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Grandparents vs Parents: Who will win in the battle against screens?

<p><span style="font-weight: 400;">New concerns surrounding screen time and mobile phone usage is causing rifts between parents and grandparents.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Parents, who want to limit their children’s screen time, can lay down the law, but it can be difficult if the grandparents are giving the children a bit more screen time than they’re allowed.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Both parties don’t want to rock the boat, despite their differing opinions. Grandparents don’t want to miss out on time with the kids and parents don’t want to miss out on work as they scramble to find a replacement babysitter.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">However, when instructions are repeatedly ignored, this can cause rifts. A mother told </span><a href="https://www.wsj.com/articles/its-grandparents-v-parents-in-the-battle-over-kids-screens-11556011800"><span style="font-weight: 400;">The Wall Street Journal</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> that she limits screen time at home, but when the kids go to grandma’s, the rule is significantly relaxed.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">“Every time I talk to her about it, she’s like, ‘Well, I never get to see my grandkids, and they need to have fun with me.’ To her, watching a movie together is connecting. To me, that’s not connecting,” the mother explained. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">However, the grandmother explained that she didn’t see a problem. She told </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">TWSJ</span><span style="font-weight: 400;"> that she let her granddaughter stay on the iPad until 2 in the morning on a school night playing games.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">“I told my granddaughter to turn it [the iPad] off. I didn’t want to get busted.”</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The tension between the pair has frustrated the mother so much, she’s hired a babysitter to take care of her children on the weekends. Despite the tension, she’s reluctant to push the issue too much as she realises how lucky she is to have her mother still around.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">“I don’t know how much time I have on this earth and I want them to have memories of how fun Mimi was,” Ms. Kapsi Potter said of her grandchildren. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">“That’s what’s important to me. If there’s something they want to watch, I’ll let them. I let them stay up late. They can do whatever they want but set the house on fire.”</span></p>

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How to resist fake news

<p>Although the term itself is not new, fake news presents a growing threat for <a href="https://qz.com/africa/1473127/africas-fake-news-problem-is-worse-than-in-the-us/">societies across the world</a>.</p> <p>Only a <a href="https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0207383">small amount of fake news is needed</a> to disrupt a conversation, and at extremes it can have an impact on democratic processes, <a href="https://theconversation.com/trump-may-owe-his-2016-victory-to-fake-news-new-study-suggests-91538">including elections</a>.</p> <p>But what can we do to avoid fake news, at a time when we could be waiting a while for <a href="https://en.unesco.org/fightfakenews">mainstream media</a> and <a href="https://www.cnbc.com/2018/11/08/fake-news-is-going-to-get-worse-unless-companies-take-action-dnc-cto.html">social networks</a> to step up and <a href="https://www.marketplace.org/2018/08/24/tech/one-problem-fake-news-it-really-really-works">address the problem</a>?</p> <p>From a psychology perspective, an important step in tackling fake news is to understand why it gets into our mind. We can do this by <a href="https://theconversation.com/why-two-people-see-the-same-thing-but-have-different-memories-104327">examining how memory works</a> and <a href="https://www.amazon.com/Memory-Distortion-Brains-Societies-Reconstruct/dp/0674566769">how memories become distorted</a>.</p> <p>Using this viewpoint generates some tips you can use to work out whether you’re reading or sharing fake news – which might be handy in the coming election period.</p> <p><strong>How memory gets distorted at the source</strong></p> <p>Fake news often relies on <a href="https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/articles/200105/the-seven-sins-memory">misattribution</a> – instances in which we can retrieve things from memory but can’t remember their source.</p> <p>Misattribution is one of the reasons advertising is so effective. We see a product and feel a pleasant sense of familiarity because we’ve encountered it before, but fail to remember that the source of the memory was an ad.</p> <p><a href="https://www.researchgate.net/profile/David_Rand2/publication/327866113_Prior_Exposure_Increases_Perceived_Accuracy_of_Fake_News/">One study</a> examined headlines from fake news published during the 2016 US Presidential Election.</p> <p>The researchers found even one presentation of a headline (such as “Donald Trump Sent His Own Plane to Transport 200 Stranded Marines”, <a href="https://www.snopes.com/fact-check/donald-trumps-marine-airlift/">based on claims shown to be false</a>) was enough to increase belief in its content. This effect persisted for at least a week, was still found when headlines were accompanied by a factcheck warning, and even when participants suspected it might be false.</p> <p>Repeated exposure can <a href="https://www.vox.com/science-and-health/2017/10/5/16410912/illusory-truth-fake-news-las-vegas-google-facebook">increase the sense that misinformation is true</a>. Repetition creates the perception of group consensus that can result in collective misremembering, a phenomenon called the <a href="https://theconversation.com/the-mandela-effect-and-how-your-mind-is-playing-tricks-on-you-89544">Mandela Effect</a>.</p> <p>It might be harmless when people collectively misremember something fun, such as a <a href="https://www.buzzfeed.com/christopherhudspeth/crazy-examples-of-the-mandela-effect-that-will-make-you-ques">childhood cartoon (did the Queen in Disney’s Snow White really NOT say “Mirror, mirror…”?)</a>. But it has serious consequences when a false sense of group consensus contributes to <a href="https://www.abc.net.au/radio/programs/the-signal/are-anti-vaxxers-having-a-moment/10957310">rising outbreaks of measles</a>.</p> <p>Scientists have investigated whether <a href="https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/acp.3274">targeted misinformation can promote healthy behaviour</a>. Dubbed false-memory diets, it is said that false memories of food experiences can encourage people to <a href="https://www.nytimes.com/2005/12/11/magazine/falsememory-diet-the.html">avoid fatty foods</a>, <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3627832/">alcohol</a> and even <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25116296">convince them to love asparagus</a>.</p> <p>Creative people that have a strong ability to associate different words are <a href="https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Thomas_Ormerod/publication/251531367_Convergent_but_not_divergent_thinking_predicts_susceptibility_to_associative_memory_illusions/">especially susceptible to false memories</a>. Some people might be more vulnerable than others to believe fake news, but <a href="https://www.nytimes.com/2016/12/24/world/asia/pakistan-israel-khawaja-asif-fake-news-nuclear.html">everyone is at risk</a>.</p> <p><strong>How bias can reinforce fake news</strong></p> <p><a href="https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/articles/200105/the-seven-sins-memory">Bias</a> is how our feelings and worldview affect the <a href="https://theconversation.com/why-two-people-see-the-same-thing-but-have-different-memories-104327">encoding and retrieval of memory</a>. We might like to think of our memory as an archivist that carefully preserves events, but <a href="https://www.taylorfrancis.com/books/e/9781351660020/chapters/10.4324/9781315159591-4">sometimes it’s more like a storyteller</a>. Memories are shaped by our beliefs and can function to <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/neuroscience/autobiographical-memory">maintain a consistent narrative rather than an accurate record</a>.</p> <p>An example of this is selective exposure, our tendency to seek information that <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4797953/">reinforces our pre-existing beliefs</a> and to avoid information that brings those beliefs into question. This effect is supported by evidence that television news audiences are <a href="https://www.journalism.org/2014/10/21/political-polarization-media-habits/">overwhelmingly partisan</a> and exist in their own echo chambers.</p> <p>It was thought that online communities exhibit the same behaviour, contributing to the spread of fake news, but this <a href="https://theconversation.com/the-myth-of-the-echo-chamber-92544">appears to be a myth</a>. Political news sites are often populated by people with <a href="https://www.academia.edu/34506137/The_Myth_of_Partisan_Selective_Exposure_A_Portrait_of_the_Online_Political_News_Audience">diverse ideological backgrounds</a> and echo chambers are <a href="https://medium.com/trust-media-and-democracy/avoiding-the-echo-chamber-about-echo-chambers-6e1f1a1a0f39">more likely to exist in real life than online</a>.</p> <p>Our brains are wired to assume things we believe <a href="https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0146167203259933">originated from a credible source</a>. But are we more inclined to remember information that reinforces our beliefs? <a href="https://www.researchgate.net/publication/247781236_Do_Attitudes_Affect_Memory_Tests_of_the_Congeniality_Hypothesis">This is probably not the case</a>.</p> <p>People who hold strong beliefs remember things that are relevant to their beliefs but they remember opposing information too. This happens because people are motivated to defend their beliefs against opposing views.</p> <p>Belief echoes are a related phenomenon that <a href="https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/why-correcting-donald-trump--or-anyone-else--doesnt-work/2016/01/08/9e5ef5d4-b57d-11e5-a842-0feb51d1d124_story.html?utm_term=.912e5b8e4409">highlight the difficulty of correcting misinformation</a>. Fake news is often designed to be attention-grabbing.</p> <p>It can continue to shape people’s attitudes after it has been discredited because it produces a vivid emotional reaction and builds on our existing narratives.</p> <p>Corrections have a much smaller emotional impact, especially if they require policy details, so should be <a href="https://www.researchgate.net/publication/258180567_Misinformation_and_Its_Correction_Continued_Influence_and_Successful_Debiasing">designed to satisfy a similar narrative urge</a> to be effective.</p> <p><strong>Tips for resisting fake news</strong></p> <p>The way our memory works means it might be impossible to resist fake news completely. But one approach is to start <a href="https://qz.com/858887/how-to-know-if-fake-news-is-fake-learn-to-think-like-a-scientist/">thinking like a scientist</a>. This involves adopting a questioning attitude that is motivated by curiosity, and being aware of personal bias.</p> <p>For fake news, this might involve asking ourselves the following questions:</p> <ul> <li><strong>What type of content is this?</strong> <a href="https://theconversation.com/australians-born-overseas-prefer-the-online-world-for-their-news-84355">Many people rely on social media and aggregators as their main source of news</a>. By reflecting on whether information is news, opinion or even humour, this can help consolidate information more completely into memory.</li> <li><strong>Where is it published?</strong> Paying attention to where information is published is crucial for encoding the source of information into memory. If something is a big deal, a wide variety of sources will discuss it, so attending to this detail is important.</li> <li><strong>Who benefits?</strong> Reflecting on who benefits from you believing the content helps consolidate the source of that information into memory. It can also help us reflect on our own interests and whether our personal biases are at play.</li> </ul> <p>Some people <a href="https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3023545">tend to be more susceptible to fake news</a> because they are more accepting of weak claims.</p> <p>But we can strive to be more reflective in our open-mindedness by paying attention to the source of information, and questioning our own knowledge if and when we are unable to remember the context of our memories.</p> <p><em>Written by Julian Matthews. Republished with permission of </em><a href="https://theconversation.com/how-fake-news-gets-into-our-minds-and-what-you-can-do-to-resist-it-114921"><em>The Conversation.</em></a></p>

