width="1" height="1" /><!-- End of code. If you don't see any code above, please get new code from the Advanced tab after you click the republish button. The page counter does not collect any personal data. More info: http://theconversation.com/republishing-guidelines --></p> <p><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/jolanda-jetten-301309">Jolanda Jetten</a>, Professor, School of Psychology, ARC Laureate Fellow, <a href="http://theconversation.com/institutions/the-university-of-queensland-805">The University of Queensland</a></em></p> <p><em>This article is republished from <a href="http://theconversation.com">The Conversation</a> under a Creative Commons license. Read the <a href="https://theconversation.com/the-science-backs-harry-and-meghan-turning-in-their-royal-privilege-fame-and-fortune-arent-the-keys-to-happiness-130132">original article</a>.</em></p>

Money & Banking

Placeholder Content Image

Food fraud is hidden in plain sight

<p>The globalization of the food chain has resulted in increased complexity and diminished transparency and trust into how and where our foods are grown, harvested, processed and by whom.</p> <p>Furthermore, recurring incidents of <a href="https://globalnews.ca/news/4014182/food-fraud-avoiding-fake-product/">food fraud</a> remind us that some of those involved in the food chain are exploiting this complexity. Today, consumers are at an <a href="https://www.foodnavigator.com/Article/2019/02/20/Fragmented-global-supply-chains-have-led-to-an-increase-in-food-fraud">increased risk</a> of buying lower-quality food than what they paid for, or worse, eating food with unsafe ingredients or undeclared allergens.</p> <p>Historically, food chain transparency and trust was established between the shopper and the farmer or fishmonger, green grocer, butcher, milkman and baker. Dutch scholar <a href="https://research.wur.nl/en/publications/governing-chinas-food-quality-through-transparency-a-review">Arthur Mol</a> argued that this personal interaction enabled face-to-face transparency, which built trust.</p> <p>Before modern supermarkets, a local village or town grocery store stocked up to 300 items grown or processed within a 240-kilometre (150-mile) radius. In comparison, our post-modern supermarkets carry an <a href="https://www.fmi.org/our-research/supermarket-facts">average of 33,000</a> items that travel 2,400 kilometres or more. The Canadian government is poised to tackle that problem by announcing <a href="https://globalnews.ca/news/6435463/buy-canadian-promotional-campaign/">a Buy Canadian food campaign.</a></p> <p>While the extent of global food fraud is difficult to quantify, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) suggests <a href="https://inspection.gc.ca/food-safety-for-industry/information-for-consumers/food-safety-system/food-fraud/eng/1548444446366/1548444516192">food fraud</a> affects 10 per cent of commercially sold food. Various academic and industry sources suggest that globally, food fraud ranges from US$10 billion to $49 billion. This is likely a conservative range considering estimates of <a href="https://www.afr.com/life-and-luxury/food-and-wine/cracking-down-on-fake-steak-with-invisible-trackable-barcodes-20180810-h13t3n">fake Australian meats</a> alone and sold worldwide are as high as AUD$4 billion, or more than US$2.5 billion.</p> <p>If you add the sales of fake wines and alcohol, adulterated honey and spices, mislabelled fish and false claims of organic products, wild-caught fish or grain-fed meat, the numbers, and risks, increase significantly.</p> <p><strong>Are Canadian regulations adequate?</strong></p> <p>Regulations are in place to protect Canadians. The Safe Food for Canadians Act (known <a href="https://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/regulations/SOR-2018-108/index.html">as the SFCR</a>) and the <a href="https://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/F-27/page-2.html#h-234067">Food and Drug Act</a> work together to protect Canadian consumers from food safety and food fraud risks.</p> <p>The SFCR states that food businesses must have preventative controls in place as well as product traceability records to ensure imported products meet Canadian laws. A provision of the Food and Drug Act states:</p> <p><em>“No person shall sell an article of food that (a) has in or on it any poisonous or harmful substance; (b) is unfit for human consumption; (c) consists in whole or in part of any filthy, putrid, disgusting, rotten, decomposed or diseased animal or vegetable substance; (d) is adulterated; or (e) was manufactured, prepared, preserved, packaged or stored under unsanitary conditions.”