beauty & Style

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How 19th century ideas influenced today’s attitudes to women’s beauty

<p>In the 19th century, a range of thinkers attempted to pinpoint exactly what it was that made a woman beautiful. Newly popular women’s magazines began to promote ideas about the right behaviours, attitudes, and daily routines required to produce and maintain beauty.</p> <p>The scientific classification of plants and animals - influenced by Charles Darwin - also shaped thinking about beauty. It was seen to be definable, like a plant type or animal species. Increasingly, sophisticated knowledge of medicine and anatomy and the association of beauty with health also saw physicians weigh into the debate.</p> <p>A look at three significant books that focused on beauty shows several influential ideas. These include the classification of distinct beauty types, the perception of “natural” beauty as superior to the “artificial”, and the eventual acceptance of beauty as something that each woman should try to cultivate through a daily regimen of self-care.</p> <p><strong>Classifying beauty types</strong></p> <p>Alexander Walker, a Scottish physiologist, wrote three books on the subject of “woman”. The first was <a href="https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011616485">Beauty; Illustrated Chiefly by an Analysis and Classification of Beauty in Women</a>. Here, Walker focuses on women’s beauty because he suggests it is “best calculated to ensure attention from men”. He assumes that men have the power to choose sexual partners in a way that women do not, therefore men have a crucial responsibility “to ameliorate the species”.</p> <p>Given that one of its key functions is to signal fertility, a woman’s appearance is therefore not a frivolous topic. It is linked to the development of humanity.</p> <p>Walker defines three types or “species” of female beauty: locomotive, nutritive, and thinking. These types derive from a knowledge of anatomy and each is related to one of the bodily “systems”.</p> <p>The locomotive or mechanical system is highly developed in women with “precise, striking, and brilliant” bodies. The nutritive or vital system is evident in the “soft and voluptuous”. The thinking or mental system is conducive to a figure “characterised by intellectuality and grace”.</p> <p>Walker’s ideal is the mental or thinking beauty. She has less pronounced breasts and curves and admirable inner qualities that are evident in her “intensely expressive eye”.</p> <p>Not coincidentally, he understands intelligence to predominate in men. Walker’s ideal thinking beauty is effectively most like his idea of a man in contrast to the locomotive beauty (connected with the lower classes) and the nutritive beauty (primed to have children).</p> <p><strong>“Firm and elastic” breasts</strong></p> <p>Daniel Garrison Brinton was an army surgeon in the American Civil War. He later became a professor of ethnology and archaeology and edited The Medical and Surgical Reporter. In 1870, he and medical editor George Henry Napheys published <a href="https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011601289">Personal Beauty: How to Cultivate and Preserve it in Accordance with the Laws of Health</a>.</p> <p>The book proposes ideal measurements for areas such as the forehead and the most distinctive features of the female body. Breasts are viewed as essential to beauty and the ideal they describe is youthful, with “firm and elastic” tissue that forms “true hemispheres in shape”.</p> <p>Very specific distances between nipples, the collar bone, and between the breasts themselves are specified, setting out perfect proportions.</p> <p>Brinton and Napheys claim that few European and American women meet these requirements, owing to the “artificial life” adopted in both locations. Controversially, they remark that such breasts do not exist in America, apart from in “some vigorous young country girl, who has grown up in ignorance of the arts which thwart nature”. The idea that beauty was more often destroyed by “artificial” beauty methods than improved by it was predominant.</p> <p>Personal Beauty promotes a device for improving the shape of the breast through suction because it meets the criteria for “natural” improvement. It is described similarly to <a href="https://www.amazon.ca/Lovely-Exercise-Muscle-Massager-nl-argement/dp/B07PQQSPWV">breast enlargement pumps</a> that are sold today as an alternative to breast augmentation.</p> <p>Brinton and Napheys’ reference to the potential of such a device to “restore the organs in great measure to their proper shape, size, and function” suggests they are referring to breasts that may have lost their fullness and symmetry after breastfeeding.</p> <p>It is unclear how such a device would not only improve the shapeliness of breasts, but also render them “better adapted to fulfil their functions”. However, the notion that function, which is reliant on health, is essential to beauty helps to support a medicalised understanding of the topic.</p> <p><strong>Beauty destroyed</strong></p> <p>This emphasis on health contributes to a tendency to focus on the ways that women destroy their own beauty through clothing, cosmetics, or certain types of exercise. A specific target in this book is the wearing of garters below the knee, which the authors claim is the reason why a “handsome leg is a rarity, we had almost said an impossibility, among American women”.</p> <p>Tightly-laced corsets, sucked-upon lips, and white face powders are frowned upon for potential harms to health. Yet, as doctors, Brinton and Napheys embrace early manifestations of cosmetic surgery, such as the removal of skin that might hang over the eyes.</p> <p>A significant point in guiding the acceptability of cosmetic usage is whether such a practice appears natural and undetectable. Imitation itself is not described as distasteful, if it can be achieved convincingly, but “the failure in the attempt at imitation” does inspire revulsion.</p> <p>As such, a wig that meshes with a women’s age and appearance can be acceptable. In contrast, it is “contrary to all good taste” to “give to the top of the head an air of juvenility which is flatly contradicted by all other parts of the person”.</p> <p>Personal Beauty focuses on preventative measures for retaining beauty and delaying the visible onset of ageing, rather than remedying flaws once they have taken hold. The book ultimately concludes that if all the measures recommended are undertaken, “there will be little need for the purely venal cosmetic arts, such as paint, powder, patches, or rouge”.</p> <p><strong>Embracing beauty culture</strong></p> <p>This understanding of cosmetics as pure reflections of vanity and as separate from beauty practices related to health was gradually challenged by women writers towards the end of the 19th century.</p> <p>Eliza Haweis wrote about the decoration and stylistic adornment of the home and body in British magazines and a series of books, the first of which was <a href="https://archive.org/details/artofbeauty00hawe/page/n10">The Art of Beauty </a>(1878). Its premise is that personal beauty and adornment of the body is of “the first interest and importance” for women.</p> <p>Many beauty manuals warned against any significant attempts to alter the face or body beyond basic health and hygiene. Such practices, <a href="https://muse.jhu.edu/article/663140/summary">as academic Sarah Lennox suggests</a>, were seen as “objectionable — as a hiding of inner truth”. Haweis, however, encourages young women to enhance their beauty and older women to continue to use methods that “conceal its fading away”.</p> <p>The methods that Haweis advocates reproduce prevalent ideas found in women’s magazines and beauty manuals that discouraged any visible sign of artifice and which championed the “natural”.</p> <p>Hygienic and cosmetic intervention are framed as exposing or fostering physical qualities as they ought to be seen, or providing a delicate “veil” for flaws, rather than attempting to entirely transform them.</p> <p>However, Haweis goes further than many beauty advisors at the time. Unlike many male writers, she is not opposed to cosmetics. She likens their use in “hiding defects of complexion, or touching the face with pink or white” to adding padding to a dress, piercing ears, or undergoing cosmetic dentistry.</p> <p>Part of the reason Haweis supports cosmetics and other methods of improving the appearance is because she observes that ugly people are treated differently.</p> <p>Walker sees beauty as a sign of higher intelligence. Many publications at the time presented a similar line of reasoning in suggesting that mean-spirited and nasty individuals would age horribly.</p> <p>Haweis, however, is unique in her entertainment of the possibility of ugliness negatively influencing character. She proposes that “an immense number of ill-tempered ugly women are ill-tempered because they are ugly”. She acknowledges that ugliness is in fact an “impediment” and a “burden”, which thereby supports her call to all women to work to improve their appearance.</p> <p><strong>Beauty today</strong></p> <p>Our understanding of what makes a woman beautiful is influenced by dominant cultural beliefs and hierarchies. Though Walker’s physiological beauty types were replaced by acceptance of the idea that women can retain beauty into older age or remedy unappealing features, many historic precepts about beauty continue to influence modern beauty culture.</p> <p>Ideas about “natural” beauty as superior to “artificial” beauty are reflected in cosmetic advertisements and plastic surgery procedures, with a “natural” or “undetectable” look to any product, facelift, or implant being the desired outcome for many women.</p> <p>Most of all, the idea that beauty is of prime importance to girls and women remains predominant, even as the cultural conditions surrounding marriage, employment, and family have substantially transformed since the 19th century.</p> <p>Haweis’ ideas about the significance of self-care resonate with contemporary feminists who point to women’s pleasure and empowered use of cosmetics.</p> <p>We have recently seen the emergence of male beauty bloggers and YouTubers. However, the continued sense that beauty is largely women’s preserve and a unique form of power that requires a continual fight to keep shows how an emphasis on women’s physical appearance is still entwined with gender inequality.</p> <p><em>Written by Michelle Smith. Republished with permission of </em><a href="https://theconversation.com/friday-essay-how-19th-century-ideas-influenced-todays-attitudes-to-womens-beauty-111529"><em>The Conversation</em></a><em>.</em></p>