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There is now proof that your smart speaker is eavesdropping on your conversations

<p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Amazon has confirmed that its smart speaker, the Amazon Echo – also known as “Alexa” – listens to your personal and private conversations.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The company employs thousands of workers to listen to voice recordings that are captured by the company’s Echo “smart” speakers, according to a </span><a href="https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2019-04-10/is-anyone-listening-to-you-on-alexa-a-global-team-reviews-audio"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Bloomberg</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> report.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Millions across the world have been reluctant to use the device for this very reason, and it turns out that someone IS listening to their conversations.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">However, Amazon doesn’t refer to the process as eavesdropping. The company refers to it as the “Alexa voice review process” and uses it to highlight the role that humans play in training software algorithms.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">“This information helps us train our speech recognition and natural language understanding systems, so Alexa can better understand your requests, and ensure the service works well for everyone,” an Amazon spokesperson said in a statement.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The audio transcribers, who are comprised of full-time employees at Amazon as well as contractors, told </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">Bloomberg</span><span style="font-weight: 400;"> that they reviewed “as many as 1,000 audio clips per shift”. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Although some of the employees might find the work mundane, the listeners occasionally pick up on things that the person on the other end would like to remain private, such as a woman singing in her shower off-key and loudly.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The report from </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">Bloomberg</span><span style="font-weight: 400;"> also revealed that the more amusing (or harder to understand) voice clips get shared amongst the employees via internal chat rooms.</span></p> <p><strong>How to disable this feature</strong></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">However, disabling this feature is easy. As it’s switched on by default in the Alexa app, this is also the way you turn it off.</span></p> <ol> <li><span style="font-weight: 400;"> Open the Alexa app on your phone.</span></li> <li><span style="font-weight: 400;"> Tap the “Menu” button on the top left of the screen.</span></li> <li><span style="font-weight: 400;"> Select “Alexa Account”.</span></li> <li><span style="font-weight: 400;"> Choose “Alexa Privacy”.</span></li> <li><span style="font-weight: 400;"> Select “Manage how your data improves Alexa”.</span></li> <li><span style="font-weight: 400;"> Turn off the button next to “Help Develop New Features”.</span></li> <li><span style="font-weight: 400;"> Turn off the button next to your name under “Use Messages to Improve Transcriptions”.</span></li> </ol> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Despite turning off the recording function for Alexa, the company told Bloomberg that its voice recordings may still be analysed as a part of Amazon’s review process.</span></p>

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Samsung delaying Galaxy Fold launch due to screen issues

<p><span style="font-weight: 400;">A report from </span><a href="https://www.wsj.com/articles/samsungs-galaxy-fold-smartphone-release-delayed-11555941705?mod=e2tw"><span style="font-weight: 400;">The Wall Street Journal</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> has suggested that Samsung are pushing the breaks on the Samsung Galaxy Fold, which is the brands latest phone.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The Galaxy Fold is a phone that is bendable, but people have found it too flimsy. The Fold has been plagued with bad press since the announcement, but not all complaints have been legitimate.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Some had issues with the size of the phone, but that can be overlooked as the users adjust to their new device.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">However, other issues are more pressing. Some users, who were too excited about their new phone to read the instructions, peeled off the protective film that is necessary for the device to function properly.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Those who keep the film on report a large crease down the middle of their phone that is frustrating to look at.</span></p> <blockquote class="twitter-tweet" data-lang="en-gb"> <p dir="ltr">After one day of use... <a href="https://t.co/VjDlJI45C9">pic.twitter.com/VjDlJI45C9</a></p> — Steve Kovach (@stevekovach) <a href="https://twitter.com/stevekovach/status/1118571414934753280?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">17 April 2019</a></blockquote> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Some are folding the phone like it’s built to do, but are losing the function of the other screens. Journalists who have been given the phones as trials are reporting these problems, which can be seen in the tweet below.</span></p> <blockquote class="twitter-tweet" data-lang="en-gb"> <p dir="ltr">The screen on my <a href="https://twitter.com/hashtag/GalaxyFold?src=hash&amp;ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">#GalaxyFold</a> review unit was completely broken and unusable just two days in. Today Samsung has replaced my review unit, and I am waiting on an official statement. <a href="https://t.co/VXionV5PsO">pic.twitter.com/VXionV5PsO</a></p> — Gautam Tandon (@TheGautamTandon) <a href="https://twitter.com/TheGautamTandon/status/1118804506618335237?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw">18 April 2019</a></blockquote> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Samsung have released a statement addressing the issues with the phones:</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">“We recently unveiled a completely new mobile category: A smartphone using multiple new technologies and materials to create a display that is flexible enough to fold. We are encouraged by the excitement around the Galaxy Fold.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">“While many reviewers shared with us the vast potential they see, some also showed us how the device needs further improvements that could ensure the best possible user experience.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">“To fully evaluate this feedback and run further internal tests, we have decided to delay the release of the Galaxy Fold. We plan to announce the release date in the coming weeks.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">“Initial findings from the inspection of reported issues on the display showed that they could be associated with impact on the top and bottom exposed areas of the hinge. There was also an instance where substances found inside the device affected the display performance.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">“We will take measures to strengthen the display protection. We will also enhance the guidance on care and use of the display including the protective layer so that our customers get the most out of their Galaxy Fold.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">“We value the trust our customers place in us and they are always our top priority. Samsung is committed to working closely with customers and partners to move the industry forward. We want to thank them for their patience and understanding.”</span></p>

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Whoops: Did the Palace just accidentally reveal the name and gender of Baby Sussex?

<p>As Duchess Meghan has decided not to do the traditional royal photo outside of the hospital holding her new baby with Prince Harry, many believe that her due date – reported to be April 28 – has been and gone.</p> <p>Fans of the royal family are getting eager to see a glimpse of Baby Sussex, but as it turns out, they needn’t look any further than the Palace's official website.</p> <p>Eagle-eyed fans have noticed a technicality on the Palace website that might have accidentally revealed the baby’s name and gender.</p> <p>Obsessed fans have discovered three pages on the Buckingham Place website that have been reserved for a “Prince Alexander”, a “Prince Arthur” and a “Prince James”.</p> <p>Each link, if you search it as <a rel="noopener" href="http://www.royal.uk/prince-arthur" target="_blank">www.royal.uk/prince-arthur</a>, is redirected back to the main page of the palace website.</p> <p>However, when fans tried girl names that topped the “most likely” list for Baby Sussex, they appeared with a “Page not found” error.</p> <p>This isn’t the first time this has happened, with eager fans noticing the same thing when Prince Louis was born. Instead of a URL that linked to Prince Louis, there was a new webpage built for <a rel="noopener" href="http://www.royal.uk/prince-albert" target="_blank">www.royal.uk/prince-albert</a>, which led fans to believe that was the new name for the latest royal baby.</p> <p>Is it a ruse to throw eager fans off the scent or could they be right about the name of Baby Sussex? Only time will tell, but the Duke and Duchess of Sussex seem eager to keep things under wraps.</p>

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Millions of Facebook user records exposed in data breach

<p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Researchers at the cybersecurity firm UpGuard have said that they’ve discovered the existence of two datasets that contain the personal data of hundreds of millions of Facebook users.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Both datasets were publicly accessible.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">UpGuard explained in a </span><a href="https://www.upguard.com/breaches/facebook-user-data-leak"><span style="font-weight: 400;">blog post</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;"> how they connected the databases. They connected the first one to a Mexico-based media company called Cultura Colectiva, which contained over 146GB of data. This amounts to over 540 million Facebook user records.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The user records include comments, likes, reactions, account names, Facebook user IDS and much more.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The second leak was connected to an app that was integrated with Facebook called “At the pool” and had exposed around 22,000 passwords.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">“The passwords are presumably for the ‘At the Pool’ app rather than for the user’s Facebook account, but would put users at risk who have reused the same password across accounts,” UpGuard said.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The second database contained information about users’ friends, likes, groups and locations where they checked in using the app.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Both datasets were stored in unsecured Amazon S3 buckets and could have been accessed by anyone. Neither bucket was password protected, but since UpGuard have reported on the breach, they have either been taken offline or made more secure.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">UpGuard explained the difference in the datasets: “The data sets vary in when they were last updated, the data points present, and the number of unique individuals in each. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">“What ties them together is that they both contain data about Facebook users, describing their interests, relationships, and interactions, that were available to third party developers.”</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">UpGuard then added: “As Facebook faces scrutiny over its data stewardship practices, they have made efforts to reduce third party access. But as these exposures show, the data genie cannot be put back in the bottle. Data about Facebook users has been spread far beyond the bounds of what Facebook can control today.”</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Facebook were quick to work with Amazon to take down the databases and release a statement saying that they’ve done so:</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">“Facebook’s policies prohibit storing Facebook information in a public database. Once alerted to the issue, we worked with Amazon to take down the databases. We are committed to working with the developers on our platform to protect people’s data.”</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">However, the damage has already been done.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">UpGuard has warned users of the app to change their passwords and say that the breach “puts users at risk who have reused the same password across accounts.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Have you been impacted by the breach? Let us know in the comments.</span></p>

