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Body language experts analyse the Queen’s relationship with her grandchildren

<p>She might be the Queen to the world, but to her <strong><u><a href="http://www.oversixty.com.au/news/news/2017/04/prince-williams-adorable-nickname-for-the-queen/">grandchildren she’s simply “gan-gan” or “granny”.</a></u></strong></p> <p>With eight grandchildren (from her four children), we wonder what the Queen is like as a grandmother. <strong><u><a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AXi1vjJpenQ">Prince William has previously said</a></u></strong>: "She works very hard and she sees her service as important but behind closed doors, she worries and minds an awful lot about the rest of the family. She makes sure everyone is happy and finding their own path in terms of success." </p> <p>And body language experts back up Prince William’s assertion, with Susan Constantine, human behavioural expert and author of <em><a href="https://www.amazon.com/Complete-Idiots-Guide-Reading-Language/dp/161564248X?tag=goodhousekeeping_auto-append-20&amp;ascsubtag=%5bartid|10055.a.48025%5bsrc|"><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>The Complete Idiot's Guide to Reading Body Language</strong></span></a>, </em>telling <strong><u><a href="https://www.goodhousekeeping.com/life/a22607539/queen-elizabeth-grandchildren-body-language/">GoodHousekeeping</a></u></strong>: “It's incredible how attentive, hands-on, and engaging she is given the fact that she has a royal rulebook to follow."</p> <p><iframe width="320" height="240" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/yb9MIJIjW3k?feature=oembed" frameborder="0" allow="autoplay; encrypted-media" allowfullscreen=""></iframe></p> <p>Captured in the early 1990s, this video of Her Majesty with Zara Phillips, Prince William, Prince Harry, Princess Beatrice and Princess Eugenie at Balmoral in Scotland shows the Queen being a typical grandma.</p> <p>"This particular instance is striking because she throws her 'royal body bubble' out the window and gets close with her grandkids," Patti Wood, body language expert and author of <span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong><em><a href="https://www.amazon.com/Snap-Making-Impressions-Language-Charisma/dp/1577319397?tag=goodhousekeeping_auto-append-20&amp;ascsubtag=%5Bartid%7C10055.a.47552%5Bsrc%7C">SNAP: Making the Most of First Impressions, Body Language, and Charisma</a></em></strong></span> tells GoodHousekeeping.</p> <p>"Normally, we see the Queen in front and a few steps ahead of everyone else but here, she steps back and lets the kids lead the way," Wood continues.</p> <p><iframe width="320" height="240" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/MI9KUymMybk?feature=oembed" frameborder="0" allow="autoplay; encrypted-media" allowfullscreen=""></iframe></p> <p>When the whole family is together however, it’s clear the Queen is in charge. While taking the official royal Christmas photo in 1990, the Queen is the one that shoos the photographers away and put her grandchildren in place.</p> <p>"The mums – Duchess of York and Princess Diana – step aside and let the Queen take over the parenting role, which is interesting to see," says Constantine.</p> <p>But the Queen has always had a close relationship with her grandchildren – and now, great-grandchildren.</p> <p>Just look at her with her very first grandchild – Peter Phillips. "Her movements such as bending forward and reaching out her hand are purposeful," explains Constantine. "She wants to be connected to the newborn but the royal standards simply hold her back from being as affectionate as she'd like to be."</p> <p><img style="display: block; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;" src="https://hips.hearstapps.com/hmg-prod.s3.amazonaws.com/images/queen-peter-young-1533072980.png?crop=1xw:0.9997671169073126xh;center,top&amp;resize=480:*" alt="queen elizabeth with grandchildren" title="Queen Elizabeth with Grandchildren" data-srcset="https://hips.hearstapps.com/hmg-prod.s3.amazonaws.com/images/queen-peter-young-1533072980.png?crop=1xw:0.9997671169073126xh;center,top&amp;resize=480:*" data-src="https://hips.hearstapps.com/hmg-prod.s3.amazonaws.com/images/queen-peter-young-1533072980.png?crop=1xw:0.9997671169073126xh;center,top&amp;resize=480:*" /></p> <p>Or this adorably casual moment with Zara Tindall in June 1984.</p> <p>"You can sense just how relaxed the two of them are. It's evident that the Queen isn't afraid to show emotional connection despite the public setting," Constantine says.</p> <p>"The physical closeness between the two is a type of 'heart intimacy,' which is a telling sign of their close bond," adds Wood.</p> <p><img style="display: block; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;" src="https://hips.hearstapps.com/hmg-prod.s3.amazonaws.com/images/queen-zara-young-1533072974.jpg?crop=0.9997216035634744xw:1xh;center,top&amp;resize=480:*" alt="queen elizabeth with grandchildren" title="Queen Elizabeth with Grandchildren" data-srcset="https://hips.hearstapps.com/hmg-prod.s3.amazonaws.com/images/queen-zara-young-1533072974.jpg?crop=0.9997216035634744xw:1xh;center,top&amp;resize=480:*" data-src="https://hips.hearstapps.com/hmg-prod.s3.amazonaws.com/images/queen-zara-young-1533072974.jpg?crop=0.9997216035634744xw:1xh;center,top&amp;resize=480:*" /></p> <p>These close relationships have continued as the grandchildren have grown into adults.</p> <p>The Queen’s pursed lips when she goes in for a peck with her grandchildren actually has positive meaning behind it.</p> <p>"To feel close to someone and allow the body to completely focus on the moment, people may tightly close their eyes or lips," explains Constantine. "Here, the Queen's pursed lips indicate that she's deep in thought and feeling strong emotion."</p> <p><img style="display: block; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;" src="https://hips.hearstapps.com/hmg-prod.s3.amazonaws.com/images/queen-harry-kiss-1533072977.png?crop=1xw:1xh;center,top&amp;resize=480:*" alt="queen elizabeth with grandchildren" title="Queen Elizabeth with Grandchildren" data-srcset="https://hips.hearstapps.com/hmg-prod.s3.amazonaws.com/images/queen-harry-kiss-1533072977.png?crop=1xw:1xh;center,top&amp;resize=480:*" data-src="https://hips.hearstapps.com/hmg-prod.s3.amazonaws.com/images/queen-harry-kiss-1533072977.png?crop=1xw:1xh;center,top&amp;resize=480:*" /></p> <p> </p> <p>And even though the Princess Beatrice of York isn’t a working royal, it’s clear that the Queen still loves her granddaughter, as evidenced by both their wide smiles.</p> <p><img style="display: block; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;" src="https://hips.hearstapps.com/hmg-prod.s3.amazonaws.com/images/queen-beatrice-smiling-1533072976.png?crop=0.99975xw:1xh;center,top&amp;resize=480:*" alt="queen elizabeth with grandchildren" title="Queen Elizabeth with Grandchildren" data-srcset="https://hips.hearstapps.com/hmg-prod.s3.amazonaws.com/images/queen-beatrice-smiling-1533072976.png?crop=0.99975xw:1xh;center,top&amp;resize=480:*" data-src="https://hips.hearstapps.com/hmg-prod.s3.amazonaws.com/images/queen-beatrice-smiling-1533072976.png?crop=0.99975xw:1xh;center,top&amp;resize=480:*" /></p> <p>"Beatrice, in particular, has all teeth on deck," Constantine tells us. " Even while putting on her gloves, the Queen is looking directly at her granddaughter and completely engaging in the moment."</p> <p>Ultimately, although the Queen may have an unconventional relationship with her grandchildren, she dearly loves them.  </p> <p>"Their relationship, while different than the idealized concept, may be peculiar to us but it's <em>their</em> normal," explains Wood. "Regardless, there's a genuine joy in her face when she's with her grandchildren and that's all that matters."</p>

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Adele shows off stunning weight loss after losing 20kgs

<p>A TV star has called Adele unrecognisable after her shocking weight loss of 20kgs.</p> <p>The 31-year-old looked stunning in a high-neck long-sleeved leopard print dress as she partied at Chateau Marmont in Los Angeles.</p> <p><img style="width: 500px; height: 281.25px;" src="https://oversixtydev.blob.core.windows.net/media/7834519/adele-weight-loss.jpg" alt="" data-udi="umb://media/abdcb559d18b46698faed91abc97bb79" /></p> <p>Adele attended Jay Z and Beyonce’s Oscar’s party when she bumped into Polish TV presenter Kinga Rusin, who posted a photo of their encounter on Instagram.</p> <p>According to Rusin, Adele struck up a conversation after she noticed that Rusin wasn’t wearing the slippers provided at the door as she preferred to keep her heels on instead.</p> <p>“Honestly, I didn’t recognise her because she is so thin now,” Rusin wrote.</p> <p>There were reportedly 200 people at the party and despite the photo ban, Rusin snagged a photo with Adele.</p> <p>Adele’s weight loss has been a hot topic as of late as the singer split from her husband Simon Konecki. She has found a “new lease of life” after starting reformer pilates.</p> <p>“Adele has been out enjoying herself and she sees that as her priority at the moment, along with being a mum to Angelo.” The source told<span> </span><a rel="noopener noreferrer" href="https://www.thesun.co.uk/tvandshowbiz/9324836/adele-reformer-pilates-ayda-field-loses-stone-marriage-split/" target="_blank">The Sun</a>.</p> <blockquote style="background: #FFF; border: 0; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: 0 0 1px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.5),0 1px 10px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.15); margin: 1px; max-width: 540px; min-width: 326px; padding: 0; width: calc(100% - 2px);" class="instagram-media" data-instgrm-permalink="https://www.instagram.com/p/B6bUG27gnWs/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" data-instgrm-version="12"> <div style="padding: 16px;"> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: row; align-items: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; flex-grow: 0; height: 40px; margin-right: 14px; width: 40px;"></div> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: column; flex-grow: 1; justify-content: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; margin-bottom: 6px; width: 100px;"></div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; width: 60px;"></div> </div> </div> <div style="padding: 19% 0;"></div> <div style="display: block; height: 50px; margin: 0 auto 12px; width: 50px;"></div> <div style="padding-top: 8px;"> <div style="color: #3897f0; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: 550; line-height: 18px;">View this post on Instagram</div> </div> <p style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; line-height: 17px; margin-bottom: 0; margin-top: 8px; overflow: hidden; padding: 8px 0 7px; text-align: center; text-overflow: ellipsis; white-space: nowrap;"><a style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: 17px; text-decoration: none;" rel="noopener" href="https://www.instagram.com/p/B6bUG27gnWs/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" target="_blank">A post shared by Adele (@adele)</a> on Dec 23, 2019 at 11:32am PST</p> </div> </blockquote> <div class="post_body_wrapper"> <div class="post_body"> <div class="body_text "> <p>“It’s a bonus that she has shifted some weight. Her mates are glad she’s letting loose and there’s nothing but good feelings towards her. She’s got a new lease of life.”</p> <p>Farnham Pilates owner, Hannah Louise Epps, explains how her reformer classes work: “It works in a slow, precise way, focusing on the core muscles and helping to build up heat and sweat to help you lose weight. It streamlines and tones muscles and helps align imbalances in posture.”</p> </div> </div> </div>

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Why some people overeat when they're upset

<p>The idea of eating a tub of ice cream to cope with being upset has become a bit cliche. Though some might not need a tub of chocolate swirl to help perk themselves up again, there do seem to be systematic differences in the way that people cope with <a href="https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/s11892-018-1000-x.pdf">upsetting events</a>, with some more likely to find solace in food than others.</p> <p>This matters because when eating to cope with negative feelings is part of a broader tendency to overeat, it is likely to be <a href="https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1467-789X.2007.00426.x">associated with obesity and being overweight</a>. More people than ever are now overweight and obese, with <a href="https://www.obesityday.worldobesity.org/world-obesity-day-2017">recent estimates</a> suggesting that by 2025, 2.7 billion adults worldwide will be affected by obesity, risking health issues such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and cancer.</p> <p>So why do some people manage their emotions with food while others don’t? One psychological concept that helps to explain this difference is <a href="http://psycnet.apa.org/doiLanding?doi=10.1037%2F0022-0167.47.3.283">adult attachment orientation</a>. Depending on the extent to which we fear abandonment by those we love, adults fall somewhere on the dimension of “attachment anxiety”. Where we fall on this dimension (high or low) determines a set of expectations about how we and others behave in personal relationships. These are developed as a response to the care we received as an infant and this can characterise your attachment style.</p> <p>A recent <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0195666317303525">meta-analysis</a> – a study bringing together the results of many other studies – showed that the higher a person’s attachment anxiety, the more they engage in unhealthy eating behaviours, with <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/ijo201072">a knock-on effect on body mass index (BMI)</a>. Two other studies have also shown that patients undergoing weight loss surgery are likely to have <a href="https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11695-017-2796-1">higher attachment anxiety</a> scores than a comparable lean population, and it is thought that this difference is <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/ijo2017157">partly explained by the tendency to overeat</a>.</p> <p><strong>Understanding attachment anxiety</strong></p> <p>For a long time, <a href="http://psycnet.apa.org/doiLanding?doi=10.1037%2F0022-3514.75.2.420">we have known</a> that people who are have high attachment anxiety are more likely to both notice upsetting things and find it harder to manage their emotions when upset. This is because of how attachment orientations come about in the first place. The dynamics and feelings relating to our most important long-term relationships, including in early life, act as a templates that guide our behaviour in subsequent relationships and in stressful situations.</p> <p>If we receive consistent care from a caregiver, which includes helping us to cope with problems in life, we develop a secure attachment orientation. For people high in security, when a negative life event occurs, they are able to seek support from others or soothe themselves by thinking about the sorts of things that their caregiver or other significant person would say to them in that situation.</p> <p>However, inconsistent care – where the caregiver sometimes responds to another’s needs but at other times does not – leads to attachment anxiety and a fear that our needs won’t be met. When negative life events occur, support from others is sought but perceived as unreliable. People with high attachment anxiety are also less able to self-soothe than people with a secure attachment.</p> <p>We <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0195666317318378">recently tested</a> whether this poor emotional management could explain why people with attachment anxiety are more likely to overeat. Importantly, we found that for people high in attachment anxiety it was harder to disengage from whatever was upsetting them and to get on with what they were supposed to be doing. These negative emotions were managed with food and this related to a higher BMI.</p> <p>It is important to note, however, that this is only one factor among many that can influence overeating and BMI. We cannot say that attachment anxiety causes overeating and weight gain. It might be that overeating and weight gain influences our attachment orientation, or it could be a bit of both.</p> <p><strong>Managing eating behaviour</strong></p> <p>There are two approaches that appear promising for attachment anxious individuals seeking to manage their eating behaviour. These involve targeting the specific attachment orientation itself and/or improving emotion regulation skills in general.</p> <p>To target attachment orientation, one possibility is a psychological technique called “<a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352250X1830037X">security priming</a>” designed to make people behave like “secures”, who cope well with negative life events. It results in beneficial effects more generally, such as engaging in more pro-social behaviours. <a href="http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0265407512468371">One study</a> showed that priming is related to snack intake. When people are asked to reflect on secure relationships in their life they eat less in a later snacking episode than when asked to reflect on anxious relationships in their life (though this work is very preliminary and needs replicating and extending).</p> <p>Looking at emotion regulation, a <a href="https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/s11892-018-1000-x.pdf">recently published paper</a> highlighted the importance of emotional eaters focusing on skills such as coping with stress rather than calorie restriction, when seeking to lose weight. This study did not look solely at those with attachment anxiety, however, so further work is needed explore this further.</p> <p>Of course, in an ideal world everybody would have relationship experiences that helped them to develop high attachment security, and perhaps this is a hidden third approach – facilitating better caregiving and interpersonal relationships for all.<!-- Below is The Conversation's page counter tag. Please DO NOT REMOVE. --><img style="border: none !important; box-shadow: none !important; margin: 0 !important; max-height: 1px !important; max-width: 1px !important; min-height: 1px !important; min-width: 1px !important; opacity: 0 !important; outline: none !important; padding: 0 !important; text-shadow: none !important;" src="https://counter.theconversation.com/content/105872/count.gif?distributor=republish-lightbox-basic" alt="The Conversation" width="1" height="1" /><em><!-- End of code. If you don't see any code above, please get new code from the Advanced tab after you click the republish button. The page counter does not collect any personal data. More info: http://theconversation.com/republishing-guidelines --></em></p> <p><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/laura-wilkinson-583732">Laura Wilkinson</a>, Lecturer in Psychology, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/swansea-university-2638">Swansea University</a>; <a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/angela-rowe-256122">Angela Rowe</a>, Reader in Social Cognitive Psychology, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/university-of-bristol-1211">University of Bristol</a>, and <a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/charlotte-hardman-109457">Charlotte Hardman</a>, Lecturer in Appetite and Obesity, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/university-of-liverpool-1198">University of Liverpool</a></em></p> <p><em>This article is republished from <a href="http://theconversation.com">The Conversation</a> under a Creative Commons license. Read the <a href="https://theconversation.com/why-some-people-overeat-when-theyre-upset-105872">original article</a>.</em></p>