</em></p> <p>Another section of the act declares:</p> <p><em>“No person shall label, package, treat, process, sell or advertise any food in a manner that is false, misleading or deceptive or is likely to create an erroneous impression regarding its character, value, quantity, composition, merit or safety”.</em></p> <p>But are the regulations being enforced?</p> <p>The CFIA is very active in food fraud prevention and detection. In July 2019, the agency received $24.4 million in new <a href="https://www.canada.ca/en/food-inspection-agency/news/2019/07/government-of-canada-prevents-nearly-12800kg-of-adulterated-honey-from-entering-the-canadian-market.html">food fraud funding</a> after announcing that 12,800 kilograms of adulterated honey was blocked from entering the Canadian market. Honey adulteration is the process of cutting pure honey with fillers and cheaper sweeteners, including corn syrup.</p> <p>The CFIA has several enforcement instruments it can apply to offenders including <a href="https://www.inspection.gc.ca/about-the-cfia/accountability/compliance-and-enforcement/amps/fact-sheet/eng/1547233099837/1547233100149">administrative monetary penalties</a>, <a href="https://www.inspection.gc.ca/about-the-cfia/accountability/compliance-and-enforcement/licences/eng/1324052022644/1324052753628">licence suspension or cancellation</a> and <a href="https://www.inspection.gc.ca/about-the-cfia/newsroom/prosecution-bulletins/eng/1298575869119/1299852705293">criminal prosecution</a>.</p> <p><strong>Is food fraud the same as consumer fraud?</strong></p> <p>No. Canada is recovering from a significant consumer fraud incident where some of the most trusted brands colluded for more than a decade to fix the price of bread in what’s <a href="https://www.competitionbureau.gc.ca/eic/site/cb-bc.nsf/eng/04335.html">often termed breadgate</a>. This was a breach of the <a href="https://www.competitionbureau.gc.ca/eic/site/cb-bc.nsf/eng/04267.html">Canadian Competition Act</a>.</p> <p>Canada was one of the first countries in the world with a formal Competition Act, initiated in 1889. While breadgate’s egregious breach of trust shocked Canadians, consumers are known to have short memories and to quickly forgive.</p> <p>The protection of insiders acting as whistle-blowers in the food industry is critically important to expose both consumer fraud and food fraud. However, most food fraud detection requires the use of advanced high-tech methods.</p> <p>In 2017, the University of Guelph’s Biodiversity Institute, in partnership with the CFIA, received $320,000 in <a href="https://news.uoguelph.ca/2017/09/u-g-cfia-collaboration-gets-320000-investment/">federal funding</a> to develop better genomics and DNA bar-coding tools, including portable devices. DNA bar-coding allows researchers to match animal and plant DNA against a reference database to identify a species.</p> <p><strong>Mislabelled fish, sausage</strong></p> <p>The partnership has published a number of research papers uncovering food fraud and <a href="https://news.uoguelph.ca/2019/02/persistent-seafood-mislabeling-persistent-throughout-canadas-supply-chain-u-of-g-study-reveals/">revealing the mislabelling of fish</a> species in Canadian restaurants and grocery stores, an area of the institute’s research that now spans more than a decade.</p> <p>In January 2019, the institute <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0963996919300304?via%3Dihub">published a paper</a> entitled “Re-visiting the occurrence of undeclared species in sausage products sold in Canada” as a followup to a previous study that showed a <a href="https://kitchener.ctvnews.ca/guelph/20-of-tested-sausages-contained-mislabeled-meat-u-of-g-study-1.3532113">20 per cent mislabelling rate for sausages</a>.</p> <p>The followup indicated 14 per cent of the 100 sausages tested still contained meat DNA that was undeclared on the label. Even more concerning for the public is that many types of food fraud and mislabelling have gone undetected. New technology and methods of testing still has to catch up.</p> <p>As social media amplifies recurring high-profile incidents of food fraud, trust in our global food supply chains remains a concern. For the foreseeable future, much of Canada’s food fraud remains hidden in plain sight, sitting right there on our grocery store shelves.</p> <p><em>Written by John G. Keogh. Republished with permission of </em><a href="https://theconversation.com/fish-sausage-even-honey-food-fraud-is-hidden-in-plain-sight-130186"><em>The Conversation.</em></a></p>