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Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg’s "new rules" for the internet

<p>After years of rejecting calls for increased regulatory oversight of Facebook,<span> </span><a href="https://www.facebook.com/zuck">founder and CEO Mark Zuckerberg</a><span> </span>has now<span> </span><a href="https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/mark-zuckerberg-the-internet-needs-new-rules-lets-start-in-these-four-areas/2019/03/29/9e6f0504-521a-11e9-a3f7-78b7525a8d5f_story.html">called for</a><span> </span>more cooperation with government in dealing with problems posed by internet platforms and emergent internet technologies.</p> <p>But the social media giant needs to do more than just talk about a solution. What we’re waiting for now are some clear indications that Zuckerberg will take a role in making change real.</p> <p>It’s important that Facebook, an online platform with<span> </span><a href="https://newsroom.fb.com/company-info/">more than two billion users</a>, navigates the complexities of platform governance by engaging users, governments and civil society groups in that process.</p> <p>Zuckerberg’s article followed<span> </span><a href="https://www.bbc.com/news/technology-47255380">criticism</a><span> </span>regarding how the social media platform is used by some for<span> </span><a href="https://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/2018/12/28/zuckerberg-facebook-can-never-fully-stop-use-platform-election/">political interference</a>, or to spread harmful material, such as the<span> </span><a href="https://www.nzherald.co.nz/business/news/article.cfm?c_id=3&amp;objectid=12214281">footage from the alleged gunman who live-streamed his attack</a><span> </span>on two New Zealand mosques.</p> <p>In an opinion piece<span> </span><a href="https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/mark-zuckerberg-the-internet-needs-new-rules-lets-start-in-these-four-areas/2019/03/29/9e6f0504-521a-11e9-a3f7-78b7525a8d5f_story.html">in the Washington Post</a><span> </span>over the weekend (and available on<span> </span><a href="https://www.facebook.com/zuck/posts/10107013839885441">his Facebook page</a>), Zuckerberg wrote:</p> <p><em>Every day, we make decisions about what speech is harmful, what constitutes political advertising, and how to prevent sophisticated cyberattacks.</em></p> <p>But he says companies alone should not be the ones to set up rules on what is acceptable.</p> <p><em>I believe we need a more active role for governments and regulators. By updating the rules for the Internet, we can preserve what’s best about it — the freedom for people to express themselves and for entrepreneurs to build new things — while also protecting society from broader harms.</em></p> <p><strong>Four steps for change</strong></p> <p>Zuckerberg argues that four areas warrant deeper cooperation:</p> <ul> <li>harmful content</li> <li>election integrity</li> <li>privacy</li> <li>data portability.</li> </ul> <p>To tackle harmful content, he suggests the creation of an independent body to review Facebook’s content moderation decisions. He also wants the formation of a set of standardised rules for harmful content.</p> <p>For election integrity, he bemoans the inconsistency and inadequacy of existing laws for electoral advertising and media.</p> <p>As for privacy, he points to the<span> </span><a href="https://www.wired.co.uk/article/what-is-gdpr-uk-eu-legislation-compliance-summary-fines-2018">European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation</a><span> </span>as a useful starting point.</p> <p>Finally, and perhaps most surprisingly<span> </span><a href="https://techcrunch.com/2018/04/13/free-the-social-graph/facebook-free-the-social-graph/">given Facebook’s history</a>, Zuckerberg argues legislation should establish and protect data portability rights. This would empower users with access to their data, and give them the ability to choose to take that data to other platforms.</p> <p>Zuckerberg wrote:</p> <p><em>I believe Facebook has a responsibility to help address these issues, and I’m looking forward to discussing them with lawmakers around the world. We’ve built advanced systems for finding harmful content, stopping election interference and making ads more transparent.</em></p> <p><em>But people shouldn’t have to rely on individual companies addressing these issues by themselves. We should have a broader debate about what we want as a society and how regulation can help. These four areas are important, but, of course, there’s more to discuss.</em></p> <p>While there’s certainly more to say about each of the issues that Zuckerberg has highlighted, for now, let’s consider the prospect of increased cooperation, and the pursuit of better online governance.</p> <p><strong>Worth seeking, even if it's difficult</strong></p> <p>It’s welcome to see a new enthusiasm from Zuckerberg regarding engagement with government.</p> <p>His opinion article demonstrates some optimism for unification and standardisation for governance and policing of issues like harmful content and privacy.</p> <p>This is likely because a global unification of standards poses a significantly lower cost to Facebook for conforming to a standardised regulatory approach, rather than dealing with a patchwork of regulatory frameworks from dozens of countries and regulatory agencies.</p> <p>That said, we should hope Zuckerberg stays true to this commitment to increased cooperation, even in the absence of international agreement or standardisation.</p> <p>Whether it is convenient to Facebook or not, it has a duty to its users to operate responsibly. That responsibility should not be abrogated just because international regulatory compliance is difficult.</p> <p>While Zuckerberg has discussed the notion of greater cooperation with governments and regulatory agencies, it’s important this cooperation doesn’t stop at the offices of government and regulatory bodies.</p> <p>Governments may be the arbiters of what is<span> </span><em>legal</em><span> </span>in a country or territory, but the legislative demands that are made of Facebook and other internet platforms may not necessarily be<span> </span><em>just</em><span> </span>or<span> </span><em>fair</em><span> </span>to the people affected by those laws.</p> <p>As an example, I suspect neither Facebook nor its developers particularly want their platform to be used as a tool for the oppression of LGBTQIA+ people<span> </span><a href="https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/jul/27/gay-relationships-still-criminalised-countries-report">in countries where homosexuality is criminalised</a>.</p> <p>I’ve noted previously that the responsibilities to balance free expression with socio-cultural norms, personal desires, and local regulatory regimes is a<span> </span><a href="https://theconversation.com/anxieties-over-livestreams-can-help-us-design-better-facebook-and-youtube-content-moderation-113750">particularly complex task</a>. Unfortunately for Facebook, deeper cooperation with government will not make this any easier.</p> <p>We must consider: when should we expect Facebook to follow the law? And when could we expect Facebook to defy what it considers unjust laws?</p> <p>As a balance to the demands of government, Facebook should also look to engage with civil society organisations like as the<span> </span><a href="https://www.eff.org/">Electronic Frontiers Foundation</a><span> </span>or the<span> </span><a href="https://www.aclu.org/">American Civil Liberties Union</a>, as well as academic researchers to weigh the requests of government against appropriate criticism and discourse.</p> <p><strong>Time to 'update the rules'</strong></p> <p>Zuckerberg’s key argument here is that the current rules governing the internet have allowed a generation of entrepreneurs to “build services that changed the world”.</p> <div class="grid-ten large-grid-nine grid-last content-body content entry-content instapaper_body"> <p>This, he writes, has created a lot of value in people’s lives, but now it’s time for reform:</p> <p><em>It’s time to update these rules to define clear responsibilities for people, companies and governments going forward.“</em></p> <p>It’s equally important that we hold Facebook’s feet to the fires of responsibility, reform, and regulation — to ensure that these latest commitments are more than just hot air.</p> </div> <div class="grid-ten grid-prepend-two large-grid-nine grid-last content-topics topic-list"><em>Written by Andrew Quodling. Republished with permission of <a href="https://theconversation.com/zuckerbergs-new-rules-for-the-internet-must-move-from-words-to-actions-114593">The Conversation</a>.</em></div>

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Discover who is following your profile on Facebook

<p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Did you know people are able to “follow” your personal or professional Facebook page without sending you a friend request? </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">It’s important to know who is following you on Facebook, as this means that your posts are appearing in their News Feed without your knowledge and will appear more regularly than you think.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">However, people are only able to follow your personal Facebook account if your profile is public instead of private.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">It can be a bit tricky to see how someone is following your Facebook page, so here are a few tips to work out how.</span></p> <p><strong>How to see if someone is following your Facebook page</strong></p> <ol> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Go to your “Friends” tab and click on the “More” section.</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Click on “Following”.</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Scroll through who is following your Facebook page.</span></li> </ol> <p><strong>How to unfollow people on Facebook</strong></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">If you’re tired of seeing someone’s specific posts in your News Feed, but don’t want to unfriend them, you’re able to “unfollow” them.</span></p> <p><strong>Unfollow them via their Facebook profile</strong></p> <ol> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Go to their Facebook profile.</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Click the “Following” button so it doesn’t have the tick with “Following” any longer.</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Done! You’ve unfollowed them on Facebook.</span></li> </ol> <p><strong>Unfollow them via your News Feed</strong></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Have you just been reminded why you don’t like seeing this person’s posts? Unfollowing them from your News Feed is pretty simple.</span></p> <ol> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Find a status update or post from the friend you want to unfollow.</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Click on the down arrow in the upper right corner of the post.</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Scroll down until you find the “Unfollow” option.</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Click on the “Unfollow” option.</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">There! You have successfully unfollowed your friend.</span></li> </ol> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">This means that their posts will no longer appear in your News Feed on Facebook but you’re still friends with them.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Did you know about the “Unfollow” option on Facebook? Let us know in the comments.</span></p>

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How to easily save videos on Facebook

<p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Since Facebook wants to keep you on their app all the time, every second of the day, they make it difficult to save or “bookmark” things as they’d prefer it if you came back to watch it on the Facebook app.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">However, this doesn’t mean you can’t save or download videos to watch later, whether you’re on your computer, Android phone or iPhone.</span></p> <p><strong>Saving or “bookmarking” a video</strong></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Facebook offers a bookmarking section that you’re able to use within the platform. You’re able to save videos to watch them again later.</span></p> <p>The steps to do this are as follows:</p> <ol> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Find the video you want to save</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Tap or click on the three dots at the top right of the post</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Click on “Save video”</span></li> </ol> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">You’ve saved your first video!</span></p> <p>Now, if you want to watch it again later, this is easy to find as well:</p> <ol> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">If you’re on a computer, click on the Facebook icon at the top left of your window. Click on “Watch” and then “saved videos”.</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">If you’re on your phone, tap the three horizontal lines, then tap “saved”.</span></li> </ol> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Do you know any handy Facebook hacks? Let us know in the comments below.</span></p>