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Why mosquitoes prefer to bite some people over others

<p>It’s always you, isn’t it? The person busy swatting away buzzing backyard mosquitoes or nursing an arm full of itchy red lumps after a weekend camping trip.</p> <p>You’re not imagining it – mosquitoes really are attracted to some people more than others.</p> <p><strong>Why do mosquitoes need blood?</strong></p> <p>Only female mosquitoes bite. They do it for the nutrition contained in blood, which helps develop their eggs.</p> <p>Mosquitoes don’t just get blood from people. They’re actually far more likely to get it from biting animals, <a href="https://theconversation.com/how-australian-wildlife-spread-and-suppress-ross-river-virus-107267">birds</a>, <a href="https://www.abc.net.au/news/2016-08-18/australian-geographic-nature-photographer-of-the-year-winners/7753248">frogs</a> and reptiles. They even <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s42003-018-0096-5">bite earthworms</a>.</p> <p>But some mosquitoes specifically target people. One of the worst culprits is the <em>Aedes aegypti</em> species, which spreads <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/dengue/index.html">dengue</a> and <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/yellowfever/">yellow fever</a> viruses.</p> <p>Another that prefers humans are the <em>Anopheles</em> mosquitoes, responsible for spreading the parasites that cause <a href="https://www.who.int/malaria/en/">malaria</a>.</p> <p><strong>How do mosquitoes find us?</strong></p> <p>Most mosquitoes will get their blood from whatever is around and don’t necessarily care if they’re biting one person or another.</p> <p>Although it’s our blood they’re after, there is no strong indicator they prefer a particular blood type over another. Some studies have <a href="https://academic.oup.com/jme/article/41/4/796/885285">suggested they prefer people with type O blood</a> but that’s unlikely to be the case for all types of mosquitoes.</p> <p>Whether we’re picked out of a crowd may come down to heavy breathing and skin smell.</p> <p>When they need blood, mosquitoes can pick up on the <a href="https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/bulletin-of-entomological-research/article/role-of-carbon-dioxide-in-hostfinding-by-mosquitoes-diptera-culicidae-a-review/2506B86EF63852B2D02EC3FCEE1E3B8B">carbon dioxide</a> we exhale. Around the world, carbon dioxide is one of the most common “baits” used to attract and collect mosquitoes. If you’re exhaling greater volumes of carbon dioxide, you’re probably an easier target for mosquitoes.</p> <p>When the mosquito gets closer, she is <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2214574517300342">responding to a range of stimuli</a>.</p> <p>Perhaps it’s <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1471492210002618">body heat and sweat</a>: exercise that increases body temperature and perspiration can attract mosquitoes.</p> <p>Perhaps it’s body size: studies indicate <a href="https://academic.oup.com/trstmh/article/96/2/113/1909983">pregnant women are more likely to be bitten</a> by mosquitoes.</p> <p>How hairy are you? Mosquitoes may have a tough job finding a path through to your skin if there is an abundance of body hair.</p> <p>More than anything else, though, it’s about the smell of your skin. Hundreds of chemicals are sweated out or emitted by our body’s bacteria. The <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2214574517300536">cocktail of smells they create</a> will either attract or deter mosquitoes.</p> <p><strong>It’s not just who they bite but where</strong></p> <p>Mosquitoes could also have a preference for different parts of the body.</p> <p>One study showed mosquitoes are more attracted to hands and feet <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/srep27141">than armpits</a>, but that just turned out to be because of deodorant residues.</p> <p>Mosquitoes may also be more attracted to our feet: studies have shown cheese sharing similar bacteria to that <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15275226">found between our toes</a> attracts mosquitoes!</p> <p><strong>Who is to blame for this misery?</strong></p> <p>It’s not your diet. There is no evidence that what you eat or drink will prevent mosquito bites. Some food or drink may subtly change how many mosquitoes are likely to bite you but it won’t make that much difference.</p> <p><a href="https://www.mdpi.com/2075-4450/9/4/129">Eating bananas</a> or <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2832015/">drinking beer</a> has been shown to marginally increase the attraction of mosquitoes but the results aren’t enough to suggest any dietary change will reduce your mosquito bites. That’s why our supermarket shelves aren’t full of “mozzie repellent” pills.</p> <p>Your irresistibility to mosquitoes may not be your fault. Blame your parents. Studies have shown the chemicals responsible for the “<a href="https://europepmc.org/article/med/2230769">skin smell</a>” that attracts mosquitoes has <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4406498/">a high level of heritability</a> when twins are exposed to biting mosquitoes.</p> <p><strong>What can you do about it?</strong></p> <p>We have to be careful about generalisations. There are thousands of types of mosquitoes around the world and all will have a different preference for what or who to bite. And the attraction of individuals and the scenario that plays out in one part of the world may be much different in another.</p> <p>Remember, it only takes one mosquito bite to transmit a pathogen that could make you sick. So whether you’re a mosquito magnet or feeling a little invisible because you’re not bitten so often, don’t be complacent and <a href="https://theconversation.com/the-best-and-worst-ways-to-beat-mosquito-bites-70274">use insect repellents</a>.<!-- Below is The Conversation's page counter tag. Please DO NOT REMOVE. --><img style="border: none !important; box-shadow: none !important; margin: 0 !important; max-height: 1px !important; max-width: 1px !important; min-height: 1px !important; min-width: 1px !important; opacity: 0 !important; outline: none !important; padding: 0 !important; text-shadow: none !important;" src="https://counter.theconversation.com/content/128788/count.gif?distributor=republish-lightbox-basic" alt="The Conversation" width="1" height="1" /><em><!-- End of code. If you don't see any code above, please get new code from the Advanced tab after you click the republish button. The page counter does not collect any personal data. More info: http://theconversation.com/republishing-guidelines --></em></p> <p><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/cameron-webb-6736">Cameron Webb</a>, Clinical Lecturer and Principal Hospital Scientist, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/university-of-sydney-841">University of Sydney</a></em></p> <p><em>This article is republished from <a href="http://theconversation.com">The Conversation</a> under a Creative Commons license. Read the <a href="https://theconversation.com/feel-like-youre-a-mozzie-magnet-its-true-mosquitoes-prefer-to-bite-some-people-over-others-128788">original article</a>.</em></p>

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What does your heart rate number really mean?

<p>The rise of <a href="https://theconversation.com/us/topics/wearable-technology-5180">wearable fitness trackers</a> has increased the number of people monitoring their heart rate, both throughout the day and during exercise.</p> <p>Whether you’re an athlete trying to gain the <a href="https://theconversation.com/wearable-technologies-help-olympians-achieve-top-performance-91721">competitive edge</a>, a weekend warrior tracking progress or someone who is just trying to improve your health, consider heart rate a valuable tool in understanding the work of your amazing body as it achieves those first steps, that next 5K or even Olympic gold.</p> <p>Heart rate is one of your body’s most basic vital signs, yet many people have questions about what heart rate really tells them. What should your target heart rate be during exercise? Does it even matter?</p> <p><strong>1. What is your heart rate?</strong></p> <p>First, the basics: Your <a href="https://www.heart.org/en/health-topics/high-blood-pressure/the-facts-about-high-blood-pressure/all-about-heart-rate-pulse">heart rate</a>, also sometimes called your pulse rate, is the number of times your heart contracts per minute.</p> <p><a href="https://scholar.google.com/citations?user=uXcM0scAAAAJ&amp;hl=en&amp;oi=ao">Physiologists like me</a> focus on the contractions of the left ventricle, the chamber of the heart that generates pressure to drive blood out through the aorta and on to the entire body. The heart’s pumping capacity directly relates to its ability to deliver oxygen to the body’s organs.</p> <p>If you’re running up the stairs or hauling something heavy, your muscles and organs are going to need more oxygen to help power your actions. And so your heart beats faster.</p> <p><strong>2. How do you measure heart rate?</strong></p> <p>The easiest way to measure heart rate is <a href="https://www.healthline.com/health/how-to-check-heart-rate#target-heart-rates">to find your pulse</a> and count the number of pulses felt over the course of one minute.</p> <p>In adults, the best places to feel for a pulse are large arteries that are near the surface of the skin, such as the carotid at the side of your neck or the radial on the underside of your wrist. If feeling for the carotid pulse, don’t press hard enough to disrupt blood flow to and from the head.</p> <p>More recently, watches and other wrist-based fitness monitors have incorporated optical sensors to track heart rate. These <a href="https://support.apple.com/en-us/HT204666">wearable devices</a> use technology called <a href="https://doi.org/10.1088/0967-3334/28/3/R01">photoplethysmography</a>, which has been around since the <a href="https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/0031-9155/19/3/003">mid-1970s</a>. Each beat of your heart sends a little surge of blood through your veins. The monitor detects this by shining green light onto your skin and then analyzing the light that gets refracted back by the <a href="https://theconversation.com/blood-in-your-veins-is-not-blue-heres-why-its-always-red-97064">red blood flowing underneath</a>.</p> <p>This kind of heart-rate monitoring is popular, but it has <a href="https://theconversation.com/some-heart-rate-monitors-give-less-reliable-readings-for-people-of-colour-121007">shortcomings for people with dark skin</a>.</p> <p>Some exercisers rely on chest straps that measure electrical activity and then transmit that signal to a watch or other display device. This technique depends on picking up the electrical signals within your body that direct your heart to beat.</p> <p>For the most part, the two techniques are <a href="https://doi.org/10.1186/s13102-018-0098-0">about equally accurate</a>.</p> <p><strong>3. What controls your heart rate?</strong></p> <p>Your autonomic nervous system is mostly in charge of your heart rate. That’s the portion of the nervous system that runs without your even thinking about it.</p> <p>In <a href="https://doi.org/10.1136/hrt.2005.079400">healthy hearts</a>, as someone begins to exercise, the autonomic nervous system does two things. First, it removes the “brake” that keeps your heart beating slowly and steadily under normal conditions. And then it “hits the gas” to actively stimulate the heart to beat faster.</p> <p>In addition, the amount of blood ejected from the left ventricle with each heart beat – called the stroke volume – increases, particularly during the initial stages of exercise.</p> <p>Together, higher stroke volume and more beats per minute mean the amount of blood delivered by the heart increases to match the increased oxygen demand of exercising muscles.</p> <p><strong>4. How does heart rate relate to exercise intensity?</strong></p> <p>As your exercise session becomes more intense and more work is done, your heart beats faster and faster. This relationship means you can use heart rate as a surrogate measure for the intensity of exertion, relative to one’s maximal heart rate.</p> <p>Your maximum heart rate is the fastest your heart can functionally beat. So how do you know what your number actually is?</p> <p>In order to determine your maximum heart rate, you could do increasingly difficult exercise, like walking on a treadmill and increasing the grade each minute, until you can no longer keep up. But it’s much more common (and often safer!) to estimate it. Many studies have identified that <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2188839">maximal heart rate goes down with age</a>, and thus age is included in all estimation equations.</p> <p>The most common and simplest prediction equation is: Maximal heart rate is equal to 220 minus your age. From that number, you can calculate a percentage of maximum to provide <a href="https://www.heart.org/en/healthy-living/fitness/fitness-basics/target-heart-rates">target heart rate ranges</a> in the moderate (50%-70%) or vigorous (70%-85%) categories of exercise, important in terms of meeting the <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/physicalactivity/basics/index.htm">recommended levels of exercise</a> for overall health benefits.</p> <p><iframe id="nRCoQ" class="tc-infographic-datawrapper" src="https://datawrapper.dwcdn.net/nRCoQ/4/" height="400px" width="100%" style="border: none;" frameborder="0"></iframe></p> <p>Interestingly, this equation, while perhaps most common, <a href="https://www.researchgate.net/publication/237258265_The_surprising_history_of_the_HRmax220-age_equation">wasn’t based upon empirical research</a> and is not as accurate as others you can try, like <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/S0735-1097(00)01054-8">your age multiplied by 0.7 and then subtracted from 208</a>.</p> <p>As with any prediction equation, there is always some individual variability. To accurately know your max heart rate at your current age, you’d need to measure it during maximal exercise.</p> <p><strong>5. Why is exercise intensity important?</strong></p> <p>In addition to helping you to know whether you’re meeting general recommendations for exercise, knowing the intensity of a given workout session can be of benefit in other ways.</p> <p>First, the body uses different primary sources of energy to fuel exercise of different relative intensities. During lower-intensity exercise, a greater proportion of the energy you’re using comes from fat sources in your body. During higher-intensity exercise, more of the energy utilized comes from carbohydrate sources.</p> <p>But don’t slow that treadmill down just yet if you’re hoping to drop pounds of fat. Lower-intensity exercise also requires less energy overall. So, to burn the same amount of calories with lower-intensity exercise, you’ll need to exercise for longer than you would at a higher intensity.</p> <p>Secondly, the intensity of a set amount of work – like a particular speed/grade combo on the treadmill, or a certain wattage on a rowing ergometer – reflects your overall fitness. Once you can complete the same amount of work at a lower relative intensity – like if you can run a mile in the same amount of time but with your heart beating slower than it did in the past – you know you’ve gained fitness. And increased fitness is associated with a <a href="https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2018.3605">decrease in death from any cause</a>.<!-- Below is The Conversation's page counter tag. Please DO NOT REMOVE. --><img style="border: none !important; box-shadow: none !important; margin: 0 !important; max-height: 1px !important; max-width: 1px !important; min-height: 1px !important; min-width: 1px !important; opacity: 0 !important; outline: none !important; padding: 0 !important; text-shadow: none !important;" src="https://counter.theconversation.com/content/124066/count.gif?distributor=republish-lightbox-basic" alt="The Conversation" width="1" height="1" /><!-- End of code. If you don't see any code above, please get new code from the Advanced tab after you click the republish button. The page counter does not collect any personal data. More info: http://theconversation.com/republishing-guidelines --></p> <p><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/anne-r-crecelius-663313">Anne R. Crecelius</a>, Associate Professor of Health and Sport Science, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/university-of-dayton-1726">University of Dayton</a></em></p> <p><em>This article is republished from <a href="http://theconversation.com">The Conversation</a> under a Creative Commons license. Read the <a href="https://theconversation.com/tracking-your-heart-rate-5-questions-answered-about-what-that-number-really-means-124066">original article</a>.</em></p>