Legal

Placeholder Content Image

Queen's grandson spotted in bizarre Chinese milk ad

<p>The Queen’s eldest grandson, Peter Phillips has been spotted starring in a television advertisement for a Chinese milk brand.</p> <p>In result, controversy has sparked on whether there is an issue with The Firm using their royal connections to generate a private income.</p> <p>41-year-old Mr Phillips is the son of Princess Anne and her ex-husband Captain Mark Phillips, however he is not a working royal and has never had a royal title.</p> <p>He has become the poster boy over the years to prove royal family members can have private lives, despite belonging to one of the most famous families in the world.</p> <blockquote class="twitter-tweet"> <p dir="ltr">'Royal Peter' for hire in China: As Prince Harry flies to Canada to earn millions, the Queen's eldest grandson Peter Phillips is revealed to be trading on his royal status by advertising milk on TV<br /><a href="https://t.co/9FlNesAaWx">https://t.co/9FlNesAaWx</a> <a href="https://t.co/ZoYSd6biSB">pic.twitter.com/ZoYSd6biSB</a></p> — Brightly (@Brightl36034096) <a href="https://twitter.com/Brightl36034096/status/1219665215752720387?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">January 21, 2020</a></blockquote> <p>Throughout his adulthood, he has held prominent positions with Jaguar and a Formula One racing team. He is married to Canadian Autumn Kelly, and the couple share two daughters together who don’t have royal titles.</p> <p>Mr Phillips’ latest public endorsement features him dressed to the nines in a dinner jacket and black bow tie for a 30-second ad for China’s state-owned Bright Dairies.</p> <p>In the advertisement he can be seen peering out the window of a stately country house in Britain’s Wiltshire. A replica of a horse-drawn royal carriage pulls outside the home and then a butler approaches Phillips.</p> <p> </p> <p>In the ad he is described as “British Royal Family member Peter Phillips.”</p> <p>“Bright Dairies has got a fantastic reputation all over China and outside of China as well, for producing high quality dairy products,” Mr Phillips says in a separate, behind-the-scenes video.</p> <p>“As children, we used to spend a lot of time down at the dairy. There was a herd of Jersey cattle at Windsor and we were brought up on it.</p> <p>“And it was always much fuller of flavour, much creamier, than other milks that we had growing up. That has something to do with the way the cows are bred.”</p> <p><img style="width: 500px; height: 281.25px;" src="https://oversixtydev.blob.core.windows.net/media/7834093/peter-phillips-1.jpg" alt="" data-udi="umb://media/799c9170cffe4419951ba8dc9d2f6f48" /></p> <p>Peter and Zara have been free to pursue their own careers as non-working members of the royal family. Zara, 38, is a champion equestrian who also earns a comfortable living as an ambassador for luxury brands, including Rolex and Land Rover, while Peter is the managing director of a sports and entertainment agency.</p> <p>The ad has been released in the midst of a huge debate surrounding both the Duke and Duchess of Sussex who recently announced their intention to step down from their position as senior royal to seek a more “private life” and generate a private income.</p> <p>Buckingham Palace announced that the couple would no longer formally represent the Queen nor be able to use their HRH titles.</p> <p>However they will remain the Duke and Duchess of Sussex as it was titles given to them as a wedding present by the Queen.</p> <p>They have also already applied to trademark their Sussex Royal brand.</p> <p><img style="width: 500px; height: 281.25px;" src="https://oversixtydev.blob.core.windows.net/media/7834094/peter-phillips-2.jpg" alt="" data-udi="umb://media/97cd0a1731404f54bdca126ad86d92c7" /></p> <p>The couple already have the username Sussex Royal on their website and Instagram account, which has 11 million followers.</p> <p>The trademark will allow Prince Harry and Meghan to release their own personal line of branded products, including books, calendars and clothing, in the future.</p> <p>The couple are rumoured to also be moving into content creation and could possibly sign deals with the likes of Netflix or do further work with Disney.</p> <p>Thomas Woodcock, a senior adviser to the Queen, told <a href="https://www.thetimes.co.uk/edition/news/queens-aide-warns-harry-and-meghan-against-sussex-royal-title-rx0nj7f9w"><em>The Times</em></a> on Tuesday that he didn’t believe the name <em>Sussex Royal </em>was right to keep.</p> <p>“I don’t think it’s satisfactory. One cannot be two things at once. You either are [royal] or you’re not,” he said.</p> <p>Royals must be meticulous in making sure they’re not seen exploiting their royal connections or tarnishing the family’s tightly guarded brand.</p> <p>Mr Woodcock, who is the Garter King of Arms, aids the Queen in being a principal adviser on ceremonial matters and heraldry.</p> <p>He is also part of ensuring that commercial concerns do not make illegitimate use of royal symbols.</p> <p>“It is such unusual times that it is a matter of waiting and seeing how things develop,” he said.</p> <p><em>The Telegraph</em>’s royal editor Camilla Tominey also said she thinks the couple may be asked to rebrand by Kensington Palace who may be averse to idea of Harry and Meghan keeping <em>Royal </em>in their name.</p> <p>“It remains to be seen whether they’ll be able to keep that royal aspect because for all intents and purposes, they are not carrying out any engagements on behalf of the Queen or their military appointments,” she told <em>ITV’s This Morning</em> program on Monday.</p> <p>“They are keeping their private patronages and their charitable work to themselves as they go off and have this new life in North America.”</p> <p>After a week of intense negotiations with the Queen, Prince William and Prince Charles, Harry was spotted travelling home to be reunited with his wife, Duchess Meghan and their 8-month-old son Archie.</p> <p>They are expected to spend most of their time in North America.</p>