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How to change your iPad password with ease

<p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Whether you keep forgetting your code or found an old iPad that you want to start using again, changing the password is easier than you think.</span></p> <p><strong>If you know the password to your iPad but want to change it</strong></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">If you already know your password but want to change it, that’s simple to do once you know the steps.</span></p> <ol> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Log into your iPad with the current password</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Go to the “Settings” app which looks like grey gears</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Scroll down until you find “Passcode”. This can be called “Touch ID &amp; Passcode” on newer devices</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Enter in your current passcode and scroll down to “Change Passcode”. You will enter in your current passcode again (they’re very secure).</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">You can now enter in your new code. Your code can be 6-digit numbers, a custom alphanumeric code, a custom numeric code or the standard 4-digit numeric code.</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Enter in your new password twice and you have successfully changed your passcode.</span></li> </ol> <p><strong>If you don’t know the passcode and forgotten it</strong></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The only way to fix this is to restore your iPad to factory settings. Make sure you’ve backed it up before you’ve done this, otherwise you will lose all of your data.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">However, if you’re definitely unable to remember the code, say goodbye to your data on the iPad.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">There are two ways to reset your iPad. One is via iTunes and the other is via your iCloud account online.</span></p> <p><strong>Method one: via iTunes</strong></p> <ol> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Plug in your iPad and load up iTunes.</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Open the device in iTunes by clicking on the little icon underneath the sound bar.</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Once you have opened the device, click on “Restore iPad”.</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">iTunes will warn you that you will lose all of your data by doing this. Click on the “restore” button anyway.</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Your iPad will start up as a brand-new device, which you can access from iTunes</span></li> </ol> <p><strong>Method two: via iCloud account online</strong></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">You are able to remotely erase the data on your iPad thanks to iCloud.com. This method is usually used if the device has been stolen or is lost but can also be used to erase data off your iPad.</span></p> <ol> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Go to iCloud.com and log into your iCloud account. This is the same as your Apple ID.</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Click on “Find my iPhone”, which is located at the top of the screen. Click “All devices” and select your iPad’s name.</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Click on “Erase iPad”.</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">You will be warned that your data will be lost, and you will be unable to track your device anymore. Click on “erase”.</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Your device is now restored to factory settings.</span></li> </ol> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Did you know of the iCloud method for restoring your iPad? Let us know in the comments.</span></p>

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Why your Gmail account just got a whole lot better

<p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Gmail, Google’s email service, has turned 15 and in order to celebrate, Google has added a new feature that’ll help out its users.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The new feature allows users to schedule emails to send at a particular time within Gmail.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Google explained how to use the feature and why it’s been introduced in a </span><a href="https://cloud.google.com/blog/products/g-suite/15-years-and-counting-making-gmail-work-faster-and-smarter-for-businesses"><span style="font-weight: 400;">blog post</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">: </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">“We understand that work can often carry over to non-business hours, but it’s important to be considerate of everyone’s downtime.”</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">“We want to make it easier to respect everyone’s digital well-being, so we’re adding a new feature to Gmail that allows you to choose when an email should be sent.”</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">“Just write your email as you normally would, then schedule it to arrive in your recipient’s inbox at a later date and time.”</span><a href="https://storage.googleapis.com/gweb-cloudblog-publish/original_images/SCHEDULE_SEND_DESKTOP.gif"><span style="font-weight: 400;"></span></a></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The feature is easy to use and just one of many that were implemented on Gmail’s birthday.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Other features include:</span></p> <ul> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">“Smart Compose” which is designed to help users on the go. The feature can adapt to the way you write, as the feature will stay true to your email voice.</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Dynamic emails, which allows users to respond to a comment thread in Google Docs or schedule a meeting within the email message itself.</span></li> </ul> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">What feature will you be using? Let us know in the comments.</span></p>

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Are you at risk? Data sharing amongst health apps is more common than you think

<p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Some of the sensitive information you might share with a doctor, including your age, sex, medical conditions and current symptoms, are being shared with popular health apps.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Although it’s easy to feel like these applications are helping you, a new study has found that the data that users input into these apps are being shared with third party entities.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The study, published in the </span><a href="https://www.bmj.com/content/364/bmj.l920"><span style="font-weight: 400;">British Medical Journal</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">, has found that user data from health-related mobile apps on the Android platform is routine and not transparent at all.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The information that is put into these health apps can be shared with app developers, their parent companies and potentially dozens of third-party entities. Therefore, the information that you think is private ends up being distributed on a wide scale.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Lead author of the report, Dr Quinn Grundy, said that health apps are a “booming market”, but is one with many privacy failings. She told </span><a href="https://www.abc.net.au/news/science/2019-03-21/health-apps-sharing-data-common-practice-study-finds/10923484"><span style="font-weight: 400;">The ABC</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">:</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">"I think many of us would expect that this kind of data should be treated differently," said Dr Grundy, an assistant professor at the University of Toronto.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">"Unfortunately, our study shows that that's not the case. These apps behave in much the same way as your fitness app, weather app or music app."</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Dr Grundy and colleagues at the University of Sydney examined 24 medicine related Android applications that are popular in Australia, North America and the United Kingdom. Some of these apps included ones that might remind you when to take a prescription.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The researchers found that 19 out of 24 apps shared data outside of the application to a total of 55 different entities, owned by 46 parent companies.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The information that was shared included users emails and device ID to medical conditions and drug lists.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The researchers discovered that Amazon and Alphabet, the parent company of Google, received the highest volume of user data. This was closely followed by Microsoft.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Dr Grundy explained that whilst most apps have a privacy policy and said that the data was stripped of identifying information, they described what was collected and shared in very general terms.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">"They wouldn't name specific third parties or why data was shared with them. But would say, 'we never sell your data, but we may shared anonymised, aggregated reports with third parties for legitimate business purposes'," she explained.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Peter Hannay, an adjunct lecturer and security researcher at Edith Cowan University has offered a solution.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">"It's not a matter of 'swap to a different app'," he said.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">"It would be a matter of just not using those sorts of services at all."</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">However, if you do want to use these services, he has some advice for that as well.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">"If the application is reminding you to take medication, I would try to find one that doesn't require permission to connect to the internet," he said.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">"If it's able to work offline, that's something I would consider to be desirable."</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Do you use any apps that require health data? Let us know in the comments.</span></p>

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How artificial intelligence is scamming online daters

<p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Online dating is tricky for everyone. After all, anyone can be whoever they want to be on the internet.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">It doesn’t help that the majority of internet users think they can spot a dating scam from miles away and that it would never happen to them.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">However, thanks to new technology, it’s harder than ever to know if someone is being genuine over the internet. Scammers are constantly figuring out new ways to be deceptive </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">and gain people’s trust.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">There is a new artificial intelligence technology available called Deepfake. This technology is able to produce hyper realistic images and videos of people and situations that don’t exist and have never happened.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The videos look so realistic that it is hard to prove they are fake. For example, Barack Obama never called Donald Trump a “dips**t”, but this video would have you believing otherwise.</span></p> <p><iframe width="653" height="380" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/cQ54GDm1eL0" frameborder="0" allow="accelerometer; autoplay; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture" allowfullscreen=""></iframe></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Unless you look very closely, you would believe that Obama had said this. There are small tips to look out for, such as blurring or distortion on the video, but they’re only visible when you know what to look for.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Phillip Wang, the man behind the website ThisPersonDoesNotExist.com told </span><a href="https://www.news.com.au/technology/online/security/how-disturbing-ai-technology-could-be-used-to-scam-online-daters/news-story/1be46dc7081613849d67b82566f8b421"><span style="font-weight: 400;">news.com.au</span></a> <span style="font-weight: 400;">that he created the site to prove a point to friends about AI technology.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">“I then decided to share it on an AI Facebook group to raise awareness for the current state of the art for this technology. It went viral from there.”</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Wang said he created the site to raise awareness about how easy it is to make a fake person. He also wants to raise awareness about the implications this technology could have in the future.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">It’s getting more and more difficult to tell deepfakes from reality, and Wang has said that it’s “beyond something that simple photoshop forensics can help defeat.”</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Have you dabbled at online dating? Let us know in the comments.</span></p>

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4 Facebook hacks that put you back in control