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4 things to help treat constipation

<p>Chronic constipation is incredibly common. Around <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30364088">one in four people</a> worldwide report symptoms, while in Australia and New Zealand, it’s around <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18269746">one in seven</a>.</p> <p>Lots of things can trigger <a href="https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/conditionsandtreatments/constipation">constipation</a>: being out of your usual routine (think holidays, illness or injury), <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31292358">having a low fibre intake, not drinking enough water</a> and <a href="https://www.health.harvard.edu/diseases-and-conditions/common-causes-of-constipation">inactivity</a>.</p> <p><a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29382180">Certain medications</a> can also cause constipation including iron supplements, painkillers, diuretics (to help you get rid of sodium and water), and other drugs to treat heart disease, mental health conditions and allergies.</p> <p>Constipation is more common in <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16342852">older adults</a> and in <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10805262">women</a>, due to hormonal changes that slow bowel motility – the time it takes for your body to digest food and expel the waste products (stools or bowel motions). <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25803402">Pregnant</a> women are particularly prone to constipation.</p> <p><strong>How do you know you’re constipated?</strong></p> <p>Symptoms include:</p> <ol> <li><a href="https://www.continence.org.au/pages/bristol-stool-chart.html">lumpy or hard stools</a></li> <li>feeling that your bowels haven’t emptied completely or your <a href="https://www.webmd.com/digestive-disorders/picture-of-the-anus#1">anus</a> is blocked</li> <li>straining to pass a bowel motion</li> <li>manipulating your body position to try and pass a bowel motion</li> <li>having fewer than three bowel motions per week.</li> </ol> <p>If over a three-month period you answer yes to <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30364088">two or more of these symptoms</a> most weeks, then you have “constipation”.</p> <p>The good news is it can be treated and then prevented.</p> <p>If your bowels are so packed you can’t pass any bowel motions at all, see your GP. You may need treatment with specific laxatives to clear your bowels before you can start on a prevention plan.</p> <p>Here are four things that research shows improve bowel function, which refers to the time it takes for food to move through your digestive system and be expelled as a bowel motion (called gut transit time), the frequency and volume of bowel motions, and stool consistency.</p> <p><strong>1. High-fibre foods</strong></p> <p>Dietary fibres are <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28676135">complex carbohydrates that aren’t digested or absorbed</a> in the gut.</p> <p>Different types of dietary fibres improve bowel function through the following processes:</p> <ul> <li> <p>the fermentation of fibre in the colon produces water and other molecules. These make stools <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27170558">softer and easier to pass</a></p> </li> <li> <p>absorption of water into stools stimulates the gut to contract and makes bowel motions softer</p> </li> <li> <p>a higher fibre intake creates bigger stools, which pass more quickly, resulting in more regular bowel motions.</p> </li> </ul> <p>A good source of fibre is psyllium. It forms a viscous gel, which gets fermented in the colon, leading to softer bowel motions. Psyllium is the main ingredient in Metamucil, which is commonly used to treat constipation.</p> <p>A review <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31764399">comparing the effect of psyllium to wheat bran</a> in people with chronic constipation found psyllium was 3.4 times more effective at increasing the amount of stool passed.</p> <p>This is important because having a bigger bowel motion waiting in the colon to be passed sends signals to your gut that it’s time to expel the stool – and it helps the gut contract to do just that.</p> <p>The review found <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31764399">both psyllium and coarse wheat bran had a stool-softening effect</a>, but finely ground wheat bran had a stool-hardening effect.</p> <p>Other foods rich in fermentable carbohydrates include dark rye bread and <a href="https://daa.asn.au/smart-eating-for-you/smart-eating-fast-facts/food-and-food-products/legumes-what-are-they-and-how-can-i-use-them/">legumes</a> (chickpeas, lentils, four-bean mix, red kidney beans, baked beans); while <a href="https://nomoneynotime.com.au/hacks-myths-faqs/how-much-fibre-should-i-be-eating">wholemeal and wholegrain breads</a> and cereals are high in different types of dietary fibres.</p> <p><strong>2. Kiwi fruit</strong></p> <p><a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30706488">Kiwi fruit fibre</a> absorbs about three times its weight in water. This means it helps make stools softer and boosts volume by increasing the amount of water retained in bowel motions. This stimulates the gut to contract and moves the bowel motions along the gut to the anus.</p> <p>In a <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12074185">study of 38 healthy older adults</a>, researchers found adding two to three kiwi fruit per day to their diets for three weeks resulted in participants passing bowel motions more often. It also increased the size of their stools and made them softer and easier to pass.</p> <p>Kiwi fruit are also <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30706488">rich in the complex carbohydrate inulin</a> a type of <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fructan">fructan</a>. Fructans are a <em>prebiotic</em> fibre, meaning they encourage growth of healthy bacteria in the colon.</p> <p>But fructans can also <a href="https://www.monashfodmap.com/ibs-central/i-have-ibs/">aggravate symptoms in some people with irritable bowel syndrome</a> (IBS). If you have IBS and constipation, check in with your GP before upping your fructan intake.</p> <p>If you don’t like kiwi fruit, other <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17625872">vegetables and fruit high in fructans</a> include spring onion, artichoke, shallots, leek, onion (brown, white and Spanish), beetroot, Brussels sprouts, white peaches, watermelon, honeydew melon and nectarines.</p> <p><strong>3. Prunes</strong></p> <p><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prune">Prunes</a> are dried plums. They contain a large amount of sorbitol, a complex carbohydrate that passes undigested into the colon where bacteria ferment it. This produces gas and water, which triggers an increase in bowel movements.</p> <p>Eating prunes is even more effective than psyllium in improving stool frequency and consistency.</p> <p>One study of adults with constipation compared <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25109788">eating 100 grams (about ten) prunes</a> a day for three weeks to those who ate psyllium. The prune group passed an average of 3.5 separate bowel motions per week compared to 2.8 in the psyllium group.</p> <p>The prune group’s stools were also softer. They rated, on average, 3.2 on the <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol_stool_scale">Bristol stool chart</a> compared to 2.8 for the psyllium group, meaning their bowel motions were more toward smooth to cracked sausage-shaped motions rather than lumpy ones.</p> <p><img src="https://images.theconversation.com/files/141158/original/image-20161011-3909-p1j1kp.png?ixlib=rb-1.1.0&amp;q=45&amp;auto=format&amp;w=754&amp;fit=clip" alt="" /> <span class="caption"></span> <span class="attribution"><span class="source">The Conversation</span>, <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0/" class="license">CC BY-ND</a></span></p> <p>If you don’t like prunes, <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19765364">other foods that contain sorbitol</a> include apples, pears, cherries, apricots, plums and “sugar-free” chewing gum and “sugar-free” lollies.</p> <p><strong>4. Water</strong></p> <p>Not drinking enough water is the <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27933718">strongest predictor of constipation</a>. When your body is a bit dehydrated, there’s less water for the fibre in your colon to absorb, meaning your bowel motions also become dehydrated and harder to pass.</p> <p><a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27933718">Aim for</a> around 1.5 to two litres of fluid per day, which can include liquids such as tea, coffee, soup, juice, and even jelly and the liquid from stewed fruit.</p> <p><strong>Putting it all together</strong></p> <p>Start by increasing the amount of water or other liquids you drink. You should be drinking enough that your urine is the colour of straw.</p> <p>Next, add in psyllium. Start with a tablespoon once a day with breakfast cereal.</p> <p>Psyllium forms a gel as soon as it comes into contact with liquids so to make psyllium more palatable, mix it with a small amount of stewed fruit or yoghurt and eat it straight away. If needed, increase psyllium to twice a day.</p> <p>At least once a day, have some prunes (either dried or canned) or kiwi fruit and a variety of other foods high in fibre, fructans, sorbitol and fermentable carbohydrate.</p> <p>If your bowel habits don’t improve, see your GP.<!-- Below is The Conversation's page counter tag. Please DO NOT REMOVE. --><img style="border: none !important; box-shadow: none !important; margin: 0 !important; max-height: 1px !important; max-width: 1px !important; min-height: 1px !important; min-width: 1px !important; opacity: 0 !important; outline: none !important; padding: 0 !important; text-shadow: none !important;" src="https://counter.theconversation.com/content/123364/count.gif?distributor=republish-lightbox-basic" alt="The Conversation" width="1" height="1" /><!-- End of code. If you don't see any code above, please get new code from the Advanced tab after you click the republish button. The page counter does not collect any personal data. More info: http://theconversation.com/republishing-guidelines --></p> <p><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/clare-collins-7316">Clare Collins</a>, Professor in Nutrition and Dietetics, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/university-of-newcastle-1060">University of Newcastle</a></em></p> <p><em>This article is republished from <a href="http://theconversation.com">The Conversation</a> under a Creative Commons license. Read the <a href="https://theconversation.com/had-constipation-here-are-4-things-to-help-treat-it-123364">original article</a>.</em></p>

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The real reason women live longer than men

<p>Ask your smartphone how to drive from Copenhagen to Berlin and it will give you an estimate of how long the trip will take, based on current traffic. If there is a traffic jam in Hamburg, say, the extra time this traffic jam takes will be included in the estimate. But, of course, you are not at all the points of your journey now. Rather, you’ll be in Copenhagen first, then at Odense, then Kolding, and so forth. By the time you get to Hamburg, there may no longer be a traffic jam. The estimate your smartphone gave you will be off. Life expectancy is calculated in much the same way.</p> <p>Life expectancy in 2019 is calculated using the chances of survival for all ages in 2019: those who turned 70 in 2019, those who turned 69 in 2019, those who turned 71 … you get the point. But nobody actually has all their birthdays in 2019. People have at most one birthday a year (less than one for some of those who died that year and those born on February 29). Since I turned 35 in 2019, why should the 2019 chances of survival for a 70-year-old matter to me? By the time I turn 70, the world will have changed. The estimate will be off.</p> <p>But your smartphone also tells you something like “31 minutes extra travel time due to a traffic jam”. With this information, you can guess how long the trip will take assuming that the traffic jam will be resolved by the time you get there: just subtract those 31 minutes. Every part of the journey has a travelling time and you can pick those pieces apart.</p> <p>Similarly, life expectancy is built up out of many small pieces, one for each age, and demographers can pick those pieces apart. We did that to answer questions such as: “what is the part of life expectancy lived between ages 50 and 85?” (which will be a number between 0 and 35). And “suppose that in 2015 no 70-year-old died of smoking (for example through lung cancer), what would that life expectancy have been?” And “how has the importance of smoking-related deaths been changing, and was that different for men and women?”</p> <p>Throw all that in the mixer and you get some interesting results, which my colleagues and I – a team from the University of Southern Denmark and University of Groningen – published in <a href="https://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12889-020-8148-4">BMC Public Health</a>.</p> <p>We studied the part of life expectancy lived between ages 50 and 85 for high-income North America, high-income Europe and high-income Oceania for the period 1950-2015. Around 1950, males lived about two and a half years less than females. Around 1980, this difference had increased to about four and a half years. Then the difference in life expectancy declined to new lows of about two years in 2015.</p> <p>All of that increase and subsequent decrease was due to smoking. Remove smoking and you get an almost flat line at only two years, which is what the difference in life expectancy between ages 50 and 85 would have been if nobody had smoked.</p> <p><strong>Long time coming</strong></p> <p>If smoking is so bad, why are we seeing all of these early deaths? Why aren’t people smarter? Well, if cigarettes killed you right away, nobody would touch them. The problem is that cigarettes do kill you – only decades later.</p> <p>Because, historically, men started smoking earlier and heavier than women, any effect of smoking on life expectancy shows in males first. While medical doctors were coming to the conclusion that smoking is bad – basing their conclusions on evidence from men – women decided it was time to take up smoking. Now, decades later, the effect of smoking (death) is declining in males but still increasing for older females who smoked in the past. This gives rise to a four-wave pattern dubbed “the smoking epidemic”: first men smoke, then men start dying from smoking at around the same time women start smoking, then women start dying from smoking.</p> <p>In the final phase of the smoking epidemic, people get smarter and stop smoking. This last part of the smoking epidemic, however, is the more difficult part. Unfortunately, people keep smoking (big tobacco is doing just fine).</p> <p>But our study also showed some good news. Recently, there was a big drop in smoking-related deaths for people of around 50 years old. While smoking is certainly not down and out, at least some people seem to get that tobacco is a killer.<!-- Below is The Conversation's page counter tag. Please DO NOT REMOVE. --><img style="border: none !important; box-shadow: none !important; margin: 0 !important; max-height: 1px !important; max-width: 1px !important; min-height: 1px !important; min-width: 1px !important; opacity: 0 !important; outline: none !important; padding: 0 !important; text-shadow: none !important;" src="https://counter.theconversation.com/content/130142/count.gif?distributor=republish-lightbox-basic" alt="The Conversation" width="1" height="1" /><!-- End of code. If you don't see any code above, please get new code from the Advanced tab after you click the republish button. The page counter does not collect any personal data. More info: http://theconversation.com/republishing-guidelines --></p> <p><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/maarten-wensink-941141">Maarten Wensink</a>, Assistant Professor, Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Biodemography, <a href="https://theconversation.com/institutions/university-of-southern-denmark-1097">University of Southern Denmark</a></em></p> <p><em>This article is republished from <a href="http://theconversation.com">The Conversation</a> under a Creative Commons license. Read the <a href="https://theconversation.com/the-real-reason-women-live-longer-than-men-new-study-130142">original article</a>.</em></p>