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Laser hair removal: Here’s everything you need to know

<p><a href="https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/conditionsandtreatments/hirsutism-excessive-hair-women">Unwanted facial and body hair</a> can affect the way we feel, our social interactions, what we wear and what we do.</p> <p>Options to camouflage or remove unwanted hair include plucking, shaving, bleaching, using creams and epilation (using a device that pulls out multiple hairs at once).</p> <p>Longer-term options include electrolysis, which uses an electrical current to destroy individual hair follicles, and laser therapy.</p> <p>So what is <a href="https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1468-3083.2005.01327.x">laser therapy</a>? What can it achieve? And what are the side-effects?</p> <p><strong>How does laser treatment work?</strong></p> <p><a href="https://www.sciencenewsforstudents.org/article/explainer-what-laser">Lasers</a> emit a wavelength of light with a specific single colour. When targeted to the skin, the energy from the light is transferred to the <a href="https://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=4340">skin and hair pigment melanin</a>. This heats up and damages the surrounding tissue.</p> <p>But to remove hair permanently and to minimise damage to the surrounding tissue, the laser needs to be targeted to specific cells. These are the hair follicle stem cells, which sit in part of the hair known as the hair bulge.</p> <p>As the skin surface also contains melanin, which we want to avoid damaging, people are carefully shaved before treatment.</p> <p><strong>Will it remove hair permanently?</strong></p> <p>Laser treatment can either permanently reduce the density of the hair or permanently remove unwanted hair.</p> <p>Permanent reduction in hair density means some hairs will regrow after a single course of therapy and patients will need ongoing laser treatment.</p> <p>Permanent hair removal means none of the hairs in the treated area will regrow after a single course of therapy and no ongoing laser therapy is needed.</p> <p>Whether hair is removed permanently or just reduced in density is influenced by:</p> <ul> <li>The colour and thickness of the hairs being treated</li> <li>The colour of the patient’s skin</li> <li>The type and quality of the laser used, and</li> <li>The competence and training of the person operating the laser.</li> </ul> <p>However, if you have grey hairs, which have no melanin pigmentation, currently available lasers don’t work.</p> <p><strong>How many treatments will I need?</strong></p> <p>The number of treatments you’ll need depends on your <a href="https://www.arpansa.gov.au/sites/default/files/legacy/pubs/RadiationProtection/FitzpatrickSkinType.pdf">Fitzpatrick skin type</a>. This classifies your skin by colour, its sun sensitivity and its likelihood to tan.</p> <p>Pale or white skin, burns easily, rarely tans (Fitzpatrick types 1 and 2) People with dark hair can usually achieve permanent hair removal with 4-6 treatments every 4-6 weeks. People with fair hair will generally only achieve permanent hair reduction and after an initial course of treatment may need 6-12 treatments a month apart.</p> <p>Light brown skin, sometimes burns, slowly tans to light brown (type 3) People with dark hair can usually achieve permanent hair removal with 6-10 treatments every 4-6 weeks. People with fair hair will generally only achieve permanent hair reduction and after an initial course of treatment may require 3-6 repeat treatments a month apart.</p> <p>Moderate brown to dark brown skin, rarely burns, tans well or to moderate brown (type 4 and 5) People with dark hair can usually achieve permanent hair reduction with 6-10 treatments every 4-6 weeks. Maintenance will usually be required with 3-6 monthly repeat treatments. People with fair hair are unlikely to respond.</p> <p>Re-treatments must be long enough apart to allow new hair growth to reach the level of the bulge.</p> <p><strong>What side effects or complications should I be aware of?</strong></p> <p>You will be advised to wear goggles during the treatment to prevent eye injury.</p> <p>You will also experience some pain during treatment, especially the first few. This is mainly due to not removing all hair in the area to be treated before the procedure. Hairs missed while shaving absorb laser energy and heat the skin surface. There is less pain with repeat treatments at regular intervals.</p> <p>Your skin will feel hot for 15-30 minutes after laser treatment. There may be redness and swelling for up to 24 hours.</p> <p>More serious side effects include blisters, too much or too little skin pigmentation, or permanent scarring.</p> <p>These generally occur in people with a recent suntan and the laser settings have not been adjusted. Alternatively, these side-effects can occur when patients are taking <a href="http://www.webstercare.com.au/files/Continuing_Education_March_2015.pdf">medications</a>that affect their skin’s response to sunlight.</p> <p><strong>Does the type of laser matter?</strong></p> <p>The type of laser not only influences how well it works, it influences your chance of side-effects.</p> <p>Lasers suitable for hair removal include: <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10759801">long-pulse ruby lasers</a>, <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1090820X05000828">long-pulse alexandrite lasers</a>, <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12766964">long pulse diode lasers</a> and <a href="https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamadermatology/fullarticle/478428">long-pulse Nd:YAG lasers</a>.</p> <p>Intense pulsed light (IPL) devices are not laser devices but flash lamps that emits multiple wavebands of light simultaneously. They work in a similar way to lasers, albeit less effectively and they are much less likely to permanently remove hair.</p> <p>To minimise the risk of damage to melanin producing cells on the skin surface, the choice of laser and how it’s used can be matched to your skin type.</p> <p>Fair skinned people with dark hair can use an IPL device, an alexandrite laser or a diode laser; people with dark skin and dark hair can use a Nd:YAG or diode laser; and people with blond or red hair can use a diode laser.</p> <p>To control the spread of heat and unwanted tissue damage, short laser pulses are used. The energy of the laser is also adjusted: it needs to be high enough to damage the bulge cells but not so high to cause discomfort or burns.</p> <p><strong>Can I buy a home laser device and do it myself?</strong></p> <p>Home laser devices and IPL home devices are available in Australia and cost between $200 and $1,000. But they don’t tend to work as well and you need to use them repeatedly to maintain hair reduction.</p> <p>Parameters are only set for people with fair skin (Fitzpatrick types 1 and 2) and dark hair. For safety, energy settings are capped. And in inexperienced hands, <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20625788">complications</a> may still arise. This includes burns, pain, blistering and changes to skin pigmentation.</p> <p>By contrast, medical grade lasers must be registered with the government regulator, the <a href="https://www.tga.gov.au/can-i-import-ithttps:/www.tga.gov.au/can-i-import-it">Therapeutic Goods Administration</a>. There are also national and state-based regulations about the <a href="https://www.arpansa.gov.au/understanding-radiation/radiation-sources/more-radiation-sources/lasers">facility</a> where the laser is used, <a href="https://www.lasersafetyonline.com.au/">compulsory laser safety training requirements</a> and state-based qualifications and licensing for laser operators.</p> <p>So, a safe and regulated laser in the hands of a skilled professional is recommended.</p> <p><strong>When to see your GP</strong></p> <p>Not all excess hair is cause for concern. But severe <a href="https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/conditionsandtreatments/hirsutism-excessive-hair-women">hirsuitism</a> (excess growth of dark and coarse hair over areas of the body where it ordinarily wouldn’t grow) or <a href="https://www.dermnetnz.org/topics/hypertrichosis/">hypertrichosis</a>(excess hair growth for someone’s age, sex or race) can be clues to underlying illness.</p> <p>Hirsutism, especially when associated with symptoms including irregular periods or acne, can be caused by <a href="https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1586/edm.11.45?scroll=top&amp;needAccess=true">extra androgen hormones</a>. Hypertrichosis later in life can be a sign of malignancy.</p> <p>Your GP can investigate these.</p> <p><em>Written by Rodney Sinclair. Republished with permission of </em><a href="https://theconversation.com/thinking-of-laser-hair-removal-heres-what-you-need-to-know-113561"><em>The Conversation</em></a><em>.</em></p>