Legal

Placeholder Content Image

Global trust crisis as people no longer believe hard work will bring a better life

<p>Many people no longer believe that <span><a href="https://www.abc.net.au/triplej/programs/hack/2020-edelman-trust-barometer-shows-growing-sense-of-inequality/11883788">hard work will lead to a better life</a></span>, a new survey found.</p> <p>In its <span><a href="https://www.edelman.com/sites/g/files/aatuss191/files/2020-01/2020%20Edelman%20Trust%20Barometer%20Global%20Report_LIVE.pdf">20<sup>th</sup> annual Trust Barometer</a></span>, which polled more than 34,000 people in 28 countries, public relations firm Edelman found that despite strong economic performance, the majority of people in developed markets said they believe they and their families will not be better off in five years’ time.</p> <p>“We are living in a trust paradox,” said the agency’s CEO Richard Edelman.</p> <p>“Since we began measuring trust 20 years ago, economic growth has fostered rising trust. This continues in Asia and the Middle East but not in developed markets, where national income inequality is now the more important factor in institutional trust.</p> <p>“Fears are stifling hope, as long-held assumptions about hard work leading to upward mobility are now invalid.”</p> <p>Trust in government also continued to decline as people grappled with concerns over job insecurity and income inequality.</p> <p>More than four out of five (83 per cent) employees said they worry about losing their job due to a range of factors, including gig economy, looming recession, foreign competitors and automation.</p> <p>Government was viewed as the most unethical and least competent institution, with only 42 per cent of respondents saying they have confidence that government leaders will be able to address the challenges int their country.</p> <p>Media was also considered incompetent and unethical, with 57 per cent saying the media they consume contain untrustworthy information.</p> <p>Business ranked the highest in competence but was deemed unethical, with the majority of respondents agreeing that capitalism does more harm than good in the world today. No institution was seen as fair in the survey’s index of public perception.</p>

Retirement Income

Entertainment

Placeholder Content Image

“Book murderer”: Author’s travel hack sparks debate

<p>Carrying books in your trip can be tricky. Some copies may prove too thick, heavy or bulky, taking up precious space in your luggage.</p> <p>While some resort to e-books and audiobooks, Alex Christofi has something else in mind.</p> <p>The British author took to Twitter on Tuesday to share his hack. “Yesterday my colleague called me a ‘book murderer’ because I cut long books in half to make them more portable. Does anyone else do this? Is it just me?”</p> <blockquote class="twitter-tweet"> <p dir="ltr">Yesterday my colleague called me a 'book murderer' because I cut long books in half to make them more portable. Does anyone else do this? Is it just me? <a href="https://t.co/VQUUdJMpwT">pic.twitter.com/VQUUdJMpwT</a></p> — Alex Christofi (@alex_christofi) <a href="https://twitter.com/alex_christofi/status/1219564301029138432?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">January 21, 2020</a></blockquote> <p>Christofi defended the book cutting as a way to help him keep reading.</p> <p>“The alternative is I just don’t read them because I can’t be bothered to carry them around,” he shared.</p> <p>“If people would just publish in sensible sized volumes I wouldn’t need to take matters into my own hands.”</p> <p>Some fellow readers expressed approval of Christofi’s trick.</p> <p>“I really like this Alex, and am completely ok with it. In fact it undercuts (tish boom) their hubris in writing such a bloody long book in the first place,” one responded.</p> <p>“Why are people so precious about the books they buy? Crack the spine, spill stuff on it, dog ear pages who cares as long as you’re reading,” another wrote.</p> <p>However, most replies were critical of the method. “I’ve never seen anyone do this. It’s definitely a book crime,” one wrote.</p> <p>“Is it just me, he says, posting a murder on the timeline,” another replied.</p> <p>“I’ve been an avid reader since I was 2. Carrying around books was never a burden to me, it was a joy. To mutilate a book to save an inch or two/a few ounces, then criticize the author/publisher for making such large/long/big books. His bindings are loose in more ways than one,” one said.</p> <p>“You’re a monster,” more than one commented.</p> <p>Publishing company Simon &amp; Schuster chimed in with a recommendation, “Can someone get this man an audiobook or e-book?!”</p>