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Woman’s X-ray from car crash reveals dangers of common habit

<p>A UK police officer has released an X-ray of a car crash victim to warn other passengers against putting their feet on the dashboard.</p> <p>An unidentified woman had one of her hips broken and the other dislocated in a car accident while her feet were propped on the vehicle’s dashboard.</p> <p>Wales police sergeant Ian Price took to Twitter to share the X-ray initially posted by the Platinum Ambulance Service to warn other front-seat passengers against the habit.</p> <p>“Here is an X-ray of horrific injuries sustained to the front seat passenger who had their feet on the dashboard at the time of a collision,” he wrote. “If you see your passenger doing it stop driving and show them this.”</p> <blockquote class="twitter-tweet"> <p dir="ltr">Here is an X-ray of horrific injuries sustained to the front seat passenger who had their feet on the dashboard at the time of a collision. If you see your passenger doing it stop driving and show them this. <a href="https://t.co/f3XCT8ePvi">pic.twitter.com/f3XCT8ePvi</a></p> — 🏴󠁧󠁢󠁷󠁬󠁳󠁿 Sgt 121 Ian Price 🏴󠁧󠁢󠁷󠁬󠁳󠁿 (@DPGoSafeSkipper) <a href="https://twitter.com/DPGoSafeSkipper/status/1220030119735103489?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">January 22, 2020</a></blockquote> <p>According to trauma surgeon Dr John Crozier, putting up feet on the dashboard may in a crash cause <a href="https://www.mynrma.com.au/cars-and-driving/driver-training-and-licences/resources/feet-on-dash">death or serious injuries</a> such as a ruptured bowl, spinal cord damage and paralysis.</p> <p>In 2016, more than 400 people in Australia were admitted to hospital with injuries related to putting their feet up on the dashboard.</p>

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How to help babies stay a healthy weight

<p>How babies are fed is often a topic of hot discussion. It’s known that babies should be introduced gradually to solid foods <a href="https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/pregnancy-and-baby/solid-foods-weaning/">at around six months old</a>. But in recent years, another question has arisen: should parents be spoon-feeding babies special pureed baby foods or could they just join in <a href="https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2012/feb/08/baby-led-weaning">with the family and feed themselves</a> from the very start?</p> <p>Known as <a href="http://www.babyledweaning.com">baby-led weaning</a>, parents who follow the method believe it has lots of <a href="https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1740-8709.2011.00360.x">benefits for their baby</a>, such as encouraging them to eat a range of foods and stay a healthy weight. Research suggests that babies who feed themselves are <a href="https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.2047-6310.2013.00207.x">less likely to be fussy</a> and more likely to <a href="https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/jhn.12616">eat a wider variety of food</a>. But what about their weight?</p> <p>Research examining this so far <a href="https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13668-017-0201-2">has been mixed</a>. But in <a href="https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/mcn.12941">our new study</a> of 269 babies, we found that when babies were breastfed, there was no difference in weight for those who were spoon-fed or self-fed. But when babies were bottle fed, those who were spoon-fed were heavier than those who self-fed.</p> <p>This is potentially because as long as babies have some opportunity to be “in charge” of how much they eat, they may be better able to eat according to what they need rather than how much food a caregiver might encourage them to eat.</p> <p><strong>Milk matters too</strong></p> <p>Previous research into the impact of solid foods and weight has not really explored how the other part of a baby’s diet – their milk feeds – might play a role.</p> <p>Indeed, solid foods should only be part of a baby’s diet. Babies who are between six and 12 months should still be getting lots of energy <a href="https://www.unicef.org/parenting/food-nutrition/feeding-your-baby-6-12-months">from breast or formula milk</a>. In fact, at six to eight months old, babies only need <a href="https://static1.squarespace.com/static/59f75004f09ca48694070f3b/t/5ceed06a15fcc07f8822270b/1559154825802/Eating_well_first_year_April19_for_web.pdf">less than 200 calories a day</a> from solid foods.</p> <p>Research with older children shows that using a “<a href="http://www.aijcrnet.com/journals/Vol_7_No_2_June_2017/9.pdf">responsive feeding style</a>”, where lots of healthy options are offered but parents don’t put too much pressure on how much children eat, is associated with <a href="https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01849">a healthier weight and more varied diet</a>. Children are better able to listen to their own hunger cues and don’t crave foods that are “banned” so much – meaning they are less likely to overeat.</p> <p>Research with younger babies shows that <a href="https://kellymom.com/ages/newborn/bf-basics/importance-responsive-feeding/">being “responsive” during milk feeds</a> also matters. For example, bottle fed babies who are fed responsively – with parents looking for cues they are full – <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3572635">drink less than those who are encouraged to finish a bottle</a>.</p> <p>Breastfeeding might <a href="https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0083893">make responsive feeding easier</a> as you cannot see how much a baby has drunk, so you have to trust they will feed if they are hungry. It’s also difficult to persuade a baby who doesn’t want to breastfeed to do so. But if you are bottle feeding you can see how much is left and might worry that baby <a href="https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1365-277X.2010.01145.x">needs to finish the bottle</a>.</p> <p>This might explain why babies who are breastfed are more likely to be able <a href="https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.2047-6310.2012.00071.x">to control their appetite</a> as toddlers and are <a href="https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.3109/17477160902763309">less likely to be overweight</a>.</p> <p><strong>Feeding your baby responsively</strong></p> <p><a href="http://orca.cf.ac.uk/91927/">Decisions around feeding babies are complicated</a> and some mothers <a href="https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/jan.12832">might face challenges breastfeeding</a> or <a href="https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/mcn.12166">worry about giving their baby solid foods</a>. But the good news is that most babies, unless there is a particular medical worry about their growth, should be able to have opportunity to be “in charge” of how much they eat.</p> <p>If you are bottle feeding, try not to worry too much about when and how much your baby feeds. Instead, try <a href="https://www.unicef.org.uk/babyfriendly/baby-friendly-resources/bottle-feeding-resources/infant-formula-responsive-bottle-feeding-guide-for-parents/">“paced” or “responsive” feeding</a>, where smaller amounts of milk are made up and you watch carefully for signs your baby is full.</p> <p>To do this gently, offer your baby the bottle by stroking their lip and wait for them to show they are ready –- they will open their mouth if they are hungry. Pause regularly and stop when your baby starts to show signs of being full, such as turning their head or pushing the bottle out. Don’t try to encourage them to finish the bottle.</p> <p>If you are spoon-feeding, <a href="https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/pregnancy-and-baby/solid-foods-weaning/">let your baby set the pace of the meal</a>. Offer them small spoonfuls and, again, pause in between, looking for signs they have had enough such as turning their head or pushing lots back out. Don’t try to persuade them to finish a jar or eat too quickly.</p> <p>Remember, guidelines suggest that however you feed your baby you <a href="https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/pregnancy-and-baby/solid-foods-weaning/">can give them finger foods from the start of weaning</a>. Try foods such as soft cooked sticks of parsnip, broccoli or yam, flakes of fish or toast fingers. Cut food into pieces large enough for them to pick up, so that the food sticks out of the top of their fist. But make sure you avoid foods that could snap off in your baby’s mouth such as hard apple slices or raw carrot sticks or small hard foods such as nuts or popcorn.</p> <p>Some babies might not eat much at first when they self-feed, but don’t worry. Remember, the <a href="https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13679-018-0297-8">experience of learning to eat is important too</a>. Letting babies play with food, feeling its texture and learning how it tastes is all part of their development – just put a mat down and try not to worry too much about the mess!<!-- Below is The Conversation's page counter tag. Please DO NOT REMOVE. --><img style="border: none !important; box-shadow: none !important; margin: 0 !important; max-height: 1px !important; max-width: 1px !important; min-height: 1px !important; min-width: 1px !important; opacity: 0 !important; outline: none !important; padding: 0 !important; text-shadow: none !important;" src="https://counter.theconversation.com/content/129961/count.gif?distributor=republish-lightbox-basic" alt="The Conversation" width="1" height="1" /><!-- End of code. If you don't see any code above, please get new code from the Advanced tab after you click the republish button. The page counter does not collect any personal data. More info: http://theconversation.com/republishing-guidelines --></p> <p><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/sara-wyn-jones-379117">Sara Wyn Jones</a>, PhD researcher in Public Health, <a href="http://theconversation.com/institutions/swansea-university-2638">Swansea University</a>; <a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/amy-brown-279356">Amy Brown</a>, Professor of Child Public Health, <a href="http://theconversation.com/institutions/swansea-university-2638">Swansea University</a>, and <a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/michelle-lee-602893">Michelle Lee</a>, Professor of Psychology, <a href="http://theconversation.com/institutions/swansea-university-2638">Swansea University</a></em></p> <p><em>This article is republished from <a href="http://theconversation.com">The Conversation</a> under a Creative Commons license. Read the <a href="https://theconversation.com/let-babies-be-in-charge-of-how-much-they-eat-it-could-help-them-stay-a-healthy-weight-129961">original article</a>.</em></p>

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Do blind people have better hearing?

<p>The sensation of sound occurs when the vibrations from sounds enter our ear and cause little hairlike structures – called hair cells – within our inner ear to move back and forth. The hair cells transform this movement into an electrical signal that the brain can use.</p> <p>How well a person can hear largely depends on how intact these hair cells are. Once lost, they don’t grow back – and this is no different for blind people. So blind people can’t physically hear better than others.</p> <p>Yet blind people often outperform sighted people in hearing tasks such as <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378595515300174">locating the source of sounds</a>. The reason for this emerges when we look beyond the sensory organs, at what is happening with the brain, and how the sensory information is processed by it.</p> <p>Perception occurs when the brain interprets signals that our sensory organs provide, and different parts of the brain respond to the information arriving from different sensory organs. There are areas that process visual information (the visual cortex) and areas that process sound information (the auditory cortex). But when a sense like vision is lost, the brain does something remarkable: it <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3898172/">reorganises the functions of these brain areas</a>.</p> <p>In blind people, the visual cortex gets a bit “bored” without visual input and starts to “rewire” itself, becoming more responsive to information from the other remaining senses. So blind people may have lost their vision, but this leaves a larger brain capacity for processing the information from other senses.</p> <p>The extent of reorganisation in the brain depends on when someone loses their sight. The <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3898172/">brain can reorganise itself at any point in life</a>, including adulthood, but during childhood the brain is more able to adapt to change. This is because during childhood the brain is still developing and the new organisation of the brain does not have to compete with an existing one. As a result, people who have been blind from a very early age show a <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3898172/">much greater level of reorganisation in the brain</a>.</p> <p>People who become blind early in life tend to outperform sighted people, as well as those who became blind later in life, in <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/430309a">hearing</a> and <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960982203009849">touch</a> perceptual tasks.</p> <p><strong>Echolocation</strong></p> <p>The reorganisation in the brain also means that blind people are sometimes able to learn how to use their remaining senses in interesting ways. For example, some blind people learn to sense the location and size of objects around them using <a href="https://community.dur.ac.uk/lore.thaler/thaler_goodale_echo_review2016.pdf">echolocation</a>.</p> <p><iframe width="440" height="260" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/2IKT2akh0Ng?wmode=transparent&amp;start=0" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen=""></iframe></p> <p>By producing clicks with their mouths and listening for the echoes, blind people can locate objects in their surroundings. This ability is tightly linked with the <a href="https://community.dur.ac.uk/lore.thaler/thaler_goodale_echo_review2016.pdf">brain activity in the visual cortex</a>. In fact, the visual cortex in blind echolocators responds to sound information in almost the same way as it does to visual information in the sighted. In other words, in blind echolocators, hearing has replaced vision in the brain to a very large extent.</p> <p>But not every blind person is automatically an expert echolocator. Whether a blind person is able to develop a skill like echolocation depends on the time spent learning this task – <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378595514000185">even sighted people can learn this skill with enough training</a>, but blind people will probably benefit from their reorganised brain being more tuned towards the remaining senses.</p> <p>Blind people will also rely more on their remaining senses to do everyday tasks, which means that they train their remaining senses on a daily basis. The reorganised brain together with the greater experience in using their remaining senses are believed to be important factors in blind people having an edge over sighted people in hearing and touch.<!-- Below is The Conversation's page counter tag. Please DO NOT REMOVE. --><img style="border: none !important; box-shadow: none !important; margin: 0 !important; max-height: 1px !important; max-width: 1px !important; min-height: 1px !important; min-width: 1px !important; opacity: 0 !important; outline: none !important; padding: 0 !important; text-shadow: none !important;" src="https://counter.theconversation.com/content/102282/count.gif?distributor=republish-lightbox-basic" alt="The Conversation" width="1" height="1" /><!-- End of code. If you don't see any code above, please get new code from the Advanced tab after you click the republish button. The page counter does not collect any personal data. More info: http://theconversation.com/republishing-guidelines --></p> <p><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/loes-van-dam-543699">Loes van Dam</a>, Lecturer in Psychology, <a href="http://theconversation.com/institutions/university-of-essex-1291">University of Essex</a></em></p> <p><em>This article is republished from <a href="http://theconversation.com">The Conversation</a> under a Creative Commons license. Read the <a href="https://theconversation.com/do-blind-people-have-better-hearing-102282">original article</a>.</em></p>