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Why we shouldn’t fear ageing

<p>Ageing. It’s just an adjective. So why do we fear it?</p> <p>The little “-ing” at the end of the word implies that ageing is a process that must come to an end at some point. But does it? Does it ever end? Of course we die – hopefully later rather than sooner – but between birth and then we obsess about this unavoidable process.</p> <p>If we think about it practically, ageing begins the moment we are born and doesn’t stop until we take our last breath. It’s a biological process that we absolutely cannot prevent. Nor should we! Without ageing, we don’t mature, physically or emotionally. Without ageing, we don’t fall in love, enjoy that first glass of wine or understand the true beauty of things around us.</p> <p>Why, then, do we think we’re entitled to a world of knowledge and wisdom and a face free of wrinkles, laugh lines and crow’s feet? </p> <p>As a society, we are in denial about ageing: what it means, how it looks and the fact that it’s an inevitable part of the human condition. Our culture is incredibly youth-driven, despite the fact that the over-50 crowd has more purchasing power than the baby-faced young people driving the purchasing agenda.</p> <p>Magical creams, surgical procedures and hopeful voodoo aside, it’s important to understand the benefits of ageing. Those benefits tend to get lost in the never-ending search for youth. Betty Friedan said, “Ageing is not ‘lost youth’ but a new stage of opportunity and strength.”</p> <p>My money is on Betty, and I am now working consciously on knowing that the ageing process is a rich source of growth and ultimately joy.</p> <p>Most people have a tendency to live in the past or the future – what could or should have been and what might be. As important as it is to learn lessons from the past, the only way to grow is to live in the now and focus on what is. Staying present to what is happening right in front of you is the only path to joy.</p> <p>And guess what? The ageing process allows us to keep practising this over and over again. </p> <p>Great things happen when we are comfortable in our skins, as wrinkly they may be. We truly come into our own when we shake off society’s expectations of what we should be as “older” women and simply become our real selves. We can then tap into our life’s purpose and revitalise the dreams of our youth, which may have been hijacked by the expectations of parents, partners and children.</p> <p>Inspiration and creativity flow when we are focused on simply being ourselves. When we are thinking about the problems of ageing – what isn’t working and might break down in future – then we lose sight of the many opportunities sitting under our noses. </p> <p>If we can find our way to a position of gratitude and make this a part of everyday life, then we will have unlocked a sustainable state of joy. In our later years, we can aim to reduce the incessant and useless mental noise all around us and instead recognise and appreciate the very small things that make such a large difference in our lives.  </p> <p>When we are young, we believe we are invincible and tend to focus on the big picture of our lives. We are so busy we don’t notice the way a butterfly dances around a flower or how intoxicating a freshly brewed cup of coffee smells. </p> <p>Age gives us time: Time to focus. Time to appreciate. Time to grow. Why not embrace it? Ageing can be the ultimate source of joy – if you let it.</p> <p><em>Written by Kate Marie. Republished with permission of </em><a href="https://www.wyza.com.au/articles/lifestyle/in-praise-of/in-praise-of-ageing.aspx"><em>Wyza</em></a><em>.</em></p>

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Wimbledon's chicest pair: Duchess Kate and Duchess Meghan's winning looks

<p>Royal fans were treated to an extremely rare outing by the Duchess of Cambridge, Duchess of Sussex and Pippa Middleton for the Wimbledon women’s single final of 2019.</p> <p>It’s the second time both Duchess Kate and Duchess Meghan have attended the event together and this year was made all the more special as they watched and cheered Serena Williams on alongside Duchess Kate’s sister, Pippa.</p> <blockquote class="twitter-tweet" data-lang="en"> <p dir="ltr">kate and meghan greeting the duke of kent ❤️ <a href="https://t.co/JkxpPee68Q">pic.twitter.com/JkxpPee68Q</a></p> — barb (@daernerys) <a href="https://twitter.com/daernerys/status/1150094351470604289?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">July 13, 2019</a></blockquote> <p>While it is not the first time the royals have spent a day out together, it is not often the public get to see the duo out and about – <a rel="noopener" href="https://www.oversixty.com.au/news/news/archie-s-first-official-outing-the-royal-babies-steal-the-spotlight-from-their-dads" target="_blank">especially just days after a fun day out with family</a> at the polo.</p> <p>The Duchess of Cambridge donned a Dolce &amp; Gabbana green crepe dress with a row of gold buttons and simple bow. The gorgeous frock is recycled by the royal – worn back in 2017 during a visit to Vancouver. However, this time the stunning, figure-hugging outfit was paired with a Dolce Sicily shoulder bag, adding a perfect touch to the regal look.</p> <p><span>The Duchess of Sussex looked equally as beautiful in a chic tennis look for the special outing with her sister-in-law and Pippa. The royal wore a crisp white Givenchy shirt and a blue and white patterned skirt from Hugo Boss, which featured a stroke print and gorgeous plissé pleats. The new mother to Archie added classic touches from her elegant jewellery to sleek pulled back hair, but this time she added a micro bag – a cream Stella McCartney Grace clutch.</span></p> <p>Earlier this week, the Duchess Meghan was spotted cheering on her close friend Serena Williams in a surprisingly casual yet chic ensemble – a white blazer, black top, jeans and a thick rimmed pair of sunnies.</p> <p>A body language expert deemed the royal members to be like “three sisters sitting together” alongside Pippa.</p> <p>Judi James told <a rel="noopener" href="https://www.thesun.co.uk/fabulous/9500171/kate-meghan-wanted-appear-friendly-wimbledon/" target="_blank"><em>The Sun’s Fabulous</em></a>: “Sitting Meghan in between Kate and Pippa looks like a very active attempt to both host her and include her in a way that hasn't quite occurred since she married Harry."</p> <p>James added, “There is a lot of eye contact between the sisters-in-law here too, which, along with the laughter, should be seen as a sign they want to be seen as friendly together.”</p> <p>Scroll through the gallery above to see the Duchess of Cambridge and Duchess of Sussex’s special day out together.</p> <p>To end her Wimbledon style streak, Duchess Kate attended the men’s final the following day, where Novak Djokovic defeated Roger Federer in a nail-biting match. This time, however, the royal switched out her two 'royal' sisters and finished off the closing event with her husband Prince William while wearing one of her favourite designers, Emilia Wickstead.</p> <p>The the mum-of-three kept is simple, chic and summery in a blue below-the-knee frock with capped sleeves and a delicate bow, but her choice of footwear is what really surprised royal fans. The Duchess usually opts for hefty summer wedges, however, she chose a nude ankle-strap pump with a thick heel instead for her tennis outing.</p>