Books

Placeholder Content Image

How to change your phone number in Facebook or get rid of it entirely

<p><span style="font-weight: 400;">You can easily change a phone number in Facebook if your original number connected to the social media platform has become outdated.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Facebook asks for a user’s phone number for a few reasons, which are: </span></p> <ul> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">A phone number can be used to reset a forgotten password</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">It can be used to suggest people you may know so that you can connect with them on Facebook</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">The phone number can keep your account safe with two-factor authentication and you can also receive text alerts for potentially unauthorised logins</span></li> </ul> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">However, if you want to remove the number entirely or change it, it’s an easy fix.</span></p> <p><strong>How to change your phone number on Facebook</strong></p> <ol> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Log into Facebook on a computer and click on the arrow in the top-right corner of your home page. Click on “Settings”.</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Select “Mobile” on the left side.</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">If your account isn’t connected to a phone number, you can add one from this section via the “+ Add a Phone” section.</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">If you already have a phone number, you can click on “+ Add another mobile phone number” to add another number.</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Enter your number and select if you’d like Facebook to confirm the number with a text message or with a call and click “Continue”.</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Enter the confirmation code you receive from Facebook and click “Confirm”.</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">You can remove a phone number on Facebook by clicking the “Remove” button below the number you want to delete.</span></li> </ol> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Easy!</span></p>