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Why your risks of breast cancer increase as the oceans rise

<p>It is encouraging to see greater attention in the media to the issue of climate change and its effects on the life-support systems of the planet. The link between breast cancer and the environment, however, is being overlooked.</p> <p>Premenopausal women exposed to high levels of air pollution have a 30 per cent increased risk for breast cancer, according to <a href="https://journals.lww.com/environepidem/Fulltext/2018/09000/Residential_exposure_to_fine_particulate_matter.2.aspx">a paper in <em>Environmental Epidemiology</em></a> published by Paul Villeneuve, a professor of occupational and environmental health at Carleton University, and his research team last year.</p> <p>This should trigger a wake-up call given that we tend to think of breast cancer as a disease of aging women.</p> <p>In fact, the science of breast cancer tells us that “<a href="https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1179/107735209799449761">genetic susceptibility makes only a small to moderate contribution</a>” to breast cancer. The known risk factors — such as family history, age, gender, ethnicity and hormones — account for <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22129067">only around three in 10 cases</a>.</p> <p>The other 70 per cent are likely related mostly to environment — including the air, water and soil, the places we live and work in and the products we consume — according to current research.</p> <p>In Canada, <a href="http://www.cancer.ca/en/cancer-information/cancer-type/breast/statistics/?region=on">over 26,300 women were diagnosed with breast cancer in 2017</a> so that 70 per cent represents a lot of women.</p> <p><strong>Carcinogens in the workplace</strong></p> <p><a href="https://doi.org/10.1186/1476-069X-11-87">Our work environments</a> are part of this story.</p> <p>A paper published last November in <em>New Solutions Journal</em> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1177/1048291118810900">points to workplace exposures as the cause for one woman’s breast cancer</a>.</p> <p>Using the evidence presented at a worker’s compensation hearing, Michael Gilbertson, a former federal government biologist who studied the health effects of toxic chemicals, and Jim Brophy, an occupational health researcher, found that they could infer a causal relationship between the woman’s diagnosis of breast cancer and her high exposure to air pollution — as a border guard at the bridge connecting Windsor, Ont. to Detroit, Mich.</p> <p>Despite the scientific evidence highlighting environmental factors and the important role they likely play in contributing to breast cancer, the woman at the bridge was denied compensation.</p> <p>She was denied even though breast cancers were occurring in this region at a rate up to 16 times higher than the rest of the county, and in an environment with <a href="https://doi.org/10.1002/cncr.22653">pollutants containing known breast carcinogens</a> such as benzene and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.</p> <p>It is not surprising, given that environment is regularly ignored when we talk about breast cancer.</p> <p><strong>A disease of our communities</strong></p> <p>When researchers study what women know about breast cancer they find a focus on cures, detection and treatments. What’s often missing from their list is prevention, and <a href="https://doi.org/10.1080/10410236.2010.496836">prevention is often confused with early detection</a>.</p> <p>Primary prevention means stopping cancer before it starts — not finding it and treating it early, although that too is important. Women’s knowledge of breast cancer is importantly <a href="https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9566.00274">connected to media and medical practitioner’s messages</a>.</p> <p>Forecasts of the future of cancer tell us that <a href="https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/chronic-diseases/cancer/canadian-cancer-statistics.html">one in two Canadians</a> will likely be diagnosed with cancer in their lifetime. Projections show rising rates of many cancers, including breast cancer.</p> <p>Dr. Ted Schettler, who wrote <a href="https://www.healthandenvironment.org/docs/EcologyOfBreastCancer_Schettler.pdf"><em>The Ecology of Breast Cancer</em></a> argues:</p> <blockquote> <p>“breast cancer is not only a disease of abnormal cells, but also of communities we create and live in.”</p> </blockquote> <p>If we apply his argument, it means we can create conditions for fewer future breast cancers. The question then becomes how?</p> <p><strong>We cannot blame women</strong></p> <p>To start, we need to make prevention at least as much a priority as early detection, better treatments and the search for cures. We also have to take a good look at all suspected causes.</p> <p>Conversations about prevention often stir debate about what is to blame for the breast cancer rates we are seeing. But an aging population of women who make bad lifestyle choices doesn’t explain increases in breast cancers in more and younger women.</p> <p>It doesn’t explain why women who migrate from countries with lower rates of breast cancer develop the same rates within 10 years of living in their new homes. It also doesn’t explain the clusters of breast cancers in regions with high levels of air pollution containing definitive breast carcinogens.</p> <p>We need confidence in what the science is already showing us about the role of <a href="https://ehjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12940-017-0287-4#Sec49">environmental and workplace hazards</a> in breast cancer causation.</p> <p>Indeed, the evidence points to <a href="https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2017-10/ssi-ete101017.php">associations between numerous environmental pollutants</a> and an increased risk for breast cancer — <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17503434">including pesticides, herbicides, synthetic chemicals, endocrine disrupting chemicals and vehicle emissions</a>. <a href="https://journals.lww.com/joem/Abstract/2011/05000/Breast_Cancer_Risk_Associated_With_Residential.10.aspx">Living and working in proximity to these exposures</a>, especially during vulnerable windows of development, is <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1240618/">putting women</a> at <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22129067">high risk</a>.</p> <p><a href="https://doi.org/10.1186/1476-069X-11-87">Some occupations</a>, including radiology, pharmacy, health care, hairdressing, working with plastics, manufacturing, agriculture, working as airline crew and firefighting, also <a href="https://doi.org/10.1177/1048291118758460">carry a higher risk</a>. These <a href="https://d124kohvtzl951.cloudfront.net/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/02025357/Report_Working-Women-and-Breast-Cancer_August_2015.pdf">occupational sectors employ thousands of thousands of women</a> worldwide.</p> <p>We need greater awareness and extended programmes that focus on these environmental and workplace causes. And we need to create and enforce policies and put regulations in place that prevent such exposures.</p> <p><strong>The climate change link</strong></p> <p>The women in Paul Villeneuve’s study are not unlike the female border guard. These cases are all linked to high levels of air pollution. Their stories are those of countless other women who face exposures to breast carcinogens in many Canadian urban environments and workplaces with high levels of traffic and industrial pollution.</p> <p>We also have evidence that these exposures are increasing, as our climate is changing. This link is complex, as is so much about cancer generally. Air pollution is <a href="https://www.who.int/sustainable-development/AirPollution_Climate_Health_Factsheet.pdf">one of the many causes of climate change</a> as well as <a href="https://journals.lww.com/environepidem/Fulltext/2018/09000/Residential_exposure_to_fine_particulate_matter.2.aspx">breast cancer</a>.</p> <p>It is also believed that increased ambient air temperatures may change the effects of chemical contaminants on humans and that increased precipitation and flooding will <a href="https://setac.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/etc.2046">move contaminants to places where greater exposure by humans is possible</a>.</p> <p>Finally, as the incidence of fires increase with climate change, exposures to chemicals associated with the development of breast cancer often found in fires also increase. Studies are now investigating <a href="http://womenfirefighterstudy.com/about/">possible elevated incidence of breast cancer among women firefighters</a>. They are clearly a highly exposed group and may be just one example of women bearing an elevated breast cancer risk.</p> <p><strong>Prevention a priority</strong></p> <p>At this important moment in history, as we debate the poor state of the environment and the adverse outcomes associated with it, we have the opportunity to make prevention of the many diseases — including breast cancer — a priority.</p> <p>Many stories report on the numerous health problems connected to climate change including other cancers, cardiovascular disease, fertility problems, asthma, adverse birth outcomes, disabilities, diabetes and stroke. And yet, despite increasing evidence of an association between breast cancer and environmental exposures, the media does not cover this piece of the story.</p> <p>We must do the work now to create a future where we won’t have to surrender our good health to unregulated exposure to known and suspected breast carcinogens. Instead we must <a href="https://deainfo.nci.nih.gov/ADVISORY/pcp/annualReports/pcp08-09rpt/PCP_Report_08-09_508.pdf">implement the precautionary principle</a> — in our communities, our workplaces and across our planet.<!-- Below is The Conversation's page counter tag. Please DO NOT REMOVE. --><img style="border: none !important; box-shadow: none !important; margin: 0 !important; max-height: 1px !important; max-width: 1px !important; min-height: 1px !important; min-width: 1px !important; opacity: 0 !important; outline: none !important; padding: 0 !important; text-shadow: none !important;" src="https://counter.theconversation.com/content/108420/count.gif?distributor=republish-lightbox-basic" alt="The Conversation" width="1" height="1" /><!-- End of code. If you don't see any code above, please get new code from the Advanced tab after you click the republish button. The page counter does not collect any personal data. More info: http://theconversation.com/republishing-guidelines --></p> <p><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/jane-e-mcarthur-613732">Jane E. McArthur</a>, Doctoral Candidate in Sociology, <a href="http://theconversation.com/institutions/university-of-windsor-3044">University of Windsor</a></em></p> <p><em>This article is republished from <a href="http://theconversation.com">The Conversation</a> under a Creative Commons license. Read the <a href="https://theconversation.com/as-the-oceans-rise-so-do-your-risks-of-breast-cancer-108420">original article</a>.</em></p>

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Why we think a better body will be a better self

<p>Is a better body a better self? Is a perfect body our best self? In the visual culture we inhabit we increasingly believe that a better body will lead to a better life, one where we are happier, have a better job, a better partner, and things go well for us.</p> <p>Think about the New Year’s resolutions we make, the majority of them are about the body – to exercise more, to change our diet, or straightforwardly to lose weight. While exercise might be undertaken <a href="https://theconversation.com/if-weight-loss-is-your-only-goal-for-exercise-its-time-to-rethink-your-priorities-120083">under the guise of health</a>, it’s often for beauty, and as beauty becomes the dominant value we, at times, risk our health for it.</p> <p>Thinking that we are our bodies is transformative, it overturns how we understand human beings. We used to think that to be better we had to change what was on the inside – to have a better character, be kinder, be a better mother or friend. In <a href="https://press.princeton.edu/books/hardcover/9780691160078/perfect-me*">my research</a>, I’ve found that we now increasingly judge ourselves and others on looks. We think that the inside will follow the outside.</p> <p>In the social media world, what matters is looking like the perfect mother rather than being the perfect mother. In a visual and virtual culture to succeed we have to look like we succeed, and make the grade when it comes to our appearance: to be thin, firm, smooth and young enough. And then, miraculously, all the rest will come to us. This is a dramatic change in what we value and what matters to us.</p> <p><strong>Surgical fixes</strong></p> <p>As our bodies have become ourselves, we are also then under pressure to “fix” them in order to fix ourselves. It’s no surprise in this context that we think changing our bodies is something we have a duty to do. Bodywork, from hair removal and constant diet and exercise to cosmetic surgery, is something we obsess about and focus our lives around.</p> <p>Many of us want to change our bodies because we feel like we are not good enough as we are. While cosmetic surgery is still a minority activity it is growing. More and more of us are going under the knife, as well as engaging in very many more beauty practices.</p> <p>This is a global trend. In 2018, more than <a href="https://baaps.org.uk/about/news/1708/cosmetic_surgery_stats_number_of_surgeries_remains_stable_amid_calls_for_greater_regulation_of_quick_fix_solutions">28,000 procedures</a> took place in the UK. In the US, the number was close to <a href="https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/324693.php#1">18 million</a>. While in South Korea, which boasts the <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6005311/">highest number of procedures per capita</a> worldwide, there were a million.</p> <p><strong>Televised ‘routine’ procedures</strong></p> <p>That cosmetic surgery is becoming normal is reflected in the TV shows we watch. Increasingly, they present cosmetic surgery not as unusual or an “extreme makeover” but routine and aspirational. <a href="https://www.channel4.com/press/news/caroline-flack-present-surjury-wt-channel-4#:%7E:targetText=Caroline%20Flack%20is%20to%20present,they've%20always%20dreamed%20of.">Channel 4’s Surjury</a> clearly buys the claim that our bodies are ourselves, and that if we fix our body we’ll fix ourselves.</p> <p>In attracting participants, the show promises to “make your surgical dreams come true”. The format involves contestants pitching their stories to a jury of strangers (and you can apply to be on the jury too) who decide which lucky contestant will have the surgery they desire.</p> <p><iframe width="440" height="260" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/VZnAetkE4Sw?wmode=transparent&amp;start=0" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen=""></iframe></p> <p>The <a href="https://www.bbc.co.uk/iplayer/episodes/p07sltv0/plastic-surgery-undressed">BBC’s Plastic Surgery Undressed</a> is less sensationalist and doesn’t pay for surgery. Instead, it takes four people considering a procedure and gives them the opportunity to learn as much about the surgery as possible, including watching one being performed by a leading surgeon.</p> <p>The show is pitched as a response <a href="https://aestheticsjournal.com/news/almost-half-of-millennials-compare-aesthetic-treatment-to-a-haircut">to a poll the BBC conducted</a> of 1,033 UK women aged between 18 and 30. The results found that 48% of respondents believed that having a cosmetic procedure is like having a haircut and that 66% indicated that they had either had a cosmetic procedure, or would consider one.</p> <p>While the show strives to educate it also normalises procedures that can raise real risks. For example, bum enhancement surgery, also known as “Brazilian butt lifts”, have seen an increase in demand but are wildly dangerous. The British Association of Aesthetic Plastic Surgeons has warned surgeons <a href="https://baaps.org.uk/media/press_releases/1630/the_bottom_line">against performing the surgery</a> until more is known and the American Society of Plastic Surgeons has dubbed it the <a href="https://theconversation.com/brazilian-butt-lifts-are-the-deadliest-of-all-aesthetic-procedures-the-risks-explained-101559">most dangerous</a> form of plastic surgery – with a <a href="https://www.newsweek.com/woman-who-died-during-butt-enhancement-surgery-allegedly-rushed-hospital-staff-inquest-told-1473386">mortality</a> rate of <a href="https://eu.usatoday.com/story/opinion/voices/2019/01/31/plastic-surgery-brazilian-butt-lifts-florida-death-column/2374585002/">1 in 3,000</a>.</p> <p><strong>The modified norm</strong></p> <p>As more people have surgery, the more normal it is, and the more people opt for it, in turn, the more normal it becomes, and so on. It might not be very long in the future when it will be normal to have surgery and abnormal not to. We can see this in other beauty practices. Body hair, for example. We have reached the stage where we now believe that a normal, and even natural, body is one that is hairless. In 2018, there was an increase in hair removal with 70% of adults removing hair from their bodies compared with 64% in 2016, according to <a href="https://store.mintel.com/uk-shaving-and-hair-removal-market-report?_ga=2.239483395.1630422344.1574349413-1107517240.1572104721">research by Mintel</a>.</p> <p>As the modified body becomes the normal body, we will spend more and more time trying to fix them - shaping, cutting, moulding and toning ourselves into our “perfect” body. A body that doesn’t and cannot exist. We all age, sag, wrinkle and die, and even those who fit the ideal will still feel they don’t measure up.</p> <p>As the practice of surgery becomes more prevalent, <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5986110/">more surgeons are being confronted</a> with patients who suffer from body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). It is believed that <a href="https://www.priorygroup.com/blog/the-risks-of-cosmetic-surgery-for-body-dysmorphic-disorder-patients">15% of people</a> seeking plastic surgery have it and fewer than 10% of BDD patients will be satisfied with the results. Instead, it is likely that their anxieties will focus upon another aspect of their appearance.</p> <p>The type of beauty ideals we aspire to cannot be achieved. No one can have perfectly smooth, pore-free, blemish-free, wrinkle-free skin. This only exists in the virtual world of make up, filters, apps and airbrushing. We all know that even celebs and influencers don’t look like their enhanced and modified images.</p> <p>While we know this, it does little to turn the rising tide of body image anxiety, shame and feelings of failure. To change this we need to focus less on what individual women do and don’t do, and instead focus on changing the culture. One way of doing this is to take the pressures to be perfect seriously and recognise how much our bodies matter in a visual and virtual culture. If our bodies are ourselves then body shaming is never OK. To begin to end this we can call out <a href="https://everydaylookism.bham.ac.uk/">lookism</a>, prejudice or discrimination based on a person’s appearance, and push back.<!-- Below is The Conversation's page counter tag. Please DO NOT REMOVE. --><img style="border: none !important; box-shadow: none !important; margin: 0 !important; max-height: 1px !important; max-width: 1px !important; min-height: 1px !important; min-width: 1px !important; opacity: 0 !important; outline: none !important; padding: 0 !important; text-shadow: none !important;" src="https://counter.theconversation.com/content/127269/count.gif?distributor=republish-lightbox-basic" alt="The Conversation" width="1" height="1" /><!-- End of code. If you don't see any code above, please get new code from the Advanced tab after you click the republish button. The page counter does not collect any personal data. More info: http://theconversation.com/republishing-guidelines --></p> <p><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/heather-widdows-129539">Heather Widdows</a>, John Ferguson Professor of Global Ethics, <a href="http://theconversation.com/institutions/university-of-birmingham-1138">University of Birmingham</a></em></p> <p><em>This article is republished from <a href="http://theconversation.com">The Conversation</a> under a Creative Commons license. Read the <a href="https://theconversation.com/new-year-new-you-why-we-think-a-better-body-will-be-a-better-self-127269">original article</a>.</em></p>