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Handy year-round tips for dry skin and chapped lips

<p>Refusing to scratch problem skin irritated by eczema, psoriasis and a multitude of other factors is a medical must-do – and much easier said than done.</p> <p>For the instant relief it gives some skin issues, holding back from scratching is difficult, and extremely problematic when dealing with irritated, itchy and uncomfortable children and adults alike.</p> <p>Medicated treatments, creams and salves free from SLS, petrochemicals, sulphates, parabens and fragrances are a necessary solution to removing the uncomfortable side effect of skin irritation to let the skin heal.</p> <p>According to the Australasian society of clinical immunology and allergy, eczema can be effectively treated and managed, but no cures are currently available.</p> <p>The ASCIA says the “scratch and itch” cycle can be most distressing and having eczema means that when the skin barrier is damaged, moisture evaporates and this makes the skin more susceptible to allergens and irritants.</p> <p>This irritation can trigger the skin to release certain chemicals that make the skin itchy. If you scratch, more chemicals are released and the skin feels even itchier. But there are solutions that can help.</p> <p>Dry and chapped lips are also associated with cheilitis, an inflammatory lip condition that can be caused as a side effect of certain medications or extreme sun exposure.</p> <p>Therefore, caring for our lips all year round is extremely important. There are three simple rules to live by:</p> <ol> <li>Keep yourself well hydrated</li> <li>Avoid licking your lips</li> <li>Keep a good lip balm on you at all times.</li> </ol> <p><em>This article first appeared in </em><a href="https://www.readersdigest.com.au/healthsmart/handy-year-round-tips-dry-skin-and-chapped-lips"><em>Reader’s Digest</em></a><em>. For more of what you love from the world’s best-loved magazine, <a href="http://readersdigest.innovations.co.nz/c/readersdigestemailsubscribe?utm_source=over60&amp;utm_medium=articles&amp;utm_campaign=RDSUB&amp;keycode=WRN93V">here’s our best subscription offer.</a></em></p> <p><img style="width: 100px !important; height: 100px !important;" src="/media/7820640/1.png" alt="" data-udi="umb://media/f30947086c8e47b89cb076eb5bb9b3e2" /></p>

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Wimbledon royalty: Ladies of the palace step out in three glamorous outfits

<p>Duchess Kate and Meghan may have been taking part in a playdate with their offspring at the polo, but they weren’t the only set of Windsors to catch people’s attention.</p> <p>The same day, three members of the royal family attended Wimbledon day nine: Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall, Zara Tindall and Sophie, Countess of Wessex.</p> <p>And despite not being seated together, the three still managed to put on a show on their own.</p> <p>Camilla, who is known to be a fan of the sport, opted for a white dress, perfect for the summer season. She paired the outfit with Ray Ban sunglasses and a chic set of pearls.</p> <p>She started off the day by attending a private lunch in the members dining room before she made her way to the royal box where she got the best view of the match.</p> <p>Meanwhile, Sophie looked picture perfect in a midi-length, blue dress which featured a floral design and a cinched in waist.</p> <p>The dress was designed by none other than Peter Pilotto, the man behind Princess Eugenie’s wedding dress, which she wore in October last year.</p> <p>She wore her hair in a casual ponytail, keeping her hair off her face to help her concentrate on the events unfolding in front of her.</p> <p>Finally, also making an appearance was the Queen's granddaughter Zara Tindall, who attended the tournament with her husband Mike.</p> <p>Wearing a sophisticated blue and white striped number, Zara paired the floaty outfit with a set of sunglasses. She styled her blonde bob with loose waves, looking on trend.</p> <p>The couple confused spectators as they chose not to sit in the royal box, but it is assumed they were guests of Rolex, which is why they sat in the stands on centre court.</p> <p>Scroll through the gallery above to see the fashionable royals at Wimbledon.</p>

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Unexpected royal style icon turns heads with stunning dress

<p>Forget Duchess Kate and Duchess Meghan setting the new fashion trends, the Queen of Spain is here to turn heads.</p> <p>Her latest public outing shows that she is well on her way to becoming a fashion icon.</p> <p>Queen Letizia of Spain, who is the wife of King Felipe VI, has turned heads with not one but two incredible outfits.</p> <p>The former journalist and current mum-of-two stepped out in Madrid wearing a neon fuchsia mid-length dress. She finished the look with a pair of pastel pink stilettos, a matching pink clutch and pink and green jewel drop earrings.</p> <p>The dress was designed by American designer Carolina Herrera, and the Queen of Spain was attending a meeting of the Council of the Royal Board on Disability at Corral de Comedias Theatre in Madrid. She also presented the “Reina Letizia 2019 Award”.</p> <p>The second outfit that turned heads was when the Queen joined her husband for an official military event, which is known as the Delivery of the Real Employment Dispatches.</p> <p>This is where members of the force at the General military Academy were promoted.</p> <p>For the formal event, the Queen of Spain wore a white wrap blouse and a blue-and-white striped skirt. She accessorised her look with navy blue suede pumps and a white clutch while having her hair tied back in a bun.</p> <p>Scroll through the gallery above to see the to see the Queen of Spain's two glamorous looks.</p>

beauty & Style

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Style queen: Duchess Camilla's beautiful retro fashion statement