<p>It can be hard keeping up with the constant changes of Facebook. It seems like it’s harder to unfriend people and see the content you love. There are a few ways you can change that.</p> <p><strong>1. Unfriending isn’t your only option</strong></p> <p>Everyone has those few Facebook friends who posts are always annoying or argumentative or both. But if those friends are your real-life friends or relatives, unfriending them could cause some tumult in the real world.</p> <p>Here’s the solution: Click the “Following” button at the top of the page and select “Unfollow.”</p> <p>You’ll stop seeing their posts, you’ll still be “friends” with them, and their feelings don’t get hurt. Win-win!</p> <p><strong>2. </strong><strong>Erase your search history</strong></p> <p>Every Facebook user makes some searches they’re not proud of, whether it’s an ex’s profile or something not safe for work. But never fear: Facebook can erase all traces them.</p> <p>Click the downward-pointing arrow in the top right-hand corner of your screen and go to “Activity Log.” From there, click “More” under “Comments” and look for “Search history.”</p> <p>If there’s one particular search you’re less than proud of, search through the chronological entries and click the crossed circle next to one to delete it.</p> <p>Otherwise, you can wipe your slate clean by clicking “Clear searches” at the top of the page.</p> <p><strong>3. Turn off those endless birthday notifications</strong></p> <p>You love it when Facebook reminds you that your cousin’s birthday is today and you haven’t sent her a balloon emoji-filled text, but you hate when it do the same for the people you occasionally talked to in high school.</p> <p>While there’s no way to choose whose birthdays you can get notified for, you can turn off all birthday notifications by going into “Settings” (under the upper right-hand arrow), “Notifications,” and then “On Facebook.”</p> <p>That lists everything you get notified for, including groups you’re in, pages you run, and yes, birthdays.</p> <p><strong>4. </strong><strong>Prioritise the content you want to see</strong></p> <p>Facebook has recently introduced an algorithm that allows Facebook to prioritise posts from your friends and family.</p> <p>However, this means you miss out on posts from your favourite media outlets that you might want to see.</p> <p>To change that, go to the companies Facebook page, click on the “Following” button, and then click “See First”.</p> <p>Easily fixed.</p> <p>Do you have any more tips for Facebook? Let us know in the comments.</p> <p><em>Written by Claire Nowak. This article first appeared in <a href="http://www.readersdigest.com.au/true-stories-lifestyle/science-technology/15-facebook-hacks-put-you-back-control">Reader’s Digest</a>. For more of what you love from the world’s best-loved magazine, <a href="http://readersdigest.innovations.co.nz/c/readersdigestemailsubscribe?utm_source=over60&amp;utm_medium=articles&amp;utm_campaign=RDSUB&amp;keycode=WRN87V">here’s our best subscription offer</a>.</em></p> <p><img style="width: 100px !important; height: 100px !important;" src="/media/7820640/1.png" alt="" data-udi="umb://media/f30947086c8e47b89cb076eb5bb9b3e2" /></p>

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The exciting new products coming soon from Apple

<p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Apple announced three subscription services as it searches for new areas of revenue growth. This is to compensate for stalling iPhone sales. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The three products that were announced are:</span></p> <ul> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Apple TV / Apple TV+</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Apple News+</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">A titanium credit card</span></li> </ul> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Apple TV+ is Apple’s answer to Netflix, as it allows users to view original video content that has been produced by Apple. There are 34 different TV shows and movie productions in the works. No price point has been announced for the subscription service.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Apple News+ is a paid tier of the Apple News app that includes magazine content for $10 a month. Magazines that you know, and love are included in the service, including </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">Wired</span><span style="font-weight: 400;"> and </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">National Geographic</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The titanium credit card is only available in the US, but people are intrigued. It’s called Apple Card.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Apple CEO Tim Cook explained the reason behind a credit card to </span><a href="https://www.cnbc.com/2019/03/25/apple-spring-tv-and-news-event-live-coverage.html"><span style="font-weight: 400;">CNBC</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">:</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">"We saw an opportunity to transform another fundamental form of payment, and that's the credit card."</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">However, many are left wondering whether or not Apple have lost the creative edge that put them on top.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">As the products were announced, some were unimpressed. Swinburne University digital media expert Belinda Barnet explained that Apple should have set their sights a little higher instead of trying to take on Netflix.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">“People were expecting flying cars and a new iPhone but [the online content-focused launch] could be very significant in that Apple may be intending to take on a company like Amazon,” Dr Barnet said to </span><a href="https://thenewdaily.com.au/life/tech/2019/03/26/apple-online-streaming-launch/"><span style="font-weight: 400;">The New Daily</span></a><span style="font-weight: 400;">.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">I don’t think Netflix is the end game here. Just look at the market cap of the companies to see who the real competitor is.”</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">With another announcement from Apple announcing the Apple Arcade – which aims to curate many of the games available on the App Store into a subscription service – it’s clear that Apple aren’t messing around anymore.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">“A company like Apple does know everything about you but has never shared it,” Dr Barnet explained. </span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">“So their tactic might be to leverage their dominance in terms of data – they certainly know more about you than Amazon does – with privacy absolutely central to their brand as opposed to all these other players.”</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">What do you think about the Apple launch? Let us know in the comments.</span></p>

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6 ways your mobile phone affects your body and mind

<p>It can be hard to switch off your mobile phone, but there are benefits for your health if you decide to do so.</p> <p><strong>1. It can keep you safe</strong></p> <p>First, some good news. Your phone can keep you safer.</p> <p>A study in the<span> </span><em>Journal of Emergency Medicine</em><span> </span>that analysed emergency dispatches over an 11-year period revealed that 137 more lives were saved per 100,000 patients when people called emergency services from a mobile phone rather than from a landline.</p> <p>They can be pretty handy in a pinch. The mobile phone can also be a bane, both to yourself and others.</p> <p><strong>2. It keeps you from focusing</strong></p> <p>When you are awake, a single buzz signalling a new 
notification on your phone can weaken your ability to focus on a task, researchers at Florida State 
University have found.</p> <p>Switch your phone to “do not disturb” mode to remove the distraction.</p> <p><strong>3. It makes you achy</strong></p> <p>People now spend more than five hours a day swiping, typing and tapping – and feeling achy because of it all.</p> <p>“Selfie elbow” is a strain injury caused by holding your elbow at an extreme angle, and roughly 85,000 people a month search for “texting thumb” and similar terms on Google.</p> <p><strong>4. Risk of cancer is low</strong></p> <p>Radiation exposure, long thought to be a risk for heavy-duty phone users, is probably not a significant concern.</p> <p>Smartphones do emit radiation, but most scientific evidence has not linked the use of a mobile phone to cancer.</p> <p>One draft study found that exposing male lab rats to the highest levels allowed for mobile phones was linked to one type of rare tumor in the tissues surrounding nerves in the heart.</p> <p>If you’re worried, use earbuds or a headset when you talk on your phone.</p> <p><strong>5. It hinders your memory</strong></p> <p>Snapping a pic with your smartphone may also hinder your memory.</p> <p>On a test after a visit to an art museum, students were less likely to remember objects they had taken photos of.</p> <p>“As soon as you hit ‘click’ on that camera, it’s as if you’ve outsourced your memory,” says psychologist Linda Henkel.</p> <p><strong>6. It hurts your eyes</strong></p> <p>Your phone can do a number on your eyes.</p> <p>A study in the US found that about 60 percent of respondents experience digital 
eye strain symptoms such as dryness, irritation, blurred vision, eye fatigue and headaches.</p> <p>Try blinking often, increasing font size and 
taking a break from screens every 20 minutes.</p> <p><em>Written by Michelle Crouch. This article first appeared in <a href="http://www.readersdigest.com.au/true-stories-lifestyle/thought-provoking/13-ways-your-mobile-phone-affects-your-body-and-mind">Reader’s Digest</a>. For more of what you love from the world’s best-loved magazine, <a href="http://readersdigest.innovations.co.nz/c/readersdigestemailsubscribe?utm_source=over60&amp;utm_medium=articles&amp;utm_campaign=RDSUB&amp;keycode=WRN87V">here’s our best subscription offer.</a></em></p> <p><img style="width: 100px !important; height: 100px !important;" src="/media/7820640/1.png" alt="" data-udi="umb://media/f30947086c8e47b89cb076eb5bb9b3e2" /></p>

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Why dangerous asteroids heading to Earth are so hard to detect