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Greek yoghurt vs ‘regular’ yoghurt: Which one is healthier?

<p>Once a rare option, Greek yoghurt has become as popular as its regular counterpart today. Fans praise Greek yoghurt as not only the tastier of two, but also the healthier alternative. But what does science say about this claim?</p> <p>While both yoghurts are made of the same ingredients – milk and live cultures – Greek yoghurt is strained more extensively to remove most of whey liquid, lactose and sugar, creating a thicker, more concentrated product.</p> <p>Because of this, Greek yoghurt can have up to twice as much protein as the regular version while cutting the sugar and sodium content by half. The removal of whey liquid also means that the sweet aftertaste is taken out, giving the yoghurt a stronger, tangier flavour.</p> <p>“For someone who wants the creamier texture, a little bit of a protein edge and a sugar decrease, going Greek is definitely not all hype,” registered dietitian Dawn Jackson Blatner told <span><a href="https://health.usnews.com/wellness/food/articles/greek-yogurt-vs-regular-yogurt-which-is-more-healthful"><em>US News</em></a></span>.</p> <p>However, Greek yoghurt packs more in the fat department. According to dietitian Carol Aguirre of Nutrition Connections, a serving size of Greek yoghurt can have <span><a href="https://www.businessinsider.com.au/whats-the-big-deal-about-greek-yogurt-2018-11?r=US&amp;IR=T">10 grams of fat with 7 grams of it being saturated fat</a></span>, while regular yoghurt contains 8 grams of fat with 5 grams saturated.</p> <p>Regular yoghurt also has higher levels of calcium, minerals and probiotics thanks to the less strenuous straining process.</p> <p>Both yoghurts can be a great addition to your diet – but the one to put in your shopping cart depends on your dietary and taste preferences.</p>

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What you should know about your colon

<p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Most of us don’t really spend a lot of time thinking about our colons… at least not until our doctors mention that dreaded first colonoscopy! Well, it turns out our colons deserve a lot more attention. The health of your colon actually plays a huge part in your overall health… from your moods to your weight and everything in between!</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">You may have noticed that the colon and gut have been a hot topic in the medical community recently. Science has even come up with a new buzz word to describe the microorganisms that live there. They’re referring to them as your microbiome, and it’s basically a jungle of bacteria that live in your colon. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">In fact, it’s estimated that there are more than 100 trillion microorganisms living in your gut, and most of these tiny critters aren’t just hitching a ride. They actually have important jobs to do! Over the past few years, science has been exploring exactly how the bacteria in your colon affect your health, and here’s what they’ve discovered.</span></p> <p><strong>Understanding the purpose of your colon</strong></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The colon is actually your large intestine. It helps the body absorb nutrients and water, as well as eliminate waste. The colon is part of the digestive system, which includes your small intestine, esophagus, stomach, and mouth. Each part of this complex system has its own job to do in the process of digesting and absorbing nutrients from the foods we eat.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The colon is basically a five to six-foot-long tube that is curled up inside of your abdomen, running from the small intestine to the rectum. The muscles in the digestive system contract when you eat, moving food through the small intestine where nutrients and calories are absorbed. The waste material that’s leftover ends up in your colon, mostly in liquid form. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The colon removes the moisture from the waste material and balances pH and electrolytes. The microorganisms in your colon support the digestive process, assist in absorbing nutrients, and protect the body from harmful bacteria. It takes about 36 hours for food to travel from your stomach to the rectum.</span></p> <p><strong>How your colon affects your overall health</strong></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Stress, eating too many processed foods, lack of proper sleep, taking antibiotics, and other aspects of our modern lifestyle can damage the beneficial bacteria in our colons, allowing harmful bacteria to grow unchecked. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">If you have an overabundance of harmful bacteria in your gut, it can lead to many chronic conditions throughout the body, including:</span></p> <ul> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Chronic inflammation</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Joint pain and arthritis</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Heart disease</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Obesity</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Diabetes</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Acne and other skin conditions</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Digestive problems</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Mood swings, depression, and anxiety</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Headaches and migraines</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Insomnia and lack of energy</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Brain fog</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Hormonal imbalances</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><a href="https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/wellness-and-prevention/what-are-common-symptoms-of-autoimmune-disease"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Autoimmune disorders</span></a></li> </ul> <p><strong>Signs of an unhealthy colon</strong></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Usually, the first indicators of an unhealthy colon are digestive issues like diarrhea, heartburn, bloating, gas, and constipation. An unhealthy gut can also lead to food sensitivities and food allergies.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">You may also notice unexplained changes in your weight because your body can’t absorb nutrients or regulate blood sugar efficiently. Some people also experience sleep issues because serotonin (the hormone that regulates sleep) is produced in the colon. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Skin conditions such as eczema and acne can also be caused by a damaged gut. The gut also plays a key role in the health of the immune system. Those with an unhealthy gut often get sick easily or experience autoimmune problems.</span></p> <p><strong>How to improve your gut health</strong></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">There are several things you can do to support the beneficial bacteria in your gut. The functional medicine experts at Rahav Wellness recommend </span><a href="https://rahavwellness.com/colonics/"><span style="font-weight: 400;">colon hydrotherapy</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> as a safe way to remove harmful bacteria and waste that can build up in the colon over time. It’s also the most effective way to give your gut a complete reset.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Learning how to manage your stress levels is also important. Yoga, meditation, exercise, acupuncture, and massage are all great ways to keep stress in check. Getting plenty of sleep is also essential. Chew your food thoroughly and eat mindfully to improve digestion.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Staying well-hydrated is also crucial because it supports the mucosal lining of the colon. Probiotics are also important for replenishing the beneficial bacteria in your gut. You should eat probiotic foods every day or take a daily probiotic supplement to keep your gut healthy.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Getting checked for </span><a href="https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/263965.php"><span style="font-weight: 400;">food intolerances</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> is also a good idea. If you continue to eat foods that you have sensitivities to, it will only contribute to inflammation and digestive issues. Cutting back or eliminating sugar, processed food, and unhealthy fats will also support your microbiome.</span></p> <p><strong>Foods that support colon health</strong></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">There are also certain foods that will support the growth of beneficial bacteria in the colon. These include high fiber foods like whole grains, legumes, fruits, and vegetables. Garlic and onions may also be beneficial because they support the immune system.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Fermented foods lie yogurt, kefir, miso, sauerkraut, and kimchi are great food sources of probiotics. Foods that are rich in collagen, such as bone broth, may also support a healthy gut.</span></p> <p><strong>Final thoughts</strong></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Although the colon and digestive system are a bit complex, keeping them healthy is pretty simple. Making a few healthy adjustments to your diet will help your colon do its job and keep your immune system strong. Committing to these lifestyle changes will have a positive effect on your overall health as a result.</span></p> <p><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">Written by Donna Maurer.</span></em></p>

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Rebel Wilson stuns fans with incredible weight loss transformation

<p>Australian actress Rebel Wilson has promised to make 2020 “The Year of Health” – and it seems that she’s already raking in the benefits of her healthier lifestyle.</p> <p>The 39-year-old took to Instagram to let her followers know that she will attempt to “avoid sugar and junk food” after heavily indulging this past holiday season.</p> <p>She also posted a photograph of her out for a walk on a beach in her activewear – and fans were quick to heap praise on the star’s visible weight loss.</p> <p>“I’m so proud of you!! You look fantastic already with your weight loss,” one said.</p> <p>“You look great, you look absolutely beautiful beforehand and still now. Such a role model,” another agreed.</p> <blockquote style="background: #FFF; border: 0; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: 0 0 1px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.5),0 1px 10px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.15); margin: 1px; max-width: 540px; min-width: 326px; padding: 0; width: calc(100% - 2px);" class="instagram-media" data-instgrm-captioned="" data-instgrm-permalink="https://www.instagram.com/p/B6z53A8peHH/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" data-instgrm-version="12"> <div style="padding: 16px;"> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: row; align-items: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; flex-grow: 0; height: 40px; margin-right: 14px; width: 40px;"></div> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: column; flex-grow: 1; justify-content: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; margin-bottom: 6px; width: 100px;"></div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; width: 60px;"></div> </div> </div> <div style="padding: 19% 0;"></div> <div style="display: block; height: 50px; margin: 0 auto 12px; width: 50px;"></div> <div style="padding-top: 8px;"> <div style="color: #3897f0; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: 550; line-height: 18px;">View this post on Instagram</div> </div> <p style="margin: 8px 0 0 0; padding: 0 4px;"><a style="color: #000; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: 17px; text-decoration: none; word-wrap: break-word;" rel="noopener" href="https://www.instagram.com/p/B6z53A8peHH/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" target="_blank">Okay so for me 2020 is going to be called “The Year of Health” - so I put on the athleisure and went out for a walk, deliberately hydrating on the couch right now and trying to avoid the sugar and junk food which is going to be hard after the holidays I’ve just had but I’m going to do it! Who’s with me in making some positive changes this year?</a></p> <p style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; line-height: 17px; margin-bottom: 0; margin-top: 8px; overflow: hidden; padding: 8px 0 7px; text-align: center; text-overflow: ellipsis; white-space: nowrap;">A post shared by <a style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: 17px;" rel="noopener" href="https://www.instagram.com/rebelwilson/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" target="_blank"> Rebel Wilson</a> (@rebelwilson) on Jan 2, 2020 at 12:43am PST</p> </div> </blockquote> <p>“You already look amazing! Killing it! Any positive changes are good changes,” said another fan.</p> <p>Wilson revealed that she was making a commitment this year to improve her health.</p> <p>“Okay so for me 2020 is going to be called ‘The Year of Health’ – so I put on the athleisure and went out for a walk, deliberately hydrating on the couch right now and trying to avoid the sugar and junk food which is going to be hard after the holidays I’ve just had but I’m going to do it! Who’s with me in making some positive changes this year?”</p> <p>Wilson went through a weight-loss transformation in 2019 after hiring a celebrity trainer Gunnar Peterson, who revealed she trained at least four times a week.</p> <blockquote style="background: #FFF; border: 0; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: 0 0 1px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.5),0 1px 10px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.15); margin: 1px; max-width: 540px; min-width: 326px; padding: 0; width: calc(100% - 2px);" class="instagram-media" data-instgrm-captioned="" data-instgrm-permalink="https://www.instagram.com/p/B6uV5XXJMpr/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" data-instgrm-version="12"> <div style="padding: 16px;"> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: row; align-items: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; flex-grow: 0; height: 40px; margin-right: 14px; width: 40px;"></div> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: column; flex-grow: 1; justify-content: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; margin-bottom: 6px; width: 100px;"></div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; width: 60px;"></div> </div> </div> <div style="padding: 19% 0;"></div> <div style="display: block; height: 50px; margin: 0 auto 12px; width: 50px;"></div> <div style="padding-top: 8px;"> <div style="color: #3897f0; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: 550; line-height: 18px;">View this post on Instagram</div> </div> <p style="margin: 8px 0 0 0; padding: 0 4px;"><a style="color: #000; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: 17px; text-decoration: none; word-wrap: break-word;" rel="noopener" href="https://www.instagram.com/p/B6uV5XXJMpr/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" target="_blank">Guys, exactly this time last decade I was taking a huge risk and moved to Hollywood with just one suitcase and a doona in my hand. I couldn’t be prouder of all the films, TV shows and live performances I’ve done since then and all the wonderful people I’ve met along the journey who have helped and supported me. I appreciate you all so much 💕Can’t wait to see what this next decade brings!</a></p> <p style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; line-height: 17px; margin-bottom: 0; margin-top: 8px; overflow: hidden; padding: 8px 0 7px; text-align: center; text-overflow: ellipsis; white-space: nowrap;">A post shared by <a style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: 17px;" rel="noopener" href="https://www.instagram.com/rebelwilson/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" target="_blank"> Rebel Wilson</a> (@rebelwilson) on Dec 30, 2019 at 8:53pm PST</p> </div> </blockquote> <p>“When she’s in town, she’s a solid four days a week,” the LA-based fitness expert told<span> </span><em>US Weekly</em>. “She is such a cool person to work with.”</p> <p>He then revealed the secret to her success, which is workouts based on “peripheral heart action”.</p> <p>“It’s forcing the blood to go from upper extremity to lower extremity sequentially so that you elicit a response from the heart rate … you’re creating an aerobic response in what would normally be viewed as anaerobic movements,” said Peterson.</p> <p>These workouts could range from an intense session on a treadmill to a demanding HIIT class.</p>