<p>The Duchess of Cornwall made a stylish appearance whilsthosting a reception for the Ebony Horse Club at herand Prince Charles home on Tuesday.</p> <p>The 71-year-old royal went for a stylish A-line flowy monochromatic dress that was reminiscent of the bold retro print which was all the rage in the '80s.</p> <p>The dazzling look was a head turner and featured a high key-hole neckline that was paired with mustard coloured shoes.</p> <blockquote style="background: #FFF; border: 0; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: 0 0 1px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.5),0 1px 10px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.15); margin: 1px; max-width: 540px; min-width: 326px; padding: 0; width: calc(100% - 2px);" class="instagram-media" data-instgrm-permalink="https://www.instagram.com/p/Bzs1D_3A5qe/" data-instgrm-version="12"> <div style="padding: 16px;"> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: row; align-items: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; flex-grow: 0; height: 40px; margin-right: 14px; width: 40px;"></div> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: column; flex-grow: 1; justify-content: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; margin-bottom: 6px; width: 100px;"></div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; width: 60px;"></div> </div> </div> <div style="padding: 19% 0;"></div> <div style="display: block; height: 50px; margin: 0 auto 12px; width: 50px;"></div> <div style="padding-top: 8px;"> <div style="color: #3897f0; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: 550; line-height: 18px;">View this post on Instagram</div> </div> <p style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; line-height: 17px; margin-bottom: 0; margin-top: 8px; overflow: hidden; padding: 8px 0 7px; text-align: center; text-overflow: ellipsis; white-space: nowrap;"><a style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: 17px; text-decoration: none;" rel="noopener" href="https://www.instagram.com/p/Bzs1D_3A5qe/" target="_blank">A post shared by Clarence House (@clarencehouse)</a> on Jul 9, 2019 at 8:07am PDT</p> </div> </blockquote> <p>While attending the reception held at Clarence House, the duchess met a delightful guest – a horse named Splash.</p> <p>Splash is one of the many friendly horsespart of theEbony Horse Club– a charity which aims to help young horse lovers how to ride.</p> <blockquote style="background: #FFF; border: 0; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: 0 0 1px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.5),0 1px 10px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.15); margin: 1px; max-width: 540px; min-width: 326px; padding: 0; width: calc(100% - 2px);" class="instagram-media" data-instgrm-permalink="https://www.instagram.com/p/Bzte4pAnTHI/" data-instgrm-version="12"> <div style="padding: 16px;"> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: row; align-items: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; flex-grow: 0; height: 40px; margin-right: 14px; width: 40px;"></div> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: column; flex-grow: 1; justify-content: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; margin-bottom: 6px; width: 100px;"></div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; width: 60px;"></div> </div> </div> <div style="padding: 19% 0;"></div> <div style="display: block; height: 50px; margin: 0 auto 12px; width: 50px;"></div> <div style="padding-top: 8px;"> <div style="color: #3897f0; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: 550; line-height: 18px;">View this post on Instagram</div> </div> <p style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; line-height: 17px; margin-bottom: 0; margin-top: 8px; overflow: hidden; padding: 8px 0 7px; text-align: center; text-overflow: ellipsis; white-space: nowrap;"><a style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: 17px; text-decoration: none;" rel="noopener" href="https://www.instagram.com/p/Bzte4pAnTHI/" target="_blank">A post shared by The British Royal Family (@british_._royal._.family)</a> on Jul 9, 2019 at 2:13pm PDT</p> </div> </blockquote> <p>The event hosted some of Ebony’s hopeful young programmers, as well as alumni and fellow supporters.</p> <p>The Duchess received praise for her fashionable get up, with one fan writing: “She always looks stunning and dresses befitting for the occasion… She will make a great Queen.”</p> <p>“Beautiful dress as always… HRH Camilla looks gorgeous!” another commented.</p> <p>Scroll through the gallery above to see the retro print outfit worn by the Duchess of Cornwall.</p>

beauty & Style

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Staying on your feet despite corns, calluses and cracked heels

<p>Corns and calluses are skin that has toughened and thickened due to friction and pressure.</p> <p>While corns maybe inflamed and occur on or between the toes, calluses typically grow in a large area on the balls of the feet or heels and don’t usually hurt.</p> <p>Try these techniques to prevent common foot problems.</p> <div id="page1" class="slide-show"> <div id="test" class="slide"> <p><strong>Wear supportive shoes</strong></p> <p>Look for footwear that’s made of leather, is breathable and allows sweat to escape – the less you sweat, the less dried out your feet will become. Opt for shoes with ample width and toeroom.</p> <p><strong>Practise good foot hygiene</strong></p> <div id="page2" class="slide-show"> <div id="test" class="slide"> <div class="slide-description"> <p>This involves treating your feet to a bit of attention. Buff with a pumice stone and regularly moisturise.</p> <p><strong>Over-the-counter remedies</strong></p> <p>These are a good start in treating corns, cracked heels and calluses.</p> <p><strong>Corns:</strong><span> </span>Salicylic acid treatments are available as medicated patches or liquid drops and work by softening the thickened layer of skin. Follow instructions carefully.</p> <p><strong>Cracked heel:</strong><span> </span>As the skin on the soles of feet is about 2.5 times thicker than the skin on your face, use an intensive medicinal moisturiser that can penetrate the layers of tissue.</p> <p><strong>Calluses:</strong><span> </span>Shoe inserts and heel pads, available at your pharmacy, will help prevent calluses by providing additional cushioning and stability.</p> <p><strong>When to see a doctor or podiatrist</strong></p> <p>Make an appointment if you have a callus or corn that is painful or inflamed, or deep cracks that start to bleed – these are all signs of infection.</p> <p>This is vital if you have diabetes, poor circulation or impaired nerves in your feet.</p> <p><em>Written by Michelle Villett. </em><em>This article first appeared in <a rel="noopener" href="https://www.readersdigest.com.au/healthsmart/beauty/skin/staying-your-feet-despite-corns-calluses-and-cracked-heels" target="_blank">Reader’s Digest</a>. For more of what you love from the world’s best-loved magazine, <a href="http://readersdigest.innovations.co.nz/c/readersdigestemailsubscribe?utm_source=over60&amp;utm_medium=articles&amp;utm_campaign=RDSUB&amp;keycode=WRN93V">here’s our best subscription offer.</a></em></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div>

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Fit for a princess: How you can get your hands on this iconic Princess Diana fashion item

<p>Princess Diana remains a style icon for many, and while she often enjoyed wearing little black dresses and pastel power suits, the royal also dressed down in logo-heavy sweatshirts.</p> <p>During the ‘90s, the late Princess of Wales took a trip to the Chelsea Harbour Club and stepped out in a look that will forever be remembered.</p> <p>She chose to wear colourful workout gear to symbolise her independence from the monarch after her divorce from Prince Charles.</p> <p>Now, that same piece of stylish athleisure is up for sale.</p> <p>It may appear to be a simple navy blue Virgin Atlantic sweatshirt, but this comfortable item of clothing was personally gifted to the Princess by Virgin boss Sir Richard Branson – and is now being given to the highest bidder at auction company, RR House.</p> <p style="text-align: center;"><img style="width: 500px; height: 312.5px;" src="/media/7828312/diana.jpg" alt="" data-udi="umb://media/a054787d949e4b70b8541925904deb34" /></p> <p style="text-align: center;"><em>Photo: Getty/RR Auction House</em></p> <p>The item has been put up for auction by Diana’s long-time personal trainer, Jenni Rivett, who was given the sweatshirt as a gift before her passing in August 1997.</p> <p>The jumper features an animated cartoon of the airline’s “Flying Lady” logo with the words “Fly Atlantic”. The one-size-fits-all piece is expected to sell for over $7,000, with all proceeds being donated to charity.</p> <p>The buyer will also receive two special notes, one that Diana wrote to Trivett and the other written by Trivett to the buyer.</p> <p>“This sweatshirt was given to HRH by Sir Richard Branson. It became her most worn top on her regular visits to the gym,” writes Trivett. “She felt there were far more important issues to focus on in the world than her gym attire and therefore decided that wearing the famous Virgin sweatshirt to every session would be a good way to stop the media frenzy!”</p> <p>Trivett added, “A few months before her untimely death she called me to say she had left a few sweatshirts for me. Amongst them, this one – which I have now decided to part with.”</p>

beauty & Style

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10 tips to put moisture back in your hair