Technology

Placeholder Content Image

Three evolutionary perks of singing

<p>We’re enjoying the one time of year when protests of “I can’t sing!” are laid aside and we sing carols with others. For some this is a once-a-year special event; the rest of the year is left to the professionals to handle the singing (except, perhaps, some alone time in the shower or car).</p> <p>Music – and singing in particular, as the oldest and only ubiquitous form of music creation – plays a central role in our lives and shared community experiences, and this has been true for every culture for as far back as we can trace our <a href="http://msx.sagepub.com/content/12/1_suppl/147.short">human ancestors</a>.</p> <p>So does singing in a group provide specific and tangible benefits, or is it merely a curious ability that provides entertainment through creative expression?</p> <p>This is a question currently of great interest to evolutionary theorists, linguists, psychologists and musicologists. The debate took off when psychologist <a href="http://stevenpinker.com/biocv">Steven Pinker</a> stated his opinion that music is a spandrel – a useless evolutionary by-product of another, useful, trait. In this case, he <a href="http://pinker.wjh.harvard.edu/articles/media/1998_02_07_independentsunday.html">suggested</a> that music is a spandrel of language development, providing no advantage and serving no purpose.</p> <p>There are strong links between music and language development, although there is no consensus on the actual nature of the relationship. <a href="http://books.google.com.au/books?hl=en&amp;lr=&amp;id=5N-5ufxUuJkC&amp;oi=fnd&amp;pg=PR7&amp;dq=mithen+language+music&amp;ots=Nmz7BqWOGN&amp;sig=cORWFrjZRXp0u0foYweaNXpVgsA&amp;redir_esc=y#v=onepage&amp;q=mithen%20language%20music&amp;f=false">Arguments</a> include theories that:</p> <ul> <li>language developed from music</li> <li>music sprang from language</li> <li>they both developed from a proto-language that was musical in nature</li> <li>they developed concurrently.</li> </ul> <p>A <a href="http://pom.sagepub.com/content/33/3/269.short">strong body</a> of <a href="http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/intellect/jaah/2010/00000001/00000001/art00003">research</a> conducted with choirs indicates that membership has many benefits to individual wellbeing and physical health. It is possible these effects are due to people – the singers – participating in something they enjoy doing. Or, there may be something more elemental taking place.<span class="attribution"><a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/" class="license"></a></span></p> <p>If these findings are viewed through an evolutionary lens, though, there is compelling evidence that music making provided some very specific benefits for our ancestors. Specifically, there are three theories which have been proposed that, if true, may explain these effects while suggesting that group singing is still beneficial to all:</p> <ol> <li>singing creates a shared emotional experience</li> <li>singing increases social bonding</li> <li>singing improves cognitive function.</li> </ol> <p><strong>Sing us a song, you’re the hominid</strong></p> <p>Our hominid ancestors used music to create <a href="http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/40285265?uid=2&amp;uid=4&amp;sid=21105364197793">shared emotional experiences</a>. This would have been particularly important for early hominids struggling to survive, because emotions serve as a kind of “red flag” to our cognitive processing systems, signalling that something critical requires attention.</p> <p>Emotions prioritise the many options that we may have at any given time, and reduces “data overload” from the bombardment of senses that we experience. Hominids, like many other primates, could have developed very small social groups, or even no social groups.</p> <p>But the ability for a large group to work cooperatively together was more advantageous than individuals attempting to survive alone. In order to cooperate, individuals needed to subsume their individual priorities for action, and learn to delay gratification so that the good of the group could take precedence (such as forgoing eating or sleeping in order to build a shelter). Group singing likely provided a rewarding, positive activity where emotional empathy could be developed.</p> <p>We know that interacting with music today is, for <a href="https://theconversation.com/video-why-some-people-just-dont-like-music-28605">almost everyone</a>, both an emotional and overwhelmingly positive experience. Music is also used to reinforce positive moods and manage negative moods. Adolescents regularly use music as an effective <a href="http://pom.sagepub.com/content/35/1/88.short">mood regulator</a>.</p> <p>Others put music to targeted purposes; many athletes use music to put them in a mood state that supports peak performance (and research shows it to be an <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25202850">effective strategy</a>). Music’s ability to change or reinforce a mood relies on the same principle of emotion contagion.</p> <p><strong>Social significance</strong></p> <p>Second, music engagement would likely have led to increased <a href="http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4615-1221-9_9#page-1">pro-social behaviours</a>. This would be supported by a shared emotional state, which relies on empathic skills (empathy) to spread.</p> <p>But music is also at the centre of where we first learn to be sociable – in the <a href="http://msx.sagepub.com/content/3/1_suppl/29.short">mother-infant bond</a>. Infants are mesmerised by their mothers’ infant-directed singing. It is a communication tool between mother and infant, and is highly companionable in nature.