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Why your New Year's resolution to go to the gym will fail

<p>Come January, <a href="https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2018/01/01/the-science-of-keeping-your-new-years-resolution/">40% of Americans will make New Years resolutions</a>, and <a href="https://www.statista.com/statistics/378105/new-years-resolution/">nearly half of them will aim</a> to lose weight or get in shape.</p> <p>But <a href="https://health.usnews.com/health-news/blogs/eat-run/articles/2015-12-29/why-80-percent-of-new-years-resolutions-fail">80% of New Year’s resolutions fail by February</a>, and gyms will experience a <a href="https://abcnews.go.com/Business/best-time-sign-gym-membership/story?id=21373583">decrease in traffic after the first and second months</a> of the year as those who made New Year’s resolutions to get in shape lose steam.</p> <p>As a lecturer at Binghamton and <a href="https://www.binghamton.edu/news/story/1737/binghamton-health-and-wellness-lecturer-earns-guinness-world-record/">former Olympic weightlifter, world champion powerlifter and strength coach</a>, much of my life has been spent in training halls and gyms around the country. People often ask me, “How do I stay motivated to work out?”</p> <p><iframe id="WFV9s" class="tc-infographic-datawrapper" src="https://datawrapper.dwcdn.net/WFV9s/1/" height="400px" width="100%" style="border: none;" frameborder="0"></iframe></p> <p><strong>Motivation and short-term objectives</strong></p> <p>Years back, when I was at the Olympic Training Center in Colorado Springs, Colorado, one of the sports psychologists told me that motivation is a lie.</p> <p>It took me years of experience and research to figure out why, but I believe she was right.</p> <p>Personally, I have no issues getting up on a cold and dark morning to train when a competition is drawing near. But when there is no immediate objective or goal in site, getting up that early is much harder.</p> <p>Motivation is driven by emotion and that can be positive, as long as it <a href="http://doi.org/10.1016/S0959-4388(96)80077-8">is used for a short-term objective</a>. For some, a New Year’s resolution can serve as a motivator. But since <a href="https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/the-fundamental-four/201205/emotions-and-motivations">motivation is based on emotion</a>, it can’t last long.</p> <p>Think of it this way: No one can laugh or cry indefinitely, and that is exactly how we know that motivation will fail.</p> <p><a href="https://global.oup.com/academic/product/affective-neuroscience-9780195178050?cc=us&amp;lang=en&amp;">Emotion is a chemical release</a> yielding a physiological response. If someone attempting to get in shape is reliant upon this reaction to propel them towards working out, they are almost sure to burn out, just like with a resolution.</p> <p>When people buy gym memberships, they have the best of intentions in mind, but the commitments are made in a charged emotional state. Motivation helps with short-term objectives, but is virtually useless for objectives that require a greater length of time to accomplish.</p> <p>In other words, don’t totally discount the value of motivation, but don’t count on it to last long either because it won’t.</p> <p><strong>Discipline yields results</strong></p> <p>If motivation won’t help you reach your goals, what will?</p> <p>The answer is discipline. Discipline, as I define it, is the ability to do what is necessary for success when it is hardest to do so. Another way to think of it is having the ability, not necessarily the desire, to do what you need to when you least want to.</p> <p>Failure to get up when the alarm rings, the inability to walk away from a late night of partying before game day or eating a doughnut when you have committed to no processed sugar are all failures of discipline - not motivation.</p> <p>The keys to discipline are practice and consistency. Discipline means repetitive – and sometimes boring – action. There are no shortcuts. You can thank motivation for the first three weeks or so of your successful gym attendance, but after that you need to credit discipline.</p> <p>There is another clear line defining the difference between motivation and discipline. Motivation in and of itself typically fails to build other qualities necessary for advancement, but discipline does. Discipline <a href="https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&amp;lr=&amp;id=hy9mDwAAQBAJ&amp;oi=fnd&amp;pg=PT11&amp;dq=Discipline+builds+confidence&amp;ots=ga0Vo8UNjY&amp;sig=wsZ-N4x6NhasmmAnbGb610pbt3Y#v=onepage&amp;q=Discipline%20builds%20confidence&amp;f=false">develops confidence</a> and patience.</p> <p>Discipline builds consistency and consistency yields habits. It is those habits that, in the end, will ultimately define success.<em><!-- End of code. If you don't see any code above, please get new code from the Advanced tab after you click the republish button. The page counter does not collect any personal data. More info: http://theconversation.com/republishing-guidelines --></em></p> <p><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/william-clark-887069">William Clark</a>, Adjunct Lecturer of Health and Wellness Studies, <a href="http://theconversation.com/institutions/binghamton-university-state-university-of-new-york-2252">Binghamton University, State University of New York</a></em></p> <p><em>This article is republished from <a href="http://theconversation.com">The Conversation</a> under a Creative Commons license. Read the <a href="https://theconversation.com/why-your-new-years-resolution-to-go-to-the-gym-will-fail-127090">original article</a>.</em></p>

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Brooke Shields heads into 2020 in stunning Blue Lagoon form

<p>Brooke Shields is heading into 2020 with a homage to one of her iconic 1980 roles.</p> <p>Two days before the year ended, the 54-year-old actress and model took to Instagram to showcase her toned body. In the picture, Shields could be seen standing on the beach wearing navy blue bikini.</p> <blockquote style="background: #FFF; border: 0; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: 0 0 1px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.5),0 1px 10px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.15); margin: 1px; max-width: 540px; min-width: 326px; padding: 0; width: calc(100% - 2px);" class="instagram-media" data-instgrm-captioned="" data-instgrm-permalink="https://www.instagram.com/p/B6rOA7tADF5/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" data-instgrm-version="12"> <div style="padding: 16px;"> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: row; align-items: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; flex-grow: 0; height: 40px; margin-right: 14px; width: 40px;"></div> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: column; flex-grow: 1; justify-content: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; margin-bottom: 6px; width: 100px;"></div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; width: 60px;"></div> </div> </div> <div style="padding: 19% 0;"></div> <div style="display: block; height: 50px; margin: 0 auto 12px; width: 50px;"></div> <div style="padding-top: 8px;"> <div style="color: #3897f0; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: 550; line-height: 18px;">View this post on Instagram</div> </div> <p style="margin: 8px 0 0 0; padding: 0 4px;"><a style="color: #000; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: 17px; text-decoration: none; word-wrap: break-word;" rel="noopener" href="https://www.instagram.com/p/B6rOA7tADF5/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" target="_blank">another blue lagoon 💙</a></p> <p style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; line-height: 17px; margin-bottom: 0; margin-top: 8px; overflow: hidden; padding: 8px 0 7px; text-align: center; text-overflow: ellipsis; white-space: nowrap;">A post shared by <a style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: 17px;" rel="noopener" href="https://www.instagram.com/brookeshields/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" target="_blank"> Brooke Shields</a> (@brookeshields) on Dec 29, 2019 at 3:46pm PST</p> </div> </blockquote> <p>“Another blue lagoon,” she wrote on the caption, referring to the 1980 film <em>The Blue Lagoon</em> where she played the lead role of Emmeline Lestrange.</p> <p> The star also shared another photo on New Year’s Eve from her vacation. The selfie showed the former Calvin Klein model posing in front of a mirror in a bikini set and hat. “Ready to spend the last day of the year at the beach!” the caption read.</p> <blockquote style="background: #FFF; border: 0; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: 0 0 1px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.5),0 1px 10px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.15); margin: 1px; max-width: 540px; min-width: 326px; padding: 0; width: calc(100% - 2px);" class="instagram-media" data-instgrm-captioned="" data-instgrm-permalink="https://www.instagram.com/p/B6wAbRMAPtm/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" data-instgrm-version="12"> <div style="padding: 16px;"> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: row; align-items: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; flex-grow: 0; height: 40px; margin-right: 14px; width: 40px;"></div> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: column; flex-grow: 1; justify-content: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; margin-bottom: 6px; width: 100px;"></div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; width: 60px;"></div> </div> </div> <div style="padding: 19% 0;"></div> <div style="display: block; height: 50px; margin: 0 auto 12px; width: 50px;"></div> <div style="padding-top: 8px;"> <div style="color: #3897f0; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: 550; line-height: 18px;">View this post on Instagram</div> </div> <p style="margin: 8px 0 0 0; padding: 0 4px;"><a style="color: #000; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: 17px; text-decoration: none; word-wrap: break-word;" rel="noopener" href="https://www.instagram.com/p/B6wAbRMAPtm/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" target="_blank">Ready to spend the last day of the year at the beach! 👙 @adoreme</a></p> <p style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; line-height: 17px; margin-bottom: 0; margin-top: 8px; overflow: hidden; padding: 8px 0 7px; text-align: center; text-overflow: ellipsis; white-space: nowrap;">A post shared by <a style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: 17px;" rel="noopener" href="https://www.instagram.com/brookeshields/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_campaign=loading" target="_blank"> Brooke Shields</a> (@brookeshields) on Dec 31, 2019 at 12:24pm PST</p> </div> </blockquote> <p>Shields shared that she has been staying in shape with gym exercises. “It’s been a long road from my knee surgery last year to now – I’ve learned so much about my body and I’m excited to share more of my wellness journey with you,” she wrote on Instagram.</p>

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Ex-MasterChef judge Matt Preston reveals dramatic weight loss

<p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Matt Preston has shown his <em>MasterChef</em> sabbatical has done wonders for his figure and has shared on social media his dramatic weight loss.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The 58-year-old food critic admitted while chatting with</span><em><a href="https://www.dailytelegraph.com.au/entertainment/sydney-confidential/matt-preston-exmasterchef-judge-reveals-incredible-weight-loss/news-story/85356d0fa7d2d7173d71bc0e25a1d2ab"> <span style="font-weight: 400;">Sydney Confidential</span></a></em><span style="font-weight: 400;"> that he had “dropped a bit of weight and put on a bit of muscle”.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Preston revealed his transformation included overhauling his diet in a “general lifestyle change”.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">“I’ve been eating less, mainly plants but not restricting myself from anything. It is about having time, that moment when there are no more excuses,” he said.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">While the British-born TV star is a self-proclaimed moderate eater in order to maintain his newfound figure, he admitted he is still going to treat himself to an “occasional” burger or pizza.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">While he hasn’t revealed just how much weight he has lost – with no intention to do so in the near future either – Preston says he measures his weight success against different sighs, such as “if people notice and whether your clothes fit”.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The Logie Award winner is gearing up to begin filming for his new show he will be co-hosting, Channel 7’s </span><span style="font-weight: 400;"><em>Plate of Origin</em>, </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">in 2020.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Viewers will see Preston reunite with fellow former </span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">MasterChef</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;"> judge Gary Mehigan.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">However, Matt and Gary’s old colleague George Calombaris has remained noticeably absent from the program which will see a team of cooks from different cultural backgrounds battle it out for the top prize.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Plate of Origin</span><span style="font-weight: 400;"> is expected to hit TV screens after the Tokyo Olympics wraps up in early August 2020.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Season 12 of </span><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">MasterChef Australia</span></em><span style="font-weight: 400;"> will feature a new judging line up that includes Jock Zonfrillo, Melissa Leong and Andy Allen.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Scroll through the gallery to see former <em>MasterChef</em> star Matt Preston’s dramatic weight loss. </span></p>

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Why it can be hard to stop eating even when you're full