<p>Like skin, hair loses moisture with age, and with it, lustre and bounce. Here’s how to counter these effects:</p> <p><strong>1. Use a mild shampoo</strong></p> <p>That contains fatty acids, balsams, moisturisers or protein. Although these protein rich products can’t actually feed the dead keratin cells that make up your hair, they can ‘glue down’ and protect the outer layer.</p> <p><strong>2. Switch shampoo brands </strong></p> <p>Every six to eight months to avoid stripping away the same type of oil.</p> <p><strong>3. Don’t shampoo twice</strong></p> <p>This advice is geared only towards selling more product. You may even want to dilute the shampoo by half for gentler cleaning and shampoo less often. Rinse well to avoid residue that can make hair limp.</p> <p><strong>4. Apply conditioner only from the ears down</strong></p> <p>Not on the scalp, where it can clog pores and over condition hair, making it dull. Your scalp secretes enough oil to condition the first 7 cm of hair.</p> <p><strong>5. Seal hair cuticles</strong></p> <p>By rinsing with cold water.</p> <p><strong>6. Play it cool </strong></p> <p>By minimising use of blow-dryers and curling irons to avoid drying out the hair and causing split ends. Hold your dryer 15–20 cm from your hair.</p> <p><strong>7. Avoid products that contain alcohol</strong></p> <p>Which parches the hair.</p> <p><strong>8. Limit the use of shine products </strong></p> <p>That contain silicone, which over time creates a build-up that can leave hair dull and limp.</p> <p><strong>9. Trim hair </strong></p> <p>Every four to six weeks to get rid of split ends.</p> <p><strong>10. Eat a diet rich </strong></p> <p>In zinc, magnesium, potassium, iron and lean protein, all of which support healthy hair.</p> <p><em>This article first appeared in </em><a href="https://www.readersdigest.com.au/healthsmart/beauty/hair-and-nails/10-tips-put-moisture-back-your-hair"><em>Reader’s Digest</em></a><em>. For more of what you love from the world’s best-loved magazine, <a href="http://readersdigest.innovations.co.nz/c/readersdigestemailsubscribe?utm_source=over60&amp;utm_medium=articles&amp;utm_campaign=RDSUB&amp;keycode=WRN93V">here’s our best subscription offer</a>.</em></p> <p><img style="width: 100px !important; height: 100px !important;" src="/media/7820640/1.png" alt="" data-udi="umb://media/f30947086c8e47b89cb076eb5bb9b3e2" /></p>

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The touching story behind Duchess Meghan's new eternity ring

<p>The Duchess of Sussex has often used jewellery to make a statement and often uses small designers and sustainable resources to produce her pieces.</p> <p>Now, her latest tribute to her husband Prince Harry and newborn baby son Archie is subtle but holds significant meaning.</p> <p>Her latest addition to her jewellery collection – her new eternity ring – first publicly seen at Trooping the Colour in June, is believed to have her birthstone along with her husband’s and newborn’s stone included as well.</p> <p><img style="width: 500px; height: 281.832298136646px;" src="/media/7828229/ring.jpg" alt="" data-udi="umb://media/b5cf96597e2648c19ea7721bd1bbb9af" /></p> <p>The gorgeous ring features a greet peridot for the Duchess, a blue sapphire for Prince Harry and a green emerald for baby Archie – a subtle and effective tribute of her little family.</p> <p>The jeweller believed to be behind the creation of the gorgeous piece is Lorraine Schwartz, a designer who has been a fixture on the red carpet for many celebrities including Angelina Jolie, Debra Messing, Beyoncé, Jennifer Aniston, Jennifer Lopez and Sofia Vergara.</p> <p><img style="width: 500px; height: 281.6728167281673px;" src="/media/7828231/gettyimages-1158024004-1.jpg" alt="" data-udi="umb://media/9071694a162e4635855d8240e127a6ab" /></p> <p>According to reports by <a rel="noopener" href="https://www.harpersbazaar.com/celebrity/latest/a28229172/meghan-markle-eternity-ring-lorraine-schwartz/" target="_blank"><em>BAZAAR</em></a>, Prince Harry helped design the gorgeous diamond eternity ring and gave it as a gift to the Duchess to mark either the birth of their son or for their first wedding anniversary.</p>

beauty & Style

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Why your beauty routine could be damaging your eyes

<p>If eyes are the window to the soul, it is also true that they are one of our most sensitive organs. And women of all ages can be an unwitting victim of common beauty errors, from makeup mistakes to poor infection control.</p> <p>Eyes are particularly vulnerable to infection and some beauty procedures can even put your vision at risk.</p> <p>Optometry Australia’s resident optometrist, Luke Arundel, says that optometrists often see the results of mistakes that women make with common beauty treatments – all of which can be easily avoided.</p> <p><strong>Check expiry dates</strong></p> <p>One of the simplest mistakes you can make is to use makeup beyond its expiry date. Yes – makeup can go off! A common culprit is mascara and it can even cause eye infections if products are not replaced regularly.</p> <p>Generally, the use-by-date for liquid or gel eyeliner and mascara is three months. Pencil eyeliner lasts about two years.</p> <p>Arundel advises: “We have bacteria along the eyelid margin and basically when we are fluffing away with your mascara stick you are re-colonising your bacteria.”</p> <p>“They have expiry dates for a reason,” he says, stressing that this is particularly important for contact lens wearers. “The last thing they want is for them to be getting serious infections – and it is another source of infection at the end of the day.”</p> <p>Check a product’s official expiry date by running the batch code through an app such as <a href="https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=org.example.checkyourcosmetic&amp;hl=en">Check Your Cosmetics</a>. </p> <p>There’s even an <a href="https://itunes.apple.com/au/app/beauty-keeper-makeup-manager-beauty-organizer/id827915841?mt=8">app</a> that will send you reminders of the expiration dates on your beauty products.</p> <p><strong>Lashings of trouble</strong></p> <p>Eyelash extensions are a new fad and, according to Arundel, have caused no end of dramas and serious eye problems.</p> <p>“The problem I guess with some of these things – such as eyelash extensions – unlike the medical industry, there is no informed consent, there is no discussion of what could go wrong,” he says.</p> <p>“It’s such a very delicate thing to do, to glue a fake lash onto a real lash. There is a huge variety of different products out there and all we are trying to flag is to ask a few questions – do they have training, is there some formaldehyde in the glue and some basic stuff.”</p> <p>He suggested having a close look at the setup of any salon and make sure they have good cleanliness and well-trained staff before using their services</p> <p><strong>Makeup tips for contact lens wearers</strong></p> <p>Arundel says that contact lens wearers need to be extra careful when applying makeup – but most of it is simply common sense, such as washing hands first.</p> <p>Insert contact lenses before applying makeup. Stay away from the edge of the lid (to avoid blocking the oil glands which assist with tear production and reduce particles getting into the eye).</p> <p>He also suggests asking your optometrist about daily disposable lenses – a fresh pair each day and free of makeup contamination (or be diligent with cleaning).</p> <p>Go for creams over powders to avoid foreign bodies but be careful with oil based products around the eyes.<br /><br /><strong>Makeup removal</strong></p> <p>Remove eye makeup before washing your face. Optometrists don’t recommend using generic face wash for eye makeup removal. Use hypoallergenic makeup removal products and be gentle – no harsh rubbing or pressure and wipe downwards.</p> <p>There are many moisturising eye makeup removal wipes that are prepackaged or use clean soft cotton pads with your preferred product.</p> <p><strong>Get your eyes tested</strong></p> <p>Arundel stresses that it is important to get your eyes tested regularly and see a specialist if you have itchy and/or sore eyes. Untreated infections or problems can become serious if left untreated.</p> <p><em>Written by Lynne Testoni. Republished with permission of </em><a href="https://www.wyza.com.au/articles/health/why-your-beauty-routine-could-be-damaging-your-eyes.aspx"><em>Wyza</em></a><em>.</em></p>

beauty & Style

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6 tips for healthy white teeth