<span class="attribution"><a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/" class="license"></a></span></p> <p>Listening to a mother sing has an immediate and profound impact on an infant’s arousal and attention, including physical responses. These musical communications are highly effective despite the infant not understanding the linguistics involved. They are also universal; lullabies are recognisable as such in virtually <a href="http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/pmu/10/2/73/">every culture</a> on Earth.</p> <p>There are strong indications that group music making and social behaviours are still linked today. Individuals with <a href="http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/40300863?uid=2&amp;uid=4&amp;sid=21105364472083">Williams Syndrome</a>, in addition to profound cognitive deficits, are known for both their love of music and their incredible sociability.</p> <p>Music therapy has been shown to reliably <a href="http://summaries.cochrane.org/CD004381/BEHAV_music-therapy-for-people-with-autism-spectrum-disorder">improve social behaviours</a> in individuals on the autism spectrum. Choir members consistently report that <a href="http://rsh.sagepub.com/content/121/4/248.short">social bonds</a> are one of the primary benefits of choir membership.</p> <p>More experimental studies indicate that instrumental jazz musicians use the <a href="http://www.ted.com/talks/charles_limb_your_brain_on_improv?language=en">communication centres</a> of their brains when coordinating play, and that guitarists and even audience members experience synchronised brain waves when a duet is played (see video below).</p> <div class="embed-responsive embed-responsive-16by9"><iframe class="embed-responsive-item" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/DQwDVf3ydUM"></iframe></div> <p>Studies also show that musical interactions increase both <a href="http://pom.sagepub.com/content/41/4/484.short">empathy</a> and <a href="http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1090513810000462">pro-social behaviours</a> in children.</p> <p>Taken together, the evidence points to a strong link between co-creation of music and improved social bonding.</p> <p><strong>Getting ahead</strong></p> <p>Finally, evolutionary theorists argue that it was their musicality that allowed hominids to develop what is known as the “<a href="http://www.sciencemag.org/content/317/5843/1344.short">social brain</a>”, while others argue that the complex brain we enjoy today developed to keep track of large social networks. It may have been a bit of both.</p> <p>By creating a shared emotional experience and increasing members’ pro-social behaviours, group singing supported complex social networks. Tracking and managing complex social networks may have led to the development of the neocortex. This brain region supports the suite of abilities known as <a href="http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/executive+function">executive function</a>, which provide the skills necessary to make and implement long-term plans.</p> <p>It also supports cognitive flexibility, which is a style of fluid cognition that allows humans to successfully pair concepts that don’t generally go together, resulting in creative, insightful, and elegant ideas and solutions.</p> <p>We already know that a positive mood state <a href="http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1057740801703129">supports</a> cognitive flexibility, while stress and anxiety act as <a href="http://www.mitpressjournals.org/doi/abs/10.1162/jocn.2007.19.3.468#.VI6nV3s2V4M">inhibitors</a>. Co-creating music may support improved cognitive skills through other pathways as well, although these links have not been explored.</p> <p>Of course all theories concerning the use of music by early hominid groups is conjecture, resting on the scant pieces of evidence the fossil record leaves us as well as what we know about our own musicality today. But the questions are important, because it can inform us about our own relationship to music.</p> <p>If the theories outlined here are correct, it may benefit us both as individuals and as a community to normalise and promote music co-creation. Participating in singing ought to be more than a once-a-year activity.<!-- Below is The Conversation's page counter tag. Please DO NOT REMOVE. --><img style="border: none !important; box-shadow: none !important; margin: 0 !important; max-height: 1px !important; max-width: 1px !important; min-height: 1px !important; min-width: 1px !important; opacity: 0 !important; outline: none !important; padding: 0 !important; text-shadow: none !important;" src="https://counter.theconversation.com/content/35367/count.gif?distributor=republish-lightbox-basic" alt="The Conversation" width="1" height="1" /><!-- End of code. If you don't see any code above, please get new code from the Advanced tab after you click the republish button. The page counter does not collect any personal data. More info: http://theconversation.com/republishing-guidelines --></p> <p><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/susan-maury-147257">Susan Maury</a>, PhD candidate in Psychology, <a href="http://theconversation.com/institutions/monash-university-1065">Monash University</a></em></p> <p><em>This article is republished from <a href="http://theconversation.com">The Conversation</a> under a Creative Commons license. Read the <a href="https://theconversation.com/all-together-now-three-evolutionary-perks-of-singing-35367">original article</a>.</em></p>