<p>All foods are not created equal. Most are palatable, or tasty to eat, which is helpful because we need to eat to survive. For example, a fresh apple is palatable to most people and provides vital nutrients and calories.</p> <p>But certain foods, such as pizza, potato chips and chocolate chip cookies, are almost irresistible. They’re always in demand at parties, and they’re easy to keep eating, even when we are full.</p> <p>In these foods, a synergy between key ingredients can create an artificially enhanced palatability experience that is greater than any key ingredient would produce alone. Researchers call this <a href="https://doi.org/10.1002/oby.22639">hyperpalatability</a>. Eaters call it delicious.</p> <p>Initial studies suggest that foods with two or more key ingredients linked to palatability – specifically, sugar, salt, fat or carbohydrates – can activate brain-reward neurocircuits similarly to drugs like <a href="https://doi.org/10.1038/nn.2519">cocaine</a> or <a href="https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-789X.2012.01031.x">opioids</a>. They may also be able to bypass mechanisms in our bodies that make us feel full and tell us to stop eating.</p> <p>Our research focuses on <a href="https://fazzinolab.drupal.ku.edu/publications">rewarding foods</a>, <a href="https://scholar.google.com/citations?user=odLm9LkAAAAJ&amp;hl=en">addictive behaviors and obesity</a>. We recently published a study with nutritional scientist <a href="http://www.kumc.edu/school-of-health-professions/dietetics-and-nutrition/our-people/sullivan.html">Debra Sullivan</a> that identifies <a href="https://doi.org/10.1002/oby.22639">three clusters of key ingredients</a> that can make foods hyperpalatable. Using those definitions, we estimated that nearly two-thirds of foods widely consumed in the U.S. fall into at least one of those three groups.</p> <p style="text-align: center;"><iframe width="440" height="260" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/aCUbvOwwfWM?wmode=transparent&amp;start=0" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen=""></iframe></p> <p style="text-align: center;"><span class="caption">Documentaries like “Fed Up’ (2014) have linked obesity to food industry practices and American eating habits.</span></p> <h2>Cracking the codes</h2> <p>Foods that are highly rewarding, easily accessible and cheap are everywhere in our society. Unsurprisingly, eating them has been <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2014.12.002">associated with obesity</a>.</p> <p><a href="http://fedupmovie.com/#/page/home">Documentaries</a> in the last 15-20 years have reported that food companies have developed formulas to make palatable foods so enticing. However, manufacturers typically guard their recipes as trade secrets, so academic scientists can’t study them.</p> <p>Instead, researchers have used descriptive definitions to capture what makes some foods hyperpalatable. For example, in his 2012 book ”<a href="https://us.macmillan.com/books/9781596438316">Your Food Is Fooling You: How Your Brain Is Hijacked by Sugar, Fat, and Salt</a>,“ <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_A._Kessler">David Kessler</a>, former Commissioner of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), wrote:</p> <blockquote> <p>"What are these foods? …. Some are sweetened drinks, chips, cookies, candy, and other snack foods. Then, of course, there are fast food meals – fried chicken, pizza, burgers, and fries.”</p> </blockquote> <p>But these definitions are not standardized, so it is hard to compare results across studies. And they fail to identify the relevant ingredients. Our study sought to establish a quantitative definition of hyperpalatable foods and then use it to determine how prevalent these foods are in the U.S.</p> <p style="text-align: center;"><a href="https://images.theconversation.com/files/305478/original/file-20191205-38993-1imt92a.png?ixlib=rb-1.1.0&amp;q=45&amp;auto=format&amp;w=1000&amp;fit=clip"><img style="display: block; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;" src="https://images.theconversation.com/files/305478/original/file-20191205-38993-1imt92a.png?ixlib=rb-1.1.0&amp;q=45&amp;auto=format&amp;w=754&amp;fit=clip" alt="" /></a> <span class="caption">In 2018, 31% of U.S. adults aged 18 and over were obese.</span> <span class="attribution"><a href="https://www.cdc.gov/obesity/downloads/2018-overall-obesity-prevalence-map-508.pdf" class="source">CDC</a></span></p> <h2>Three key clusters</h2> <p>We conducted our work in two parts. First we carried out a literature search to identify scientific articles that used descriptive definitions of the full range of palatable foods. We entered these foods into standardized nutrition software to obtain detailed data on the nutrients they contained.</p> <p>Next we used a graphing procedure to determine whether certain foods appeared to cluster together. We then used the clusters to inform our numeric definition. We found that hyperpalatable foods fell into three distinct clusters:</p> <p>– Fat and sodium, with more than 25% of total calories (abbreviated as kcal) from fat and at least 0.30% sodium per gram per serving. Bacon and pizza are examples.</p> <p>– Fat and simple sugars, with more than 20% kcal from fat and more than 20% kcal from simple sugars. Cake is an example.</p> <p>– Carbohydrates and sodium, with over 40% kcal from carbohydrates and at least 0.20% sodium per gram per serving. Buttered popcorn is an example.</p> <p>Then we applied our definition to the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s <a href="https://data.nal.usda.gov/dataset/food-and-nutrient-database-dietary-studies-fndds">Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies</a>, or FNDDS, which catalogs foods that Americans report eating in a <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhanes/about_nhanes.htm">biennial federal survey on nutrition and health</a>. The database contained 7,757 food items that we used in our analysis.</p> <p>Over 60% of these foods met our criteria for hyperpalatability. Among them, 70% were in the fat/sodium cluster, including many meats, meat-based dishes, omelets and cheese dips. Another 25% fell into the fat/simple sugars cluster, which included sweets and desserts, but also foods such as glazed carrots and other vegetables cooked with fat and sugar.</p> <p>Finally, 16% were in the carbohydrate/sodium cluster, which consisted of carbohydrate-dense meal items like pizza, plus breads, cereals and snack foods. Fewer than 10% of foods fell into multiple clusters.</p> <p>We also looked at which of the USDA’s food categories contained the most hyperpalatable foods. Over 70% of meats, eggs and grain-based foods in the FNDDS met our criteria for hyperpalatability. We were surprised to find that 49% of foods labeled as containing “reduced,” “low”, or zero levels of sugar, fat, salt and/or calories qualified as hyperpalatable.</p> <p>Finally, we considered whether our definition captured what we hypothesized it would capture. It identified more than 85% of foods labeled as fast or fried, as well as sweets and desserts. Conversely, it did not capture foods that we hypothesized were not hyperpalatable, such as raw fruits, meats or fish, or 97% of raw vegetables.</p> <h2>Tackling obesity</h2> <p>If scientific evidence supporting our proposed definition of hyperpalatable foods accumulates, and it shows that our definition is associated with overeating and obesity-related outcomes, our findings could be used in several ways.</p> <p>First, the FDA could require hyperpalatable foods to be labeled – an approach that would alert consumers to what they may be eating while preserving consumer choice. The agency also could regulate or limit specific combinations of ingredients, as a way to reduce the chance of people finding foods that contain them difficult to stop eating.</p> <p>Consumers also could consider the role of hyperpalatable foods in their own lives. Our team needs to do further work validating our definition before we translate it for the public, but as a first step, individuals can examine whether the foods they eat contain multiple ingredients such as fat and sodium, particularly at high levels. Recent surveys show increased interest among U.S. consumers in <a href="https://www.nielsen.com/us/en/insights/article/2019/what-food-related-causes-do-us-consumers-care-about-today/">making informed food choices</a>, although they often <a href="https://foodinsight.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/2018-FHS-Report-FINAL.pdf">aren’t sure which sources to trust</a>.</p> <p>One starting point for people concerned about healthy eating is to consume foods that are unlikely to be hyperpalatable – items that occur naturally and have few or no additional ingredients, such as fresh fruit. As food writer Michael Pollan <a href="https://www.penguinrandomhouse.com/books/305288/food-rules-by-michael-pollan/">recommends</a>, “Don’t eat anything your great-grandmother wouldn’t recognize as food.”<img style="border: none !important; box-shadow: none !important; margin: 0 !important; max-height: 1px !important; max-width: 1px !important; min-height: 1px !important; min-width: 1px !important; opacity: 0 !important; outline: none !important; padding: 0 !important; text-shadow: none !important;" src="https://counter.theconversation.com/content/126729/count.gif?distributor=republish-lightbox-basic" alt="The Conversation" width="1" height="1" /><!-- End of code. If you don't see any code above, please get new code from the Advanced tab after you click the republish button. The page counter does not collect any personal data. More info: http://theconversation.com/republishing-guidelines --></p> <p><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/tera-fazzino-882302">Tera Fazzino</a>, Assistant Professor of Psychology; Associate Director of the Cofrin Logan Center for Addiction Research and Treatment, <a href="http://theconversation.com/institutions/university-of-kansas-1588">University of Kansas</a> and <a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/kaitlyn-rohde-887872">Kaitlyn Rohde</a>, Research Assistant, Cofrin Logan Center for Addiction Research and Treatment., <a href="http://theconversation.com/institutions/university-of-kansas-1588">University of Kansas</a></em></p> <p><em>This article is republished from <a href="http://theconversation.com">The Conversation</a> under a Creative Commons license. Read the <a href="https://theconversation.com/why-it-can-be-hard-to-stop-eating-even-when-youre-full-some-foods-may-be-designed-that-way-126729">original article</a>.</em></p>

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This is what really happens when you go under the knife

<p>We’ve all seen the TV dramas – <a href="http://abc.go.com/shows/greys-anatomy">Grey’s Anatomy</a>, <a href="https://www.imdb.com/title/tt0108757/">ER</a>, <a href="https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b006m8wd">Casualty</a>, <a href="https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b006mhd6">Holby City</a> – and most of us like to think we have a pretty good idea of what happens in an operating theatre. The doctors and nurses will be clad in blue scrubs, <a href="https://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/entry/music-surgery_n_6310842">operatic music will be playing</a>, with intermittent calls of “scalpel” or “swabs”, right?</p> <p>For those readers, who’ve ever had an operation – whether it was <a href="https://theconversation.com/seven-body-organs-you-can-live-without-84984">planned or an emergency</a> – things in the real world probably felt very different to those familiar TV drama medical emergency scenes. In part, this is because <a href="https://theconversation.com/greys-anatomy-is-unrealistic-but-it-might-make-junior-doctors-more-compassionate-92040">TV programmes often portray the staff</a> who work on the wards also working in the operating theatre – but this isn’t the case.</p> <p>In fact, it’s not just doctors and nurses that make up part of the team involved in an operation, there is also a group of professionals, known as <a href="https://www.healthcareers.nhs.uk/explore-roles/allied-health-professionals/roles-allied-health-professions/operating-department-practitioner">operating department practitioners</a> (ODPs), who are trained specifically to look after you when you’re under the bright lights of the operating theatre.</p> <h2>What happens when I arrive?</h2> <p>Having an operation can be highly stressful. You might have been told not to eat before. It all feels a bit unknown, and you aren’t exactly sure what will happen. But the staff at the hospital are on hand to try and make things easy for you.</p> <p>As you are arrive on the ward, a whole team of staff are busy preparing for your surgery. You’ll be asked to confirm who you are and what you’re being admitted for. You will also be asked to change into a very fetching hospital gown. Someone will also sit down and talk you through what’s happening and check you have not eaten – this is so you don’t vomit <a href="https://theconversation.com/science-lesson-how-anesthetics-work-and-why-xenons-perfect-83744">during your anaesthetic</a>.</p> <h2>Who looks after me?</h2> <p>The team looking after you has three sub teams working as one. They are the anaesthetic team, the surgical team and the post anaesthetic team. These teams work like cogs and your care and treatment is seamless. As a minimum, this would mean you would have nine health professionals caring for you at any one time.</p> <p>Your operating team on the day will have doctors – who are the anaesthetist, and the surgeon – but the rest of the team could be made up nurses, ODPs and healthcare assistants. ODPs are generally a graduate professional and they train through university in partnership with the hospital operating theatres.</p> <h2>When do I have the anaesthetic?</h2> <p>When the team is ready and it’s time for your surgery, you have your anaesthetic. This will be delivered by an anaesthetist, but there always has to be trained assistance – normally an ODP.</p> <p>On arrival in the <a href="https://theconversation.com/scientists-find-way-to-predict-who-is-likely-to-wake-up-during-surgery-53217">anaesthetic room</a>, it is the ODP that greets you with a big smile and often a cheesy joke. After all, they have minutes to get to know you and for you to trust them with your life. They will attach you to the monitoring equipment and measure your baseline pulse and blood pressure readings.</p> <p>You will need a cannula (a plastic tube) inserting into a vein, so the anaesthetist can give you the drugs. This is the point where you may be asked to start counting back slowly from ten – you won’t even get to seven.</p> <h2>What happens during surgery?</h2> <p>While the anaesthetic team continue to look after you, the surgical team carry out your operation. The surgeon will have at least one assistant – I have known more than ten people to be part of this team for major head and neck cancer surgery. The first assistant and other assistants scrub up with the surgeon and help with the surgery.</p> <p>Adding to this team there is a scrub practitioner and their role is to provide the swabs, needles and equipment to the surgeon and the assistants. They are the ones who also count everything to make sure you don’t leave the operating theatre with any unwanted extras.</p> <h2>When can I go home?</h2> <p>Once your <a href="https://theconversation.com/will-you-feel-better-after-surgery-now-you-can-find-out-using-this-online-tool-72758">surgery is complete</a> your wounds will be dressed by the surgical team. Your anaesthetic will be reversed and you will be taken to the post anaesthetic care unit – which used to be called recovery. Here you will be looked after until you are ready to be discharged back to the ward. Here, you wounds will be inspected, and whoever’s looking after you will make sure your <a href="https://theconversation.com/anthill-19-pain-87538">pain is under control</a> and you are not feeling sick.</p> <p>Once you are awake and comfy, you will be taken back to the ward where your relatives may be waiting and you should be able to have something to eat and drink. Depending on your surgery and who you have at home to look after you, you may even be allowed to go home the same day.<img style="border: none !important; box-shadow: none !important; margin: 0 !important; max-height: 1px !important; max-width: 1px !important; min-height: 1px !important; min-width: 1px !important; opacity: 0 !important; outline: none !important; padding: 0 !important; text-shadow: none !important;" src="https://counter.theconversation.com/content/95719/count.gif?distributor=republish-lightbox-basic" alt="The Conversation" width="1" height="1" /><!-- End of code. If you don't see any code above, please get new code from the Advanced tab after you click the republish button. The page counter does not collect any personal data. More info: http://theconversation.com/republishing-guidelines --></p> <p><em><a href="https://theconversation.com/profiles/deborah-robinson-469372">Deborah Robinson</a>, Senior Lecturer and Head of Health and Social Work School, <a href="http://theconversation.com/institutions/university-of-hull-1191">University of Hull</a></em></p> <p><em>This article is republished from <a href="http://theconversation.com">The Conversation</a> under a Creative Commons license. Read the <a href="https://theconversation.com/this-is-what-really-happens-when-you-go-under-the-knife-95719">original article</a>.</em></p>

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