<p>Earth is often in the firing line of fragments of asteroids and comets, most of which<span> </span><a href="https://theconversation.com/explainer-why-meteors-light-up-the-night-sky-35754">burn up</a>tens of kilometres above our heads. But occasionally, something larger gets through.</p> <p>That’s what happened off Russia’s east coast on December 18 last year. A<span> </span><a href="https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-47607696">giant explosion occurred above the Bering Sea</a><span> </span>when an asteroid some ten metres across detonated with an explosive energy ten times greater than the bomb dropped on Hiroshima.</p> <p>So why didn’t we see this asteroid coming? And why are we only hearing about its explosive arrival now?</p> <p><strong>Nobody saw it</strong></p> <p>Had the December explosion occurred near a city – as<span> </span><a href="https://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/feb/15/hundreds-injured-meteorite-russian-city-chelyabinsk">happened at Chelyabinsk in February 2013</a><span> </span>– we would have heard all about it at the time.</p> <p>But because it happened in a remote part of the world, it went unremarked for more than three months, until details were unveiled at the<span> </span><a href="https://www.hou.usra.edu/meetings/lpsc2019/">50th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference</a><span> </span>this week, based on<span> </span><a href="https://cneos.jpl.nasa.gov/fireballs/">NASA’s collection of fireball data</a>.</p> <p>So where did this asteroid come from?</p> <p><strong>At risk from space debris</strong></p> <p>The Solar system is littered with material left over from the formation of the planets. Most of it is locked up in stable reservoirs – the Asteroid belt, the Edgeworth-Kuiper belt and the Oort cloud – far from Earth.</p> <p>Those reservoirs continually leak objects into interplanetary space, injecting fresh debris into orbits that cross those of the planets. The inner Solar system is awash with debris, ranging from tiny flecks of dust to comets and asteroids many kilometres in diameter.</p> <p>The vast majority of the debris that collides with Earth is utterly harmless, but our planet still<span> </span><a href="https://theconversation.com/target-earth-how-asteroids-made-an-impact-on-australia-92836">bears the scars of collisions</a><span> </span>with much larger bodies.</p> <p>The largest, most devastating impacts (like that which<span> </span><a href="https://theconversation.com/how-the-dinosaurs-went-extinct-asteroid-collision-triggered-potentially-deadly-volcanic-eruptions-112134">helped to kill the dinosaurs</a><span> </span>65 million years ago) are the rarest. But smaller, more frequent collisions also pose a marked risk.</p> <p>In 1908, in Tunguska, Siberia, a<span> </span><a href="http://www.bbc.com/earth/story/20160706-in-siberia-in-1908-a-huge-explosion-came-out-of-nowhere">vast explosion</a><span> </span>levelled more than 2,000 square kilometres of forest. Due to the remote location, no deaths were recorded. Had the impact happened just two hours later, the city of St Petersburg could have been destroyed.</p> <p>In 2013, it was a 10,000-tonne asteroid that<span> </span><a href="https://earthsky.org/space/meteor-asteroid-chelyabinsk-russia-feb-15-2013">detonated above the Russian city of Chelyabinsk</a>. More than 1,500 people were injured and around 7,000 buildings were damaged, but amazingly nobody was killed.</p> <p>We’re still trying to work out how often events like this happen. Our information on the frequency of the larger impacts is pretty limited, so estimates can vary dramatically.</p> <p>Typically, people argue that Tunguska-sized impacts happen<span> </span><a href="https://academic.oup.com/astrogeo/article/50/1/1.18/201316">every few hundred years</a>, but that’s just based on a sample of one event. The truth is, we don’t really know.</p> <p><strong>What can we do about it?</strong></p> <p>Over the past couple of decades, a concerted effort has been made to search for potentially hazardous objects that pose a threat before they hit Earth. The result is the<span> </span><a href="https://cneos.jpl.nasa.gov/stats/totals.html">identification of thousands of near-Earth asteroids</a><span> </span>upwards of a few metres across.</p> <p>Once found, the orbits of those objects can be determined, and their paths<span> </span><a href="https://cneos.jpl.nasa.gov/ca/">predicted into the future</a>, to see whether an impact is possible or even likely. The longer we can observe a given object, the better that prediction becomes.</p> <p>But as we saw with Chelyabinsk in 2013, and again in December, we’re not there yet. While the catalogue of potentially hazardous objects continues to grow, many still remain undetected, waiting to catch us by surprise.</p> <p>If we discover a collision is pending in the coming days, we can work out where and when the collision will happen. That happened for the first time in 2008 when astronomers discovered the tiny<span> </span><a href="https://cneos.jpl.nasa.gov/news/2008tc3.html">asteroid 2008 TC3</a>, 19 hours before it hit Earth’s atmosphere over northern Sudan.</p> <p>For impacts predicted with a longer lead time, it will be possible to work out whether the object is truly dangerous, or would merely produce a spectacular but harmless fireball (like 2008 TC3).</p> <p>For any objects that truly pose a threat, the race will be on to deflect them – to turn a hit into a miss.</p> <p><strong>Searching the skies</strong></p> <p>Before we can quantify the threat an object poses, we first need to know that the object is there. But finding asteroids is hard.</p> <p>Surveys scour the skies,<span> </span><a href="https://spaceguardcentre.com/what-are-neos/finding-and-observing-asteroids/">looking for faint star-like points moving against the background stars</a>. A bigger asteroid will reflect more sunlight, and therefore appear brighter in the sky - at a given distance from Earth.</p> <p>As a result, the smaller the object, the closer it must be to Earth before we can spot it.</p> <p>Objects the size of the Chelyabinsk and Bering Sea events (about 20 and 10 metres diameter, respectively) are tiny. They can only be spotted when passing very close to our planet. The vast majority of the time they are simply undetectable.</p> <p>As a result, having impacts like these come out of the blue is really the norm, rather than the exception!</p> <p>The Chelyabinsk impact is a great example. Moving on its orbit around the Sun, it approached us in the daylight sky - totally hidden in the Sun’s glare.</p> <p>For larger objects, which impact much less frequently but would do far more damage, it is fair to expect we would receive some warning.</p> <p><strong>Why not move the asteroid?</strong></p> <p>While we need to keep searching for threatening objects, there is another way we could protect ourselves.</p> <p>Missions such as<span> </span><a href="https://solarsystem.nasa.gov/missions/hayabusa/in-depth/">Hayabusa</a>,<span> </span><a href="http://www.hayabusa2.jaxa.jp/en/">Hayabusa 2</a><span> </span>and<span> </span><a href="https://www.asteroidmission.org/">OSIRIS-REx</a><span> </span>have demonstrated the ability to travel to near-Earth asteroids, land on their surfaces, and move things around.</p> <p>From there, it is just a short hop to being able to deflect them – to change a potential collision into a near-miss.</p> <p>Interestingly, ideas of asteroid deflection dovetail nicely with the<span> </span><a href="https://theconversation.com/mining-asteroids-could-unlock-untold-wealth-heres-how-to-get-started-95675">possibility of asteroid mining</a>.</p> <p>The technology needed to extract material from an asteroid and send it back to Earth could equally be used to alter the orbit of that asteroid, moving it away from a potential collision with our planet.</p> <p>We’re not quite there yet, but for the first time in our history, we have the potential to truly control our own destiny.</p> <p><em>Written by Jonti Horner. Republished with permission of <a href="https://theconversation.com/why-dangerous-asteroids-heading-to-earth-are-so-hard-to-detect-113845">The Conversation.</a></em></p>

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The internet is now an arena for conflict – and we're all caught up in it