Music

Placeholder Content Image

Scientists create first ever living programmable organism

<p>A remarkable combination of artificial intelligence (AI) and biology has produced the world’s first “living robots”.</p> <p>This week, a research team of roboticists and scientists <a href="https://www.pnas.org/content/early/2020/01/07/1910837117">published</a> their recipe for making a new lifeform called xenobots from stem cells. The term “xeno” comes from the frog cells (<em>Xenopus laevis</em>) used to make them.</p> <p>One of the researchers <a href="https://www.forbes.com/sites/simonchandler/2020/01/14/worlds-first-living-robot-invites-new-opportunities-and-risks/#379ef46c3caf">described the creation</a> as “neither a traditional robot nor a known species of animal”, but a “new class of artifact: a living, programmable organism”.</p> <p>Xenobots are less than 1mm long and made of 500-1000 living cells. They have various simple shapes, including some with squat “legs”. They can propel themselves in linear or circular directions, join together to act collectively, and move small objects. Using their own cellular energy, they can live up to 10 days.</p> <div class="embed-responsive embed-responsive-16by9"><iframe class="embed-responsive-item" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/M18nPjLZrMA"></iframe></div> <p>While these “reconfigurable biomachines” could vastly improve human, animal, and environmental health, they raise legal and ethical concerns.</p> <p><strong>Strange new ‘creature’</strong></p> <p>To make xenobots, the research team used a supercomputer to test thousands of random designs of simple living things that could perform certain tasks.</p> <p>The computer was programmed with an AI “evolutionary algorithm” to predict which organisms would likely display useful tasks, such as moving towards a target.</p> <p>After the selection of the most promising designs, the scientists attempted to replicate the virtual models with frog skin or heart cells, which were manually joined using microsurgery tools. The heart cells in these bespoke assemblies contract and relax, giving the organisms motion.</p> <p>The creation of xenobots is groundbreaking.</p> <p>Despite being described as “programmable living robots”, they are actually completely organic and made of living tissue. The term “robot” has been used because xenobots can be configured into different forms and shapes, and “programmed” to target certain objects – which they then unwittingly seek.</p> <p>They can also repair themselves after being damaged.</p> <p><strong>Possible applications</strong></p> <p>Xenobots may have great value.</p> <p><a href="https://www.technologyreview.com/f/615041/these-xenobots-are-living-machines-designed-by-an-evolutionary-algorithm/">Some speculate</a> they could be used to clean our polluted oceans by collecting microplastics.</p> <p>Similarly, they may be used to enter confined or dangerous areas to scavenge toxins or radioactive materials.</p> <p>Xenobots designed with carefully shaped “pouches” might be able to carry drugs into human bodies.</p> <p>Future versions may be built from a patient’s own cells to repair tissue or target cancers. Being biodegradable, xenobots would have an edge on technologies made of plastic or metal.</p> <p>Further development of biological “robots” could accelerate our understanding of living and robotic systems. Life is incredibly complex, so manipulating living things could reveal some of life’s mysteries — and improve our use of AI.</p> <p><strong>Legal and ethical questions</strong></p> <p>Conversely, xenobots raise legal and ethical concerns. In the same way they could help target cancers, they could also be used to hijack life functions for malevolent purposes.</p> <p>Some argue artificially making living things is unnatural, hubristic, or involves “playing God”.</p> <p>A more compelling concern is that of unintended or malicious use, as we have seen with technologies in fields including nuclear physics, chemistry, biology and AI.</p> <p>For instance, xenobots might be used for hostile biological purposes prohibited under international law.</p> <p>More advanced future xenobots, especially ones that live longer and reproduce, could potentially “malfunction” and go rogue, and out-compete other species.</p> <p>For complex tasks, xenobots may need sensory and nervous systems, possibly resulting in their sentience. A sentient programmed organism would raise additional ethical questions. Last year, the revival of a disembodied pig brain <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-019-01216-4">elicited concerns about different species’ suffering</a>.</p> <p><strong>Managing risks</strong></p> <p>The xenobot’s creators have rightly acknowledged the need for discussion around the ethics of their creation.</p> <p>The 2018 scandal over using CRISPR (which allows the introduction of genes into an organism) may provide an instructive lesson <a href="https://www.technologyreview.com/s/614761/nature-jama-rejected-he-jiankui-crispr-baby-lulu-nana-paper/">here</a>. While the experiment’s goal was to reduce the susceptibility of twin baby girls to HIV-AIDS, associated risks caused ethical dismay. The scientist in question <a href="https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/dec/30/gene-editing-chinese-scientist-he-jiankui-jailed-three-years">is in prison</a>.</p> <p>When CRISPR became widely available, some experts called for a <a href="https://www.theguardian.com/science/2019/mar/13/scientists-call-for-global-moratorium-on-crispr-gene-editing">moratorium</a> on heritable genome editing. Others <a href="https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/crispr.2019.0016?utm_source=miragenews&amp;utm_medium=miragenews&amp;utm_campaign=news&amp;">argued</a> the benefits outweighed the risks.</p> <p>While each new technology should be considered impartially and based on its merits, giving life to xenobots raises certain significant questions:</p> <ol> <li>Should xenobots have biological kill-switches in case they go rogue?</li> <li>Who should decide who can access and control them?</li> <li>What if “homemade” xenobots become possible? Should there be a moratorium until regulatory frameworks are established? How much regulation is required?</li> </ol> <p>Lessons learned in the past from advances in other areas of science could help manage future risks, while reaping the possible benefits.</p> <p><strong>Long road here, long road ahead</strong></p> <p>The creation of xenobots had various biological and robotic precedents. Genetic engineering has created genetically modified mice that become <a href="http://www.understandinganimalresearch.org.uk/news/research-medical-benefits/glowing-mice/">fluorescent</a> in UV light.</p> <p><a href="https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/1/4/e1500077">Designer microbes</a> can produce drugs and food ingredients that may eventually <a href="https://solarfoods.fi/">replace animal agriculture</a>.</p> <p>In 2012, scientists created an <a href="https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/brainwaves/what-would-it-take-to-really-build-an-artificial-jellyfish">artificial jellyfish</a> called a “medusoid” from rat cells.</p> <p>Robotics is also flourishing.</p> <p>Nanobots can <a href="http://news.mit.edu/2013/nanotechnology-could-help-fight-diabetes-0516">monitor people’s blood sugar levels</a> and may eventually be able to <a href="https://www.smithsonianmag.com/innovation/tiny-robots-can-clear-clogged-arteries-180955774/">clear clogged arteries</a>.</p> <p>Robots can incorporate living matter, which we witnessed when engineers and biologists created a <a href="https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2016/07/robotic-stingray-powered-light-activated-muscle-cells">sting-ray robot</a> powered by light-activated cells.</p> <p>In the coming years, we are sure to see more creations like xenobots that evoke both wonder and due concern. And when we do, it is important we remain both open-minded and critical.<!-- Below is The Conversation's page counter tag. Please DO NOT REMOVE. --><img style="border: none !important; box-shadow: none !important; margin: 0 !important; max-height: 1px !important; max-width: 1px !important; min-height: 1px !important; min-width: 1px !important; opacity: 0 !important; outline: none !important; padding: 0 !important; text-shadow: none !important;" src="https://counter.theconversation.com/content/129980/count.gif?distributor=republish-lightbox-basic" alt="The Conversation" width="1" height="1" /><!-- End of code. If you don't see any code above, please get new code from the Advanced tab after you click the republish button. The page counter does not collect any personal data. More info: http://theconversation.com/republishing-guidelines --></p> <p><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/simon-coghlan-108606">Simon Coghlan</a>, Senior Research Fellow in Digital Ethics, School of Computing and Information Systems, <a href="http://theconversation.com/institutions/university-of-melbourne-722">University of Melbourne</a> and <a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/kobi-leins-939980">Kobi Leins</a>, Senior Research Fellow in Digital Ethics, <a href="http://theconversation.com/institutions/university-of-melbourne-722">University of Melbourne</a></em></p> <p><em>This article is republished from <a href="http://theconversation.com">The Conversation</a> under a Creative Commons license. Read the <a href="https://theconversation.com/not-bot-not-beast-scientists-create-first-ever-living-programmable-organism-129980">original article</a>.</em></p>

Technology