<p><strong>1. Go on a white-teeth diet </strong></p> <p>If you’re quaffing red wine and black tea, or smoking cigarettes, expect the results to show up as not-so-pearly whites. Other culprits include colas, gravy, soya sauce and dark juice.</p> <p><strong>2. Chuck away your toothbrush or electric toothbrush head every two to three months</strong></p> <p>Otherwise, you’re just transferring bacteria to your mouth. According to dentist Harold Katz, the best way to brush is by placing your toothbrush at a 45-degree angle against your gums and gently moving it in a circular motion. Grip the toothbrush like a pencil so you won’t scrub too hard.</p> <p><strong>3. Use a tongue scraper every morning to remove tongue plaque and freshen breath</strong></p> <p>One cause of bad breath is the build-up of bacteria on the tongue, which a daily tongue scraping will help banish. It’s more effective than brushing your tongue with a toothbrush too, says Katz.</p> <p><strong>4. Eat “detergent” foods that are firm or crisp to help clean teeth as you munch</strong></p> <p>Apples are good, as are raw carrots, celery and popcorn. For best results, make “detergent” foods the final food you eat in your meal if you know you won’t be able to brush your teeth after eating.</p> <p><strong>5. Stay fresh</strong></p> <p>Check by licking your palm and smelling it while it’s wet. If you smell something, it’s time for a sugar-free breath mint. Shopping for mouthwash? Make sure it’s alcohol-free. Mouthwashes with too much alcohol can dry out mouth tissue, making it more prone to bacteria.</p> <p><strong>6. Brushing your teeth first and last thing </strong></p> <p>Are the two most crucial times of the day, as saliva which keeps plaque off teeth, dries up at night, so it’s best to have all plaque cleaned off the teeth before sleep. It’s also important to brush first thing in the morning to remove plaque and bacteria built up as you slept.</p> <p><em>This article first appeared in </em><em><a href="https://www.readersdigest.com.au/6-Tips-For-Healthy-White-Teeth">Reader’s Digest</a>. For more of what you love from the world’s best-loved magazine, <a href="http://readersdigest.innovations.co.nz/c/readersdigestemailsubscribe?utm_source=over60&amp;utm_medium=articles&amp;utm_campaign=RDSUB&amp;keycode=WRN93V">here’s our best subscription offer</a>.</em></p> <p><img style="width: 100px !important; height: 100px !important;" src="/media/7820640/1.png" alt="" data-udi="umb://media/f30947086c8e47b89cb076eb5bb9b3e2" /></p>

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Double standards and derision – tracing our attitudes to older women and beauty