<p>Most people think the internet operates as a kind of global public square. In reality, it’s become a divided arena where conflict between nation states plays out.</p> <p>Nation states run covert operations on the same platforms we use to post cat videos and exchange gossip. And if we’re not aware of it, we could be unwittingly used as pawns for the wrong side.</p> <p>How did we get here? It’s complicated, but let’s walk through some of the main elements.</p> <p><strong>The age of entanglement</strong></p> <p>On the one hand, we have an information landscape dominated by Western culture and huge multi-national internet platforms run by private companies, such as Google and Facebook. On the other, there are authoritarian regimes such as China, Iran, Turkey and Russia exercising tight control over the internet traffic flowing in and out of their countries.</p> <p>We are seeing more cyber intrusions into<span> </span><a href="https://theconversation.com/a-state-actor-has-targeted-australian-political-parties-but-that-shouldnt-surprise-us-111997">nation state networks</a>, such as the recent hack of the Australian parliamentary network. At the same time,<span> </span><a href="https://www.politics.ox.ac.uk/news/lucas-kello-gives-evidence-to-house-of-lords-committee.html">information</a><span> </span>and influence operations conducted by countries such as Russia and China are flowing through social media into our increasingly shared digital societies.</p> <p>The result is a<span> </span><a href="https://mitpress.mit.edu/books/stack">global</a><span> </span>ecosystem<span> </span><a href="https://nsc.crawford.anu.edu.au/news-events/podcasts/video/10698/towards-political-ecology-cyberspace-3-3">perpetually</a><span> </span>close to the threshold of war.</p> <p>Because nations use the internet both to assert power and to conduct trade, there are incentives for authoritarian powers to keep their internet traffic open. You can’t maintain rigid digital borders and assert cyberpower influence at the same time, so nations have to “<a href="https://www.belfercenter.org/sites/default/files/legacy/files/IS3903_pp007-047.pdf">cooperate to compete</a>”.</p> <p>This is becoming known as “entanglement” – and it affects us all.</p> <p><strong>Data flows in one direction</strong></p> <p>Authoritarian societies such as China, Russia and Iran aim to create their own separate digital ecosystems where the government can control internet traffic that flows in and out of the country.</p> <p>The Chinese Communist Party is well known for maintaining a supposedly secure Chinese internet via what is known in the West as the “<a href="https://cs.stanford.edu/people/eroberts/cs181/projects/2010-11/FreedomOfInformationChina/the-great-firewall-of-china-background/index.html">Great Firewall</a>”. This is a system that can block international internet traffic from entering China according to the whim of the government.</p> <p>For the majority of the<span> </span><a href="https://techcrunch.com/2018/08/21/china-reaches-800-million-internet-users/">802 million people online</a><span> </span>in China, many of the apps we use to produce and share information are not accessible. Google, YouTube, Facebook, Twitter are blocked. Instead, people in China use apps created by Chinese technology companies, such as Tencent, Alibaba and Baidu.</p> <p>Traffic within this ecosystem is monitored and censored in the most sophisticated and comprehensive surveillance state in the world. In 2018, for example, Peppa Pig was<span> </span><a href="https://www.sbs.com.au/news/how-peppa-pig-became-a-gangster-figure-in-china">banned</a> and the People’s Daily referred to her as a “<a href="https://web.archive.org/web/20180502092019/http://media.people.com.cn/BIG5/n1/2018/0426/c40606-29950870.html">gangster</a>” after she became iconic of rebelliousness in Chinese youth culture.</p> <p><strong>Complete blocking of data is impossible</strong></p> <p>A key objective of this firewall is to to shield Chinese society and politics from external influence, while enabling internal surveillance of the Chinese population.</p> <p>But the firewall is not technologically independent of the West – its development has been reliant upon US corporations to supply the software, hardware innovation and training to ensure the system functions. And since the internet is an arena where nations compete for economic advantage, it’s not in the interest of either side to destroy cyberspace entirely.</p> <p>As cyber security expert Greg Austin<span> </span><a href="https://www.springer.com/la/book/9783319684352">has observed</a>, the foundations of China’s cyber defences remain weak. There are technical ways to<span> </span><a href="https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F11957454_2">get around the firewall</a>, and Chinese internet users exploit<span> </span><a href="https://theconversation.com/from-metoo-to-ricebunny-how-social-media-users-are-campaigning-in-china-90860">Mandarin homophones and emoji</a><span> </span>to evade internal censors.</p> <p>Chinese economic and financial entanglement with the West means complete blocking of data is impossible. Consistent incentives to openness remain. China and the United States are therefore engaged in what Canadian scholar of digital media and global affairs Jon R Lindsay<span> </span><a href="https://www.belfercenter.org/sites/default/files/legacy/files/IS3903_pp007-047.pdf">describes</a><span> </span>as:</p> <blockquote> <p><em>chronic and ambiguous intelligence-counter intelligence contests across their networks, even as the internet facilitates productive exchange between them.</em></p> </blockquote> <p>That is, a tension exists because they are covertly working against each other on exactly the same digital platforms necessary to promote their individual and mutual interests in areas such as trade, manufacturing, communications and regulation.</p> <p>Since Russia is less dependent upon the information technology services of the United States and is therefore less entangled than China, it is<span> </span><a href="https://www.unsw.adfa.edu.au/unsw-canberra-cyber/news/australian-cyber-ideas-moscow">more able</a><span> </span>to engage in bilateral negotiation and aggression.</p> <p><strong>Different styles of influence</strong></p> <p>If the internet has become a contest between nation states, one way of winning is to appear to comply with the letter of the law, while abusing its spirit.</p> <p>In the West, a network of private corporations, including Twitter, Google and Facebook, facilitate an internet system where information and commerce flow freely. Since the West remains open, while powers such as Russia and China exercise control over internet traffic, this creates an imbalance that can be exploited.</p> <p>Influence operations conducted by China and Russia in countries such as Australia exist within this larger context. And they are being carried out in the digital arena on a<span> </span><a href="https://blog.google/technology/safety-security/update-state-sponsored-activity/">scale</a>never before experienced. In the words of the latest<span> </span><a href="https://www.dni.gov/files/ODNI/documents/2019-ATA-SFR---SSCI.pdf">US Intelligence Community Worldwide Threat Assessment</a>:</p> <blockquote> <p><em>Our adversaries and strategic competitors […] are now becoming more adept at using social media to alter how we think, behave and decide.</em></p> </blockquote> <p>The internet is a vast infrastructure of tools that can be used to strategically manipulate behaviour for specific tactical gain, and each nation has its own style of influence.</p> <p>I have previously written about attempts by<span> </span><a href="https://theconversation.com/how-digital-media-blur-the-border-between-australia-and-china-101735">China</a><span> </span>and<span> </span><a href="https://theconversation.com/russian-trolls-targeted-australian-voters-on-twitter-via-auspol-and-mh17-101386">Russia</a><span> </span>to influence Australian politics via social media, showing how each nation state utilises different tactics.</p> <p>China takes a subtle approach, reflecting a long term strategy. It seeks to connect with the Chinese diaspora in a<span> </span><a href="https://securityaffairs.co/wordpress/57781/apt/operation-cloud-hopper-apt10.html">target country</a>, and shape opinion in a manner favourable to the Chinese Communist Party. This is often as much as about<span> </span><a href="https://theconversation.com/why-china-will-be-watching-how-we-commemorate-anzac-day-75856">ensuring some things aren’t said</a>as it is about shaping what is.</p> <p><a href="https://theconversation.com/russian-trolls-targeted-australian-voters-on-twitter-via-auspol-and-mh17-101386">Russia</a>, on the other hand, has used more obvious tactics to infiltrate and disrupt Australian political discourse on social media,<span> </span><a href="https://theconversation.com/weve-been-hacked-so-will-the-data-be-weaponised-to-influence-election-2019-heres-what-to-look-for-112130">exploiting</a><span> </span>Islamophobia – and the divide between left and right – to undermine social cohesion. This reflects Russia’s primary aim to destabilise the civic culture of the target population.</p> <p>But there are some similarities between the two approaches, reflecting a growing cooperation between them. As the<span> </span><a href="https://www.dni.gov/files/ODNI/documents/2019-ATA-SFR---SSCI.pdf">US Intelligence Community</a><span> </span>points out:</p> <blockquote> <p><em>China and Russia are more aligned than at any point since the mid-1950s.</em></p> </blockquote> <p><strong>A strategic alliance between Russia and China</strong></p> <p>The strategic<span> </span><a href="https://toinformistoinfluence.com/2017/07/24/forget-sun-tzu-the-art-of-modern-war-can-be-found-in-a-chinese-strategy-book-from-1999/">origins of these shared approaches</a><span> </span>go back to the early internet itself. The Russian idea of<span> </span><a href="https://www.nato.int/DOCU/review/2015/Also-in-2015/hybrid-modern-future-warfare-russia-ukraine/EN/index.htm">hybrid warfare</a><span> </span>– also known as the<span> </span><a href="https://foreignpolicy.com/2018/03/05/im-sorry-for-creating-the-gerasimov-doctrine/">Gerasimov Doctrine</a><span> </span>– uses information campaigns to undermine a society as part of a wider strategy.</p> <p>But this concept first originated in the Chinese People’s Liberation Army (PLA). In 1999, Chinese PLA colonels penned a strategy titled<span> </span><a href="https://www.oodaloop.com/documents/unrestricted.pdf">Unrestricted Warfare</a>, which outlined how to use media, government, pretty much everything, in the target country not as a tool, but as a weapon.</p> <p>It recommended not just cyber attacks, but also fake news campaigns – and was the basis for information campaigns that became famous during the 2016 US presidential election.</p> <p>In June 2016, Russia and China<span> </span><a href="http://www.russia.org.cn/en/russia_china/president-vladimir-putin-and-chairman-of-the-people-s-republic-of-china-xi-jinping-held-talks-in-beijing-june-25-2016/">signed</a><span> </span>a joint declaration on the internet, affirming their shared objectives. In December 2016, Russian President Vladimir Putin signed off on a new<span> </span><a href="http://www.mid.ru/en/foreign_policy/official_documents/-/asset_publisher/CptICkB6BZ29/content/id/2563163">Doctrine of Information Security</a>, which establishes how Russia will<span> </span><a href="https://www.cyberdb.co/russia-and-china-are-making-their-information-security-case/">defend</a><span> </span>its own population against influence operations.</p> <p><a href="https://www.lexology.com/library/detail.aspx?g=d23109be-661d-4e90-a92c-32b7330e3a49">Observers</a><span> </span>noted the striking similarity between the Russian document and Chinese internet<span> </span><a href="https://www.chinalawtranslate.com/cybersecuritylaw/?lang=en">law</a>.</p> <p>Russia and China also<span> </span><a href="https://www.chathamhouse.org/expert/comment/cyberattack-revelations-appear-undercut-russia-un">share a view</a><span> </span>of the global management of the internet, pursued via the United Nations:</p> <blockquote> <p><em>[…] more regulations to clarify how international law applies to cyberspace, with the aim of exercising more sovereignty – and state control – over the internet.</em></p> </blockquote> <p>The recent “sovereign internet”<span> </span><a href="http://sozd.duma.gov.ru/bill/608767-7">bill</a><span> </span>introduced to the Russian Parliament<span> </span><a href="https://www.rferl.org/a/russian-bill-on-autonomous-operation-of-internet-advances-in-duma/29765882.html">proposes</a><span> </span>a Domain Name System (DNS) independent of the wider internet infrastructure.</p> <p>If the internet is now a site of proxy war, such<span> </span><a href="https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2466222">so-called</a><span> </span>“<a href="https://www.rferl.org/a/q-a-hurdles-ahead-as-russia-surges-on-with-sovereign-internet-plan/29766229.html">balkanization</a>” challenges the dominance of the United States.</p> <p>Nations are competing for<span> </span><a href="https://smallwarsjournal.com/jrnl/art/harnessing-david-and-goliath-orthodoxy-asymmetry-and-competition">influence, leverage and advantage</a><span> </span>to secure their own interests. Russia and China don’t want to risk an all out war, and so competition is pursued at a level just below armed conflict.</p> <p>Technology, especially the internet, has brought this competition to us all.</p> <p><strong>We're entering turbulent waters</strong></p> <p>Despite its best efforts, China’s leaders remain concerned that the digital border between it and the rest of the world is too porous.</p> <p>In June 2009, Google was blocked in China. In 2011, Fang Binxing, one of the main designers of the<span> </span><a href="https://www.bloomberg.com/quicktake/great-firewall-of-china">Great Firewall</a><span> </span>expressed concern Google<span> </span><a href="https://books.google.com.au/books?id=dEGdCwAAQBAJ&amp;pg=PA113&amp;lpg=PA113&amp;dq=Fang+Binxing+2011+riverbed+benjamin+bratton&amp;source=bl&amp;ots=61Gnc-6vW-&amp;sig=ITVdygMm5ZmxuelLYB6w9oa6Cos&amp;hl=en&amp;sa=X&amp;ved=2ahUKEwib66X9mPvcAhXHU7wKHRHrDiUQ6AEwAHoECAcQAQ#v=onepage&amp;q=Fang%20Binxing%202011%20riverbed%20benjamin%20bratton&amp;f=false">was still potentially accessible in China</a>, saying:</p> <blockquote> <p><em>It’s like the relationship between riverbed and water. Water has no nationality, but riverbeds are sovereign territories, we cannot allow polluted water from other nation states to enter our country.</em></p> </blockquote> <p>The water metaphor was deliberate. Water flows and maritime domains define sovereign borders. And water flows are a good analogy for data flows. The internet has pitched democratic politics into the fluid dynamics of<span> </span><a href="http://politicalturbulence.org/">turbulence</a>, where algorithms shape<span> </span><a href="https://motherboard.vice.com/en_us/article/xwjden/targeted-advertising-is-ruining-the-internet-and-breaking-the-world">attention</a>, tiny clicks<span> </span><a href="https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/political-science-research-and-methods/article/quota-sampling-using-facebook-advertisements/0E120F161C9E114C6044EBB7792B5E70">measure participation</a>, and personal data is<span> </span><a href="https://www.chinoiresie.info/the-global-age-of-algorithm-social-credit-and-the-financialisation-of-governance-in-china/">valuable</a><span> </span>and apt to be<span> </span><a href="https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3224952">manipulated</a>.</p> <p>While other nations grapple with the best mix of containment, control and openness, ensuring Australia’s<span> </span><a href="http://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/breakfast/china-in-focus/10181900">democracy remains robust</a><span> </span>is the best defence. We need to keep an eye on the nature of the political discussion online, which requires a coordinated approach between the government and private sector, defence and security agencies, and an educated public.</p> <p>The strategies of information warfare we hear so much about these days were conceived in the 1990s – an era when “surfing the web” seemed as refreshing as a dip at your favourite beach. Our immersion in the subsequent waves of the web seem more threatening, but perhaps we can draw upon our cultural traditions to influence Australian security.</p> <p>As the rip currents of global internet influence operations grow more prevalent, making web surfing more dangerous, Australia would be wise to mark out a safe place to swim between the flags. Successful protection from influence will need many eyes watching from the beach.</p> <p class="p1"><em><span class="s1">Written by Tom Sear. Republished with permission of </span><a href="https://theconversation.com/the-internet-is-now-an-arena-for-conflict-and-were-all-caught-up-in-it-101736"><span class="s1">The Conversation.</span></a></em></p>