<p>Brigitte Macron, wife of French President Emmanuel Macron, is a rare example of an older woman in the public eye who has attracted <a href="http://www.dailymail.co.uk/femail/article-4483918/How-DOES-Macron-s-wife-defy-age.html">praise</a> for her appearance. At 64, Macron is 24 years older than her husband, but her healthy figure and youthful style of dress saw her <a href="http://www.vogue.co.uk/article/brigitte-macron-style-analysis">described in Vogue</a> as “rock ‘n’ roll”.</p> <p>While Macron is admired for her penchant for leather pants, women regularly face policing of their clothing and cosmetic choices once they reach <a href="http://www.whowhatwear.com.au/turning-30-fashion">the age of 30</a>. Ageing only brings about further restrictions, with few older women who cultivate their appearance successfully negotiating the line between looking acceptably young or upsettingly unnatural.</p> <p>Madonna, who will turn 60 next year, is a case in point; her attempts to retain a sexy image are sometimes described with <a href="http://www.thedailybeast.com/whats-so-gross-about-madonna-getting-older-it-seems">revulsion</a>. Piers Morgan described her as <a href="https://twitter.com/piersmorgan/status/587554092467228672?lang=en">“50 Shades of Granny”</a> after her 2015 kiss with Drake. Her famous muscles, which keep her skin taut, were called “monstrously sculpted and bloodcurdling veiny corpse arms” <a href="http://www.tmz.com/2009/07/27/madonnas-gruesome-twosome/">by TMZ</a> as the publication had a dig at her “toyboy” Jesus Luz.</p> <p>In contrast, Cher, at 71, <a href="http://www.news.com.au/entertainment/music/billboard-music-awards-2017-red-carpet-best-and-worst-dressed-stars/news-story/1407925bc4fdaa00ae700ccbb843dd86">recently wore</a> a replica of a near-nude costume from 1989 at the Billboard Music Awards and was generally praised as “amazing” and “owning it”.</p> <p>What is Cher doing to invite praise that Madonna isn’t? And where did restrictive ideas about beauty and ageing come from? When did we decide that there was a particular age at which women might incite criticism or disgust for attempting to look beautiful or desirable?</p> <p>A closer look at women’s magazines from the 19th century — the era in which modern advertising and celebrity culture were born — reveal the origins of many of our hang-ups about older women and beauty.</p> <p>In the first half of that century, beauty was understood as God-given or natural. Beliefs in physiognomy also suggested that the inner character of a woman might be visible in her face. In 1849, in an article that commented on the process of women’s ageing, the English magazine <a href="https://archive.org/details/worldoffashionco15lond">World of Fashion and Continental Feuilletons</a> observed:</p> <p>Neither rouge, artificial ringlets, nor all the resources of the toilet, can retard the relentless progress of that terrible foe to beauty, Time. But every one must have noticed how lightly his hand rests upon some, how heavily upon others … A good conscience is the greatest preservative of beauty. High and noble thoughts leave behind them noble and beautiful traces, meanness of thought and selfishness of feeling league with Time to unite age and ugliness together.</p> <p>This dismissal of cosmetics is typical of attitudes that saw beauty as a quality that a woman was either born with or not and its loss inevitable. In the final decades of the 19th century, however, women’s magazines transformed this belief.</p> <p>With the growth of advertising and beauty advice columns, there was gradual acceptance that fading looks should be combated by almost any means necessary. For older women, being visibly made up gradually became more tolerable, though the degree to which the cosmetics might be detectable was a point of contention. Women who foolishly attempted to recreate the charms of their youth were still harshly judged.</p> <p><strong>Cosmetics and ageing</strong></p> <p>The 30s were understood as a threshold for women entering middle age and no longer being considered at the peak of attractiveness. An advertisement for Madame Dupree’s Berlin Toilet Soap from 1890 promises “a return to youthful beauty” and specifies that the soap can “make […] a lady of 35 appear but 25”.</p> <p>A 1904 beauty manual by Lady Jean, Beauty as a Fine Art, is generous enough to suggest that a woman of 40 “is just entering upon a long summer of useful and enjoyable existence”. Yet it goes on to suggest that “anything that threatens to rob her of the outward sign of youth” could be “combated and defied by all reasonable means”.</p> <p>The rise of advertising and consumer culture in the Victorian period saw the birth of thousands of brand-name beauty products. Many promised readers that they could retain the markers of youth: a full head of luxurious hair with no bald spots or grey, a full set of teeth, a trim waist, and a clear and smooth complexion.</p> <p>Importantly, an overall distinction was made between products that might “preserve” youth, such as soaps, treatments and baths, and those that attempt to artificially conceal aged skin, such as obvious coloured cosmetics.</p> <p>There was greater acceptance of certain cosmetics such as powder and rouge in the late 19th century. However, lingering views about natural beauty and the unpleasantness of older woman attempting to present themselves as youthful ensured that cosmetic advertisements denied the artifice involved in their products.</p> <p>Advertisements for soaps, dyes and related beautifying aids emphasised their capacity to preserve what beauty women already possessed. Advertisements for hair restorers claimed (surely erroneously) they could renew grey hair to its original colour without the use of dye. An ad for Rossetter’s hair restorer from around 1880 also claims to give the hair “the lustre and health of youth”.</p> <p>In small print at the bottom of an undated advertisement for Blackham’s hair restorer, it is acknowledged that their Electric Hair Stain is a dye – but purchasers are reassured that this “cannot be detected”. In a similar vein to today’s attitudes to cosmetic surgery, this claim signals how women had to ensure improvements to their appearance were seen as natural and, ironically, unnoticeable.</p> <p>Soap was the most acceptable of commercial products for preserving youthful skin. Actresses and famous figures often provided written testimonials or directly featured in Victorian advertising. Sarah Bernhardt, a French actress, regularly appeared in beauty advertisements, including for Pears soap and her own rice-based face powder.</p> <p><strong>Ageing disgracefully</strong></p> <p>In contrast to frequent advocacy for soaps and home remedies in women’s magazines, the services and treatments of the infamous cosmetician <a href="http://www.victorianweb.org/science/health/rappaportch2.html">Madame Rachel, Sarah Rachel Levison</a>, provided well-publicised examples of older women who were imagined as foolish and vain for seeking to improve their appearances.</p> <p>Products provided at her London salon included Circassian Beauty Wash, Magnetic Rock Dew Water of Sahara for removing wrinkles, and Youth and Beauty Cream. In 1863, Rachel published a 24-page pamphlet, entitled “Beautiful For Ever!” It told how she now had the sole right to sell</p> <p>the Magnetic Rock Dew Water of Sahara, which possesses the extraordinary property of increasing the vital energies – restores the colour of grey hair – gives the appearance of youth to persons far advanced in years, and removes wrinkle, defect, and blemishes, from whatever cause they may arise.</p> <p>The treatment for which Madame Rachel was most famous was known as “enamelling”. This involved the removal of facial hair, cleansing of the skin with alkaline washes, then filling of any wrinkles or uneven facial features with a thick white paste, which sometimes contained lead. This was followed by the application of powder and rouge.</p> <p>The gullibility of older women in chasing the fountain of youth through cosmetics was amply illustrated in Madame Rachel’s trial for fraud in 1868. Her victim, 50-year-old Mary Tucker Borradaile, was described as an object of pity in the trial.</p> <p>One of the prosecutors, Montagu Williams, found it hard to believe that Borradaile could have believed she could be made beautiful forever. He later recalled her to be a pathetic figure in her attempts to look attractive despite her years:</p> <p>She was a spare, thin, scraggy-looking woman, wholly devoid of figure; her hair was dyed a bright yellow; her face was ruddled with paint; and the darkness of her eyebrows was strongly suggestive of meretricious art.</p> <p>It was recorded that Borradaile had been beautiful in her youth and was particularly noted for her long, golden hair. But, in court, her hair was observed to be unnaturally dyed or artificial. Fellow prosecutor William Ballantine described Borradaile as:</p> <p>a skeleton encased apparently in plaster of Paris, painted pink and white, and surmounted with a juvenile wig.</p> <p>According to <a href="https://books.google.com/books/about/Beautiful_For_Ever.html?id=9XNvgasBwgUC">Helen Rappaport</a>, when Borradaile entered the courtroom to give evidence, there were audible gasps at her made-up face.</p> <p>‘The absolute loss of empire’</p> <p>Horror at the cosmetically enhanced older woman continued to be expressed into the early 20th century. In <a href="https://books.google.com/books/about/The_Art_of_Being_Beautiful.html?id=JncBPAAACAAJ">The Art of Being Beautiful</a> from 1902, the supposedly 50-year-old interviewee, the Baroness, advises:</p> <p>For a woman to try and knock more than ten years off her age is an arrogance for which she is punished by every glance of the passers-by. When she tries as a brunette to make herself into a blonde by the use of unlimited white chalk, she also makes herself grotesque – as unpleasing as a fly that had dropped into a honey-pot. When, as a blonde, she adorns herself with black eyebrows like croquet hoops, frankly she becomes alarming, if not detestable.</p> <p>The Baroness also remarks that dyed hair does not complement “wrinkled cheeks”, especially when the dye chosen is of an “infantine yellow tint”. Apparently, there were certain signs of youth that older women should not attempt to recapture.</p> <p>While the Baroness critiqued the older woman who attempted to turn back the hands of time through excessive use of cosmetics, she did advocate for beauty regimens to slow the process of ageing. She described the loss of beauty as “the absolute loss of empire”. “Active preparations” for ageing were encouraged – in the same manner as the fire brigade, army and medical profession might ready for fires, war and disease.</p> <p>So as women aged, they were confronted with the choice of either accepting the gradual fading of their looks, or being criticised for trying to visibly ameliorate signs of age, attempting the impossible task of trying to stave off wrinkles and grey hair.</p> <p>These double standards are exceedingly familiar. Older women in the public eye are caught in a bind between being seen as excessive users of cosmetic surgery who have made themselves look unnatural, or of having aged or “let themselves go” to the point of no longer being seen as desirable and bankable.</p> <p>Actresses in their 50s, such as Meg Ryan and Daryl Hannah, regularly appear in photo galleries taking delight in “botched” plastic surgery or marvelling at “trout pouts”. Conversely, magazines and gossip sites pounced on unflattering photographs of Kirstie Ally, now 66, when she gained a significant amount of weight in 2008, and proclaimed her “washed up”.</p> <p>While a small number of women in the public eye, like Brigitte Macron, are seen to deftly negotiate these expectations of beauty and ageing, most are set up to fail.</p> <p><em>Written by Michelle Smith. Republished with permission of </em><a href="https://theconversation.com/friday-essay-double-standards-and-derision-tracing-our-attitudes-to-older-women-and-beauty-79575"><em>The Conversation</em></a><em>.</em></p>

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Magic in monochrome: Duchess Kate looks picture perfect for royal ceremony

<p>The Duchess of Cambridge was a sight to see as she watched her husband Prince William parade down the walkway for a century-old royal ceremony on Monday afternoon at Windsor Castle.</p> <p>The Duke of Cambridge honoured the Order of the Garter, one of the most senior and oldest order of knighthood in the U.K.</p> <p>The 37-year-old looked dazzling in a ‘50s style white coat designed by Catherine Walker.</p> <p>The frock costs NZD$474 and features a stunning black lace detail on the collar and curved panels, the Duchess choosing to pair it with an elegant Lock &amp; Co hat.</p> <p>Joining the Duchess to watch the proceedings was Queen Letizia of Spain, Queen Maxima of the Netherlands, the Duchess of Cornwall and the Countess of Wessex.  </p> <p>Monday was proven to be a busy day for the Duchess of Cambridge. In addition to her attendance in Windsor, the royal also shared a special letter in support for Children’s Hospice Week this morning.</p> <p>"Children’s hospices provide vital sanctuaries for those experiencing the very toughest of times. They help families and carers build lifelong memories that are poignant, happy and often filled with laughter," she wrote.</p> <p>"They provide a lifeline to children and families for however long support is needed and I hope that others join me in thanking them as we shine a light on their work during Children's Hospice Week."</p> <p>Scroll through the gallery above to see the Duchess of Cambridge’s gorgeous monochromatic look.</p> <p> </p>

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