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Fitness trackers overestimate the number of calories burned

<p>Researchers in Aberystwyth University have found that popular brands of fitness trackers can overestimate the number of calories burned while walking by more than 50 per cent.</p> <p>Dr Rhys Thatcher has said that devices had an “inherent tendency” to overmeasure.</p> <p>The tests, which were carried out for the <a href="https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b006sggm">BBC X-Ray programme</a>, measured the amount of oxygen a volunteer used during ten minutes of walking and running sessions on a treadmill before comparing it to a range of various fitness trackers.</p> <p>The fitness trackers on offer were varied in price, ranging from £20 ($NZD 38) to £80 ($NZD 152).</p> <blockquote style="background: #FFF; border: 0; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: 0 0 1px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.5),0 1px 10px 0 rgba(0,0,0,0.15); margin: 1px; max-width: 540px; min-width: 326px; padding: 0; width: calc(100% - 2px);" class="instagram-media" data-instgrm-permalink="https://www.instagram.com/p/BrYGUEsBryN/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_medium=loading&amp;utm_campaign=embed_locale_test" data-instgrm-version="12"> <div style="padding: 16px;"> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: row; align-items: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 50%; flex-grow: 0; height: 40px; margin-right: 14px; width: 40px;"></div> <div style="display: flex; flex-direction: column; flex-grow: 1; justify-content: center;"> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; margin-bottom: 6px; width: 100px;"></div> <div style="background-color: #f4f4f4; border-radius: 4px; flex-grow: 0; height: 14px; width: 60px;"></div> </div> </div> <div style="padding: 19% 0;"></div> <div style="display: block; height: 50px; margin: 0 auto 12px; width: 50px;"></div> <div style="padding-top: 8px;"> <div style="color: #3897f0; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: 550; line-height: 18px;">View this post on Instagram</div> </div> <p style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; line-height: 17px; margin-bottom: 0; margin-top: 8px; overflow: hidden; padding: 8px 0 7px; text-align: center; text-overflow: ellipsis; white-space: nowrap;"><a style="color: #c9c8cd; font-family: Arial,sans-serif; font-size: 14px; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: 17px; text-decoration: none;" rel="noopener" href="https://www.instagram.com/p/BrYGUEsBryN/?utm_source=ig_embed&amp;utm_medium=loading&amp;utm_campaign=embed_locale_test" target="_blank">A post shared by fitbit (@fitbit)</a> on Dec 14, 2018 at 9:43am PST</p> </div> </blockquote> <p>The Fitbit Charge 2 was very accurate in testing calories while the volunteer was running, underestimating by 4 per cent. However, when the volunteer was walking, the tracker overestimated by 50 per cent.</p> <p>Dr Thatcher explained:</p> <p>"If you want to know the exact number of calories that you are burning during an exercise session then it doesn't matter which device you use, you have to interpret the data with some caution”</p> <p>Fitbit have said that they’re confident about the performance of their product.</p> <p>Have you noticed that your fitness tracker over estimates the number of calories burned? Let us know in the comments.</p>

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"Super-recognisers" accurately pick out a face in a crowd – but can this skill be taught?

<p>Yenny is 26 years old, lives in Melbourne, and has a very specific talent.</p> <p>One day, she was driving her car when she recognised a man who had been several years below her at high school and whom she hadn’t seen for more than ten years. What makes this particularly impressive is that she recognised him from the briefest glimpse in her rear-view mirror while he was driving the car behind hers.</p> <p>Yenny recounts many such amazing feats of recognition and is one of a very small proportion of the population known as “super-recognisers”. She was the top performer on a<span> </span><a href="https://facetest.psy.unsw.edu.au/">national test of face recognition abilities</a><span> </span>in Australia, coming first out of 20,000 participants.</p> <p>Could you learn to spot a face as well as Yenny? Well … maybe. Our<span> </span><a href="https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0211037">new research</a><span> </span>shows that many training courses offered in this field of expertise are ineffective in improving people’s accuracy in face identification.</p> <p>But other ways of learning how to identify faces may work; we’re just not yet sure exactly how.</p> <p><strong>In-demand expertise</strong></p> <p><a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3904192/">Super-recognisers</a><span> </span>are used by police and security agencies to spot targets in crowded train stations, monitor surveillance footage, and track people of interest.</p> <p>During the 2011 London riots, for example, super-recognisers from the Metropolitan Police<span> </span><a href="http://www.bbc.com/future/story/20150611-the-superpower-police-now-use-to-tackle-crime">identified more than 600 people</a><span> </span>from very poor-quality surveillance footage – a task that not even the best facial recognition software can perform reliably.</p> <p>So can anyone become a super-recogniser? Can you make up for a lack of superpowers through training? In our<span> </span><a href="https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0211037">paper</a><span> </span>we assessed the effectiveness of training courses given to practitioners who make facial identification decisions for a living.</p> <p>We reviewed 11 training courses that comply with international training standards from Australia, UK, US and Finland.</p> <p>We found that training courses typically teach facial anatomy – focusing on the muscles, bones and shape of the face – and instruct trainees to inspect faces feature by feature. Novices and genuine trainees completed one of four training courses and we tracked their identification accuracy from before to after training.</p> <p>Surprisingly, we found the training courses had almost no effect on people’s accuracy. This was especially surprising to the people who took the training – an astonishing 93% of trainees thought the training had improved their ability to identify faces.</p> <p>Our research shows that even the world’s best available training – used to train police, border control agents, forensic scientists and other security personnel – does not compensate for talent in face recognition.</p> <p>This is consistent with recent research suggesting that our face identification abilities are largely predetermined by<span> </span><a href="https://www.pnas.org/content/107/11/5238.long">genetics</a>.</p> <p><strong>Forensic facial examiners</strong></p> <p>This may come as disappointing news to people who hope to become a super-recogniser. But all is not lost.</p> <p>Scientists have recently discovered that some specialist groups of practitioners show very high levels of accuracy. Forensic facial examiners routinely compare images of faces to turn CCTV images into informative face identification evidence in criminal trials. Recent work shows that they too outperform novices in very<span> </span><a href="https://www.pnas.org/content/115/24/6171">challenging tests</a>.</p> <p>Forensic facial examiners present a paradox for scientists. They perform face identification tasks with a high degree of accuracy, and this ability appears to be acquired through professional experience and training.</p> <p><a href="https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0211037">Our study</a><span> </span>suggests there is no benefit of face identification training courses when tested immediately before and after.</p> <p>In addition,<span> </span><a href="https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0103510">previous work</a><span> </span>has suggested that merely performing face-matching tasks in daily work is not sufficient to improve accuracy. Some passport officers have been working for 20 years and perform no better than others who have been working for just a few months.</p> <p>This paradox suggests there is something particular about the type of training and professional experience that forensic facial examiners receive that enables them to develop visual expertise in identifying faces, and which isn’t provided by standard training courses.</p> <p><strong>How do they do it?</strong></p> <p>In our current research we are working closely with government agencies to uncover the basis of forensic facial examiners’ expertise. For example, we now know that part of their expertise comes from using a very particular<span> </span><a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28045276">comparison strategy</a>, where they break the face down into individual facial features and then slowly and systematically assess the similarity of each feature in turn.</p> <p>Interestingly, the nature of this expertise appears to be qualitatively different to that of super-recognisers – Yenny recognised her old classmate using a quick, intuitive process as she glanced in the rear-view mirror.</p> <p>However, these snap judgements made by super-recognisers may not be suitable for the type of identification evidence that forensic facial examiners give in court, where a careful analysis of facial images is necessary to support identification decisions. Importantly, forensic facial examiners provide detailed reports of the observations used to support their decisions, which can then be cross-examined in court.</p> <p><strong>Trainable vs hardwired</strong></p> <p>Super-recognisers and forensic facial examiners use distinct routes to high performance in face identification.</p> <p>Effective training appears to target the slower, deliberate and analytical visual processing that characterises forensic facial examiners.</p> <p>The faster and more intuitive skill that enabled Yenny to recognise faces of relative strangers in her rear-view mirror is likely to be untrainable, and hard-wired.</p> <p>This raises the question of how to balance these different sources of expertise. It may be that super-recognisers are best suited to surveillance-type roles, such as monitoring CCTV or searching for targets in large crowds.</p> <p>Forensic facial examiners may be better suited to providing identification evidence to the court, which requires thorough explanations of how and why the expert came to their decision.</p> <p>Alternatively, it may be possible to train super-recognisers in the expert skills characterising forensic facial examination, or to form teams that include both types of expert.</p> <p>The aim of our work is to integrate these sources of human expertise with the latest face recognition software to improve the accuracy of face identification evidence. Such a system can make society safer, but also fairer, by reducing the likelihood of wrongful convictions.</p> <p>Can you beat Yenny’s high score of 88% on the super-recogniser test? Find out<span> </span><a href="https://facetest.psy.unsw.edu.au/">here</a>.</p> <p><em>Written by Alice Towler and David White. Republished with permission from <a href="https://theconversation.com/super-recognisers-accurately-pick-out-a-face-in-a-crowd-but-can-this-skill-be-taught-112003">The Conversation.</a></em></